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1.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(12), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819094
2.
Journal of Pharmacopuncture ; 24(4):165-172, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818249

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19, the most infectious pandemic disease arising due to SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has caused huge issues globally. In this review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system of the human body and the protective mechanisms of the host immune system opposing viral infections. Here, we summarize the effect of the pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease on the immune system such as sleep and Behavioral Immune System (BIS) together with consideration of researcher’s observation points of view. We draw particular attention to recent up-to-date reports concerning COVID-19 drugs as well as information about the landscape document for COVID-19 vaccines released by WHO (World Health Organization), and some adverse events of COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, can take part in the preventive appraise in opposition within this pandemic severe COVID-19 infections disease may affect some outcome in physical exercise, physical movement, healthy diets, and good nutrition are significant for supporting the immune systems and summarize AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) Indian medicinal systems guidelines for immunity boosting procedures during COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816934

ABSTRACT

Background It is widely accepted that advancing age is associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. However, there is insufficient data analyzing the impact of COVID-19 in the older cancer population. The aim of the study is to establish if age has an influence on severity and mortality of COVID-19 in cancer patients. Methods We reviewed 306 oncology patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from Guy's Cancer Centre and its partner Trust King's College Hospital, between 29 February - 31 July 2020. Demographic and tumor characteristics in relation to COVID-19 severity and death were assessed with logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age (≤65 and >65 years). Severity of COVID-19 was classified by World Health Organization (WHO) grading. Results A total of 135 patients were aged ≤65 years (44%) and 171 aged >65 (56%). Severe COVID-19 presentation was seen in 27% of those aged ≤65 and 30% of those aged >65. The COVID-19 mortality rate was 19% in those aged ≤65 and 27% in those aged >65. In the older cohort, there was an increased incidence of severe disease in Caucasian ethnicity compared to the younger cohort (55% vs 43%) and compared to severe disease in Black and Asian ethnicities. There were increased co-morbidities in the older cohort including hypertension (54% vs 32%), diabetes (30% vs 12%) with increased rate of poly-pharmacy (62% vs 40%) compared to the younger cohort. In terms of cancer characteristics in the older cohort, there was a higher rate of patients with cancer for more than 2 years (53% vs 32%) and performance status of 3 (22% vs 6%). In terms of severity, Asian ethnicity [OR: 3.1 (95% CI: 0.88-10.96) p=0.64] had greater association with increasing COVID-19 severity in those aged >65. Interestingly, there were no positive associations between number of co-morbidities, treatment paradigm or performance status with severity of disease in the older group. The risk of mortality was greater in the elderly cohort with hematological cancer types [HR: 2.69 (1.31-5.53) p=0.85] and having cancer for more than 2 years [2.20 (1.09-4.42) p=0.28] compared to the younger cohort. Conclusions In our study we demonstrate that severity and mortality of COVID-19 did not significantly differ between the two age cohorts except in regards to Asian ethnicity, hematological malignancies and having cancer for more than 2 years. As expected, the older population had more co-morbidities and polypharmacy. Despite this, the incidence of severe COVID-19 was similar regardless of age. Further analyses for other geriatric presentations are ongoing to understand their interaction with COVID-19 in the cancer population.

4.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816910

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO)in December 2019, as it spread globally and confirmed cases approach 5,000 000 patients and will exceed 365000 deaths on the 25 May 2020 across over 160 countries. Cancer patients are one of the most vulnerable groups in the current (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients remain widely not well understood. Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted in Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust for COVID-19 Cancer patients. Hospitalised cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection were identified between 30th March 2020 to 30th June 2020. Patients already have been diagnosed with cancer and had a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Clinical retrospective data were collected from hospital medical records, including demographic features, clinical features, laboratory findings, and chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT) images. Statistical analysis was done to assess the risk factors associated with severe events which required admission to an intensive care unit, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death Results Forty Cancer patients with Covid 19 infection during the period from 30th March 2020 to 30th June 2020 were enrolled. (52.6%) 22 of patients were females. Median age was 65 years .All patients were local residents of Wolverhampton. Among the cancer patients, Breast cancer was the most frequent type of cancer (n= 9;21.1%), followed by Gl cancers (n= 8;21%) and lymphoma (n = 6;15.8%).Twenty two patients (52.6%) were diagnosed with stage I-III cancer.18 patients (47.4%) were on active chemotherapy, 3 patients were on target therapy and 3 patients(7.9%) were on active immunotherapy. In addition to cancer, 31 (81.6%) patients had at least one or more coexisting chronic diseases. The most common clinical features on admission were fever (92.1%), dry cough (86.8%), and fatigue (92%);29 (76.3%) patients developed dyspnoea along with lymphopaenia (n = 32, 84.2%), high level C-reactive protein (n = 40, 100%), anaemia (n = 22, 57.9 %), and hypoproteinaemia (n = 21, 55.3%). The common chest computed tomography (CT) findings were ground-glass opacity (n = 13) and patchy consolidation (n= 4) .It is important to note that CT chest not done in 17 patients. A total of 19 patients had severe events and the mortality rate was (44.7%) .Median days of hospital admission was (12.5).It is noted that all patients with active immunotherapy had recovered despite disease progression. Conclusions: Cancer patients have deteriorating conditions and worse outcomes from the COVID-19 infection. It is recommended that cancer patients receiving antitumour therapies should have regular screening for COVID-19 infection and should avoid treatments causing immunosuppression or have dose reduction during COVID-19 Pandemic in second wave .Covid 19 has different response with patients on active immunotherapy need to be highlighted.

5.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816897

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced treatment decisions in cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that not all oncology patients are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection or death. This study aimed to look at rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in patients with skin malignancies receiving systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) during the pandemic in Guy's Cancer Centre. Methods: All patients with skin cancer receiving SACT at Guy's Cancer Centre between March 1st and May 31st 2020 were included. Demographic data: sex, age, socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity, comorbidities, medications and smoking history were collected along with cancer characteristics: cancer type, stage, treatment paradigm, modality and line. COVID-19 infection was confirmed by PCR and severity defined by the World Health Organisation classification. Patients with radiological or clinical diagnoses alone were excluded. Results: Of 116 skin cancer patients on SACT over the 3-month period, 89% had Melanoma, 5% Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), 3% Squamous Cell, 2% Merkel Cell, 1% Basal Cell Carcinoma and 1% Angiosarcoma. 53% were male and 78% were of low SES. 62% were being treated with palliative intent and 70% of these were on first line palliative treatment. The median age was 57.6 years in COVID-19 positive patients (n=3) compared to 60.3 years in the negative group (n=113). 58.6% received immunotherapy, 28.4% targeted therapy, 7.8% chemotherapy and 4.3% combined treatment. Of the 3 patients (2.6%) with confirmed COVID-19 infection, the two patients with KS were receiving liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride and the other paclitaxel chemotherapy and the patient with Melanoma was receiving encorafenib and binimetinib. All COVID-19 positive patients were of low SES, 2 females and 1 male. There was a low rate of co-morbidities with hypertension in 1 COVID-19 positive patient and none in the negative group. All 3 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed severe pneumonia and were diagnosed within 7 days of the onset of symptoms. There were no COVID related deaths and one disease-related death in the negative cohort. Conclusion: There was a low rate of COVID-19 infection in the 116 skin cancer patients on SACT (2.6%) with 60% of patients on immunotherapy. All 3 confirmed cases had severe pneumonia with no COVID-19 related deaths (0%);2 were receiving chemotherapy and 1 on targeted therapy. Patients on treatment were encouraged to shield between hospital attendances during this period which may account for the reduced rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This data supports the emerging observations that immunotherapy does not confer an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection in cancer patients. This observation is confounded by the relatively young age and low co-morbidity rates in the cohort which may have contributed to the low infection and mortality rate.

6.
Clinical and Translational Science ; 15(4):813-815, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816543
8.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 96(38):461-462, 2021.
Article in English, French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812548

ABSTRACT

This article is a 2021 update on the WHO report on the impact of COVID-19 on neglected tropical diseases (NTD) and the response appropriated by the WHO. In January 2021, and after almost 2 years of wide-ranging consultations, WHO launched the new NTD roadmap for 2021-2030 that provides a framework and actions to drive progress towards a world free of NTDs, contributing during this decade to the attainment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals through: fundamental shifts that put countries, communities and people at the centre of the agenda;supportive cross-sectoral actions, such as health, education, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene and;sustaining and accelerating progress towards the 2030 goals. Furthermore, the roadmap provides opportunities to evaluate, assess, and adjust programmatic actions, as and when needed, over the next decade by setting clear targets and milestones. Another distinct feature of this roadmap is to drive greater ownership by national and local governments, including communities. The overarching 2030 global targets are to: (1) reduce by 90% the number of people requiring interventions against NTDs;(2) have at least 100 countries having eliminated at least one NTD;(3) eradicate 2 diseases (dracunculiasis and yaws) and;(4) reduce by 75% the DALYs related to NTDs. The roadmap will enable future measuring of progress towards eradication, elimination and control of the 20 NTDs by tracking disease-specific targets. Additionally, the roadmap includes 10 cross-cutting targets relevant to progress in the areas of integration, multisectoral coordination, universal health coverage, and country ownership. Examples include a reduction by more than 75% in the number of deaths from vector-borne NTDs such as dengue and leishmaniasis;100% access to basic water supply, sanitation, and hygiene in areas endemic for NTDs;75% integrated treatment coverage index for preventive chemotherapy;90% countries including NTDs in their package of essential services, and 90% countries collecting and reporting NTD data disaggregated by gender.

9.
J Food Prot ; 84(10): 1683-1697, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810927

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) is a global network of national food safety authorities from 190 countries, managed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) that aims to facilitate the rapid exchange of information during food safety incidents. A three-phase study of INFOSAN was launched in 2019 to characterize and examine the network as a functional community of practice and determine its value systematically and rigorously from its members' perspectives. The first two phases of the study involved analyzing the INFOSAN Community Website and surveying of all of its members. The main objective of this third and final phase of the study was to understand the experiences of a small group of INFOSAN members as they relate to various dimensions of membership. A qualitative methodology was used to provide a deeper understanding of members' experiences and supplement the results from the first two quantitative study phases. Interviews were conducted with 10 INFOSAN members from 10 geographic regions, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results offer an understanding of INFOSAN members' experiences in the context of what participation in this global network means to them and relate to five themes concerning trust, learning, health protection, sense of community, and future potential. The findings suggest that focusing on outreach to sustain personal interest, training to improve technical capacity, and advocacy to obtain political buy-in are ways in which the INFOSAN Secretariat could enable participation and create value at the individual, organizational, and national level, respectively. Such engagement could translate into more effective international communication during urgent food safety incidents and fewer cases of foodborne illness worldwide.


Subject(s)
Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
10.
Front Public Health ; 10:856397, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809623

ABSTRACT

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has made major progress in improving access to health care over the past three decades. Despite efforts made toward achieving universal health coverage, the health systems of countries in the sub-region are inundated by a myriad of challenges that have become more virulent amid the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper discusses the health systems challenges and responses in SSA amidst the COVID-19 using the World Health Organization's (WHO) building blocks of health systems functioning. Long-lasting abysmal health system financing and insufficient government investment in SSA pose major challenges to the effective health systems functioning amid the COVID-19 pandemic. This situation also makes it difficult for the health system to meet the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic and at the same time, cater for other essential health services. Countries in SSA must prioritize the reformation of their health systems through effective health system policy development and implementation, human resources development, training, service delivery, governance and regulation, and sustainable health financing.

11.
BMJ ; 377:o1005, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1807365
12.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Smart Energy, ICAIS 2022 ; : 933-940, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1806901

ABSTRACT

To stem the COVID19 pandemic, great attention is needed to mitigate public health and the global economy which are negatively impacting. To overcome this, a technique is required to urge people put on the face mask. To contribute to the health of communities, this article aims to design a very precise and real-time analysis that can efficiently detect non-mask faces in public and thus, enforcing to wear mask. According to the World Health organization, the most effective way to fight the transmission of the corona virus is to wear medical masks. The detection of face mask in is done with the machine learning by using the series of stages involved through classification of images: MobileNetV2. The steps and stages used for developing the model square measure grouping the information, and pre-processing the data to remove noisy data, splitting the data, testing the model for the accuracy, and implementation of the model. The engineered model will sight those that square measure sporting a mask associated not sporting it at an accuracy of 95.85 percent. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
Science ; 376(6589):116-117, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1801169

ABSTRACT

The article discusses that World Health Organization has suspended shipments through U.N. channels of a COVID-19 vaccine made in India after an inspection indicated manufacturing deficiencies.

14.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333423

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has attracted an unprecedented level of criticism over its handling of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To enhance its legitimacy and better prepare for a future pandemic, various proposals to reform the WHO and the International Health Regulations have been made. Against this background, this article seeks to contribute to the ongoing discussions by investigating the nature of WHO’s work and its activities. Starting from the premise that much of the criticism stems from the uneasy coexistence of politics and expertise in WHO’s work, this article analyses some of the most controversial aspects of WHO’s initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic: (i) the alleged leniency towards China;(ii) the delay in declaring a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC);and (iii) the delay in recommending the use of face masks for the general population. The article shows that politics infiltrates WHO activities in different ways, influencing even the processes that are conventionally seen as purely technical and science-based. At the same time, it argues that the influence of politics in WHO’s work should not be seen as some kind of atrophy, but should rather be considered a natural element that should be managed rather than dreaded.

15.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:355-360, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health disaster and knowledge of its associated risk factors provides protection/slowdown against its transmission. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate all major risk factors associated with transmission of the COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The data on the risk associated factors for the COVID-19 transmission were collected from the Texas Medical Association, Center for Disease Prevention and Control, World Health Organization, and Health and Safety Executive. The collected data were combined, analyzed, and presented as percentage mean ± SD. RESULTS: The collective data showed that among games such as playing football and basketball are highly risky followed by swimming in public pool and playing at the beach. Whereas, playing golf and tennis are not risky (p < 0.05). Moreover, the carryout food from the restaurants is much safer as compared with eating at buffet, in restaurants (p < 0.01). The data on social gathering showed that religious places, sports stadium, music concert, cinema halls, amusement parks, attending funerals, and wedding showed a higher risk of spreading COVID-19. The data on general outing showed that going to gymnasium, traveling by bus or plane, and visiting in salon are highly risky (p < 0.01) for COVID-19 infection. Moreover, hugging, shaking hands, and kissing are also highly risky for the COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the collective information on the risk factors associated with the COVID-19 transmission. The findings can contribute to the concerned authorities to formulate the preventive measures to limit spread of the COVID-19 infection.

16.
South African Medical Journal ; 112(4):252-258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798761

ABSTRACT

Articles on teenage pregnancies have been proliferating in both the popular press and the medical media. We analysed data available in the public sector database, the District Health Information System, from 2017 to 2021. During this time, the number of births to young teenagers aged 10 - 14 years increased by 48.7% (from a baseline of 2 726, which is very high by developed-country standards) and the birth rate per 1 000 girls in this age category increased from 1.1 to 1.5. These increases occurred year on year in most provinces. In adolescent girls aged 15 - 19, the number of births increased by 17.9% (from a baseline of 114 329) and the birth rate per 1 000 girls in this age category increased from 49.6 to 55.6. These increases also occurred year on year in a continuous upward trend as well as in all provinces, but at different rates. Generally, rates were higher in the more rural provinces such as Limpopo, Mpumalanga and Eastern Cape than in more urban provinces such as Gauteng and Western Cape. The increases during the past 2 years were particularly large and may be due to disruption of health and school services with decreased access to these as a result of COVID-19. These metrics pose serious questions to society in general and especially to the health, education and social sectors, as they reflect socioeconomic circumstances (e.g. sexual and gender-based violence, economic security of families, school attendance) as well as inadequate health education, life skills and access to health services.

18.
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal ; 28(3):173-243, 2022.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-1800411

ABSTRACT

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is the official health journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new policies and initiatives in health services;and for the exchange of ideas concepts epidemiological data research findings and other information with special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. It addresses all members of the health profession medical and other health educational institutes interested NGOs WHO Collaborating Centres and individuals within and outside the Region المجلة الصحية لشرق المتوسط هى المجلة الرسمية التى تصدرعن المكتب الاقليمى لشرق المتوسط بمنظمة الصحة العالمية. وهى منبر لتقديم السياسات والمبادرات الجديدة فى الصحة العامة والخدمات الصحية والترويج لها، و لتبادل الاراء و المفاهيم والمعطيات الوبائية ونتائج الابحاث وغير ذلك من المعلومات، و خاصة ما يتعلق منها باقليم شرق المتوسط. وهى موجهة الى كل اعضاء المهن الصحية، والكليات الطبية وسائر المعاهد التعليمية، و كذا المنظمات غير الحكومية المعنية، والمراكز المتعاونة مع منظمة الصحة العالمية والافراد المهتمين بالصحة فى الاقليم و خارجه La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale est une revue de santé officielle publiée par le Bureau régional de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour la Méditerranée orientale. Elle offre une tribune pour la présentation et la promotion de nouvelles politiques et initiatives dans le domaine de la santé publique et des services de santé ainsi qu’à l’échange d’idées de concepts de données épidémiologiques de résultats de recherches et d’autres informations se rapportant plus particulièrement à la Région de la Méditerranée orientale. Elle s’adresse à tous les professionnels de la santé aux membres des instituts médicaux et autres instituts de formation médico-sanitaire aux ONG Centres collaborateurs de l’OMS et personnes concernés au sein et hors de la Région.

19.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 130:1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1797692

ABSTRACT

One of the most important issues of the period we are in is the COVID-19 virus. Corona disease has been officially named SARS-CoV-2 by the world health organization. Since March 2002, this disease has been declared as a global epidemic. The COVID-19 virus has killed more than 4 million people. Like many other diseases, early detection of this virus increases the chances of survival. It was observed that the oxygen level in the blood decreased in people who were infected with this virus. The oxygen level in the blood is measured in hospitals using special devices. Measuring the SPO2 value is time consuming and costly. The easiest and cheapest way to solve this problem is to measure the SPO2 value at home. The main purpose of this study is to present a device design that can measure SPO2 and BPM (blood pressure) at home using IoT peripherals in a low-cost way. In this presented design, the algorithm and the devices used are explained in detail. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

20.
6th International Multi-Topic ICT Conference, IMTIC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1794833

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has designated COVID-19 a pandemic because its emergence has influenced more than 50 million world's population. Around 14 million deaths have been reported worldwide from COVID-19. In this research work, we have presented a method for autonomous screening of COVID-19 and Pneumonia subjects from cough auscultation analysis. Deep learning-based model (MobileNet v2) is used to analyze a 6757 self-collected cough dataset. The experimentation has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed technique in distinguishing between COVID-19 and Pneumonia. The results have demonstrated the cumulative accuracy of 99.98%, learning rate of 0.0005 and validation loss of 0.0028. Furthermore, cough analysis can be performed for other patients screening of other pulmonary abnormalities. © 2021 IEEE.

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