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1.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(8):158, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024241

ABSTRACT

Over the past seven years, the global community of clinicians, researchers, and public health professionals have collaboratively discovered and disseminated knowledge about the congenital Zika virus infection, which was virtually unknown prior to 2015. The themes presented in this Special Issue include adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as birth defects [6], infant and child neurodevelopment [6,7,8], indicators of risk for adverse neurodevelopment [8,9], postnatal Zika virus infection [7], head circumference measurement [10], ocular findings [11], importance of data sharing [5], surveillance systems [5,6,10,12], and a health brigade care model [11,13]. Infant growth parameters of head circumference and length at birth and infant follow-up correspond to a developmental delay and show the importance of accurate head and body measurements of infants at birth and during early childhood [8]. A health brigade model was developed by a partnership between the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

2.
Biomedicines ; 10(8):1861, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023145

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the new revolutionary class of medications, are fast becoming tools against various diseases thanks to a unique structure and function that allow them to bind highly specific targets or receptors. These specialized proteins can be produced in large quantities via the hybridoma technique introduced in 1975 or by means of modern technologies. Additional methods have been developed to generate mAbs with new biological properties such as humanized, chimeric, or murine. The inclusion of mAbs in therapeutic regimens is a major medical advance and will hopefully lead to significant improvements in infectious disease management. Since the first therapeutic mAb, muromonab-CD3, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986, the list of approved mAbs and their clinical indications and applications have been proliferating. New technologies have been developed to modify the structure of mAbs, thereby increasing efficacy and improving delivery routes. Gene delivery technologies, such as non-viral synthetic plasmid DNA and messenger RNA vectors (DMabs or mRNA-encoded mAbs), built to express tailored mAb genes, might help overcome some of the challenges of mAb therapy, including production restrictions, cold-chain storage, transportation requirements, and expensive manufacturing and distribution processes. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in mAb discovery against viral infections and illustrates how mAbs can help to combat viral diseases and outbreaks.

3.
Nano Converg ; 9(1):41, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2021346

ABSTRACT

Zika virus is a highly infectious virus that is part of the flavivirus group. Precise diagnosis of the Zika virus is significant issue for controlling a global pandemic after the COVID-19 era. For the first time, we describe a zika virus aptamer-based electrical biosensor for detecting Zika virus in human serum. The electrical biosensor composed of a Zika virus aptamer/MXene nanoparticle heterolayer on Au micro-gap electrode (AuMGE)/print circuit board (PCB) system. The Zika virus aptamer was designed to bind the envelope protein of the Zika virus by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. The binding affinity of the aptamer was determined by fluorescence. For improving the sensor signal sensitivity, Ti(3)C(2)T(x) MXene was introduced to surface of Au micro-gap electrode (AuMGE). The immobilization process was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The prepared aptamer/MXene immobilized on AuMGE can detect the Zika virus through capacitance change according to the target concentration. The capacitance signal from the biosensor increased linearly according to increment of envelope proteins in the human serum. The limit of detection was determined to 38.14 pM, and target proteins could be detected from 100 pM to 10 μM. Thus, the developed electrical aptabiosensor can be a useful tool for Zika virus detection.

4.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 19(1):75, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2021312

ABSTRACT

The choroid plexus is situated at an anatomically and functionally important interface within the ventricles of the brain, forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier that separates the periphery from the central nervous system. In contrast to the blood-brain barrier, the choroid plexus and its epithelial barrier have received considerably less attention. As the main producer of cerebrospinal fluid, the secretory functions of the epithelial cells aid in the maintenance of CNS homeostasis and are capable of relaying inflammatory signals to the brain. The choroid plexus acts as an immunological niche where several types of peripheral immune cells can be found within the stroma including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells. Including the epithelia cells, these cells perform immunosurveillance, detecting pathogens and changes in the cytokine milieu. As such, their activation leads to the release of homing molecules to induce chemotaxis of circulating immune cells, driving an immune response at the choroid plexus. Research into the barrier properties have shown how inflammation can alter the structural junctions and promote increased bidirectional transmigration of cells and pathogens. The goal of this review is to highlight our foundational knowledge of the choroid plexus and discuss how recent research has shifted our understanding towards viewing the choroid plexus as a highly dynamic and important contributor to the pathogenesis of neurological infections. With the emergence of several high-profile diseases, including ZIKA and SARS-CoV-2, this review provides a pertinent update on the cellular response of the choroid plexus to these diseases. Historically, pharmacological interventions of CNS disorders have proven difficult to develop, however, a greater focus on the role of the choroid plexus in driving these disorders would provide for novel targets and routes for therapeutics.

5.
Basic and Clinical Andrology ; 32(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2021237

ABSTRACT

Background: The seminal virome and its implications for fertility remain poorly understood. To date, there are no defined panels for the detection of viruses of clinical interest in seminal samples. Results: In this study, we characterized the human seminal virome based on more than 1,000 studies published over the last five years. Conclusions: The number of studies investigating viruses that occur in human semen has increased, and to date, these studies have been mostly prospective or related to specific clinical findings. Through the joint analysis of all these studies, we have listed the viruses related to the worsening of seminal parameters and propose a new panel with the main viruses already described that possibly affect male fertility and health. This panel can assist in evaluating semen quality and serve as a tool for investigation in cases of infertility.

6.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012414

ABSTRACT

Speed read New study helps understand effects of Zika virus on foetal brain development Vaccine progress continues, despite COVID-19 challenge But Aedes aegypti is adapting to new environments Zika virus can hamper vital collagen development in the brains of babies whose mothers were infected with the disease while pregnant, new research reveals, as the search for a vaccine continues. The research shows that a vaccine that aims to neutralise mature Zika virus particles could be effective, says co-author Ted Pierson, chief of the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the United States. The mosquito is moving faster than epidemiologists expected and there are smaller outbreaks occurring in southern parts of Brazil. “Since Zika is not an endemic disease in these regions, the population has no natural defences against it,” Spilki warns.

7.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009862

ABSTRACT

Recent epidemiological studies show a noticeable correlation between chronic microbial infections and neurological disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear due to the biological complexity of multicellular and multiorgan interactions upon microbial infections. In this review, we show the infection leading to neurodegeneration mediated by multiorgan interconnections and neuroinflammation. Firstly, we highlight three inter-organ communications as possible routes from infection sites to the brain: nose-brain axis, lung-brain axis, and gut-brain axis. Next, we described the biological crosstalk between microglia and astrocytes upon pathogenic infection. Finally, our study indicates how neuroinflammation is a critical player in pathogen-mediated neurodegeneration. Taken together, we envision that antibiotics targeting neuro-pathogens could be a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegeneration.

8.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009797

ABSTRACT

Recently, people worldwide have experienced several outbreaks caused by viruses that have attracted much interest globally, such as HIV, Zika, Ebola, and the one being faced, SARSCoV-2 viruses. Unfortunately, the availability of drugs giving satisfying outcomes in curing those diseases is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to dig deeper to provide compounds that can tackle the causative viruses. Meanwhile, the efforts to explore marine natural products have been gaining great interest as the products have consistently shown several promising biological activities, including antiviral activity. This review summarizes some products extracted from marine organisms, such as seaweeds, seagrasses, sponges, and marine bacteria, reported in recent years to have potential antiviral activities tested through several methods. The mechanisms by which those compounds exert their antiviral effects are also described here, with several main mechanisms closely associated with the ability of the products to block the entry of the viruses into the host cells, inhibiting replication or transcription of the viral genetic material, and disturbing the assembly of viral components. In addition, the structure-activity relationship of the compounds is also highlighted by focusing on six groups of marine compounds, namely sulfated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, terpenoids, lectins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. In conclusion, due to their uniqueness compared to substances extracted from terrestrial sources, marine organisms provide abundant products having promising activities as antiviral agents that can be explored to tackle virus-caused outbreaks.

9.
Microbiology spectrum ; : e0298922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008769

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in the Pacific islands in 2007 and spread to the Americas in 2015. The infection remains asymptomatic in most cases but can be associated with severe neurological disorders. Despite massive efforts, no specific drug or vaccine against ZIKV infection is available to date. Claudins are tight-junction proteins that favor the entry of several flaviviruses, including ZIKV. In this study, we identified two peptides derived from the N-terminal sequences of claudin-7 and claudin-1, named CL7.1 and CL1.1, respectively, that inhibited ZIKV infection in a panel of human cell lines. Using cell-to-cell fusion assays, we demonstrated that these peptides blocked the ZIKV E-mediated membrane fusion. A comparison of the antiviral efficacy of CL1.1 and CL7.1 pointed to the importance of the peptide amphipathicity. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that CL1.1 altered the ultrastructure of the viral particles likely by binding the virus lipid envelope. However, amphipathicity could not fully explain the antiviral activity of CL1.1. In silico docking simulations suggested that CL1.1 may also interact with the E protein, near its stem region. Overall, our data suggested that claudin-derived peptides inhibition may be linked to simultaneous interaction with the E protein and the viral lipid envelope. Finally, we found that CL1.1 also blocked infection by yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses but not by HIV-1 or SARS-CoV-2. Our results provide a basis for the future development of therapeutics against a wide range of endemic and emerging flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquito bites that have spread to the Pacific Islands and the Americas over the past decade. The infection remains asymptomatic in most cases but can cause severe neurological disorders. ZIKV is a major public health threat in areas of endemicity, and there is currently no specific antiviral drug or vaccine available. We identified two antiviral peptides deriving from the N-terminal sequences of claudin-7 and claudin-1 with the latter being the most effective. These peptides block the envelope-mediated membrane fusion. Our data suggested that the inhibition was likely achieved by simultaneously interacting with the viral lipid envelope and the E protein. The peptides also inhibited other flaviviruses. These results could provide the basis for the development of therapies that might target a wide array of flaviviruses from current epidemics and possibly future emergences.

10.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007399
11.
BMJ Innovations ; 8(3):224-233, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005331

ABSTRACT

Social innovation for health has grown in relevance and momentum across Latin America.1-5 Yet, the potential of social innovation for health appears mostly untapped, with one reason for this being the limited investment to build strong ecosystems that can support social innovation initiatives.6-8

12.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2000806

ABSTRACT

The Translational Science TS22 conference in Chicago in April 2022 was the first time post-pandemic that members of the Association of Clinical and Translational Science were able to meet up in person to share scientific advances. Given the remaining level of risk due to COVID-19, the meeting was designed as hybrid allowing virtual participation to some of the presentations. Prior to the meeting, JCTS Junior Editors were invited to report on the plenary sessions of the meeting. The present perspective constitutes a summary of three plenary sessions.

13.
SciDev.net ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999228

ABSTRACT

Speed read Lack of antiviral candidates limited the fight against COVID-19 Consortium aims to develop new oral antivirals for coronaviruses, dengue and Zika But critics highlight lack of representation from low-and middle-income countries [NAIROBI] Research into drugs to treat mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as Zika and dengue as well as COVID-19 will benefit from a major funding boost, says a group of international scientists using artificial intelligence to discover new oral antivirals. Monkeypox is a viral disease that the World Health Organization says has emerged in at least 23 countries where the disease is not regularly found since 13 May. Francisca Mutapi, co-director of the Global Health Academy at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, says that any development that supports the production of accessible drugs for infectious diseases is welcome for low- and middle-income countries, which carry the highest global burden of infectious diseases.

14.
Matern Fetal Med ; 4(1): 72-86, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985144

ABSTRACT

Viral infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and fetal mortality, pregnancy loss, premature labor, and congenital anomalies. Mammalian gestation encounters an immunological paradox wherein the placenta balances the tolerance of an allogeneic fetus with protection against pathogens. Viruses cannot easily transmit from mother to fetus due to physical and immunological barriers at the maternal-fetal interface posing a restricted threat to the fetus and newborns. Despite this, the unknown strategies utilized by certain viruses could weaken the placental barrier to trigger severe maternal and fetal health issues especially through vertical transmission, which was not fully understood until now. In this review, we summarize diverse aspects of the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, including the characteristics of pathogenesis, related maternal-fetal complications, and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of vertical transmission. We highlight the fundamental signatures of complex placental defense mechanisms, which will prepare us to fight the next emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in the pregnancy population.

15.
Vibrant Virtual Brazilian Anthropology ; 19, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1987239

ABSTRACT

In 2015, the Zika virus epidemic was declared in Brazil. More than 4,000 children were infected and developed what is known as the Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome. Incurable and only palliated with drugs, for the syndrome, “early stimulation” was presented as the only therapeutic possibility. In 2020, a pandemic, Covid-19, arrives in the country, severely disrupting the lives and care of these children and their families in the Recife, State of Pernambuco region. In this article, three times pervaded by these two health emergencies will be described. At the beginning of the Zika epidemic (2016), rehabilitation therapies were being organized, known and demanded by families. In 2019, with the virus cooled down, vacancies for therapy began to dwindle and families were more discerning and critical about them. In the third period (2020), clinics are closed in the name of social isolation and rehabilitation presents new dilemmas for these families. Rehabilitation routines have allowed for an expansion of the public sphere and spaces for dialogue and questioning of the State and its policies aimed at children and both epidemics. Withdrawal from these routines has far wider consequences for the children, their family and the wider community. © 2022, Brazilian Anthropology Association. All rights reserved.

16.
Biochimie ; 195: 71-76, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981362

ABSTRACT

As ZIKV continues to spread, many "unknowns" remain and research is needed to advance the understanding of this important pathogen. Viral RNA dependent-RNA polymerases (RdRp) are validated targets for inhibitors of the replication of several viruses. Several studies have set up in vitro enzymatic assays of the RdRp of the Zika virus for testing of candidate inhibitors. While most of these studies use short synthetic polymers, we have shown in a previous work that the Zika polymerase domain is capable of a de novo synthesis of the viral genome using the natural viral RNA as template. Here we have studied the role of the sequences at the 3'end of the minus-strand RNA in the initiation of the RNA synthesis by the Zika isolated RdRp. Our results strongly suggest that the region containing the 105 first nucleotides from the 3' end of the minus-strand RNA is important for initiation of the positive RNA synthesis. This indicates that this region displays all the primary and secondary structures to be efficiently recognized by the recombinant RdRp in vitro. Moreover, we show that the 46 nucleotides are sufficient to initiate RNA synthesis. In addition, the ZIKV polymerase domain poorly replicated the RNA of other RNA viruses and appeared highly selective for its own RNA.


Subject(s)
RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Virus Replication , Zika Virus/enzymology , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology
17.
European Journal of Neurology ; 29:32, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1978445

ABSTRACT

Several factors have been linked to emerging infectious diseases including new agents (coronaviruses, zika virus), extension of geographical areas (schistosomiasis, dengue, West Nile, zika virus), increase in incidence (HIV, tuberculosis) and travel/migration (Chagas disease, cysticercosis). According to the World Migration Report 2020, the number of international migrants reached 272 million globally in 2019, and nearly two-thirds were labour migrants. Epidemiological evidence about infectious diseases and neuroinfection among travellers, migrants and refugees will be reviewed. Traveller's diarrhoea, dengue fever and other tropical diseases are reported in travellers. Re-emergence of infections in Europe includes chikungunya, dengue and malaria. Migration of asymptomatic people spread American trypanosomiasis in non-endemic areas and cases have been reported in Europe, Japan, and North-America. Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizures among South American migrants in USA. Migrants may be asymptomatic carriers (Chagas, HTLV-1). The involvement of CNS may occur in viral infections (HIV, HTLV-1, dengue, zika), malaria, schistosomiasis (myeloradiculopathy), Chagas disease (encephalitis, stroke), etc. Refugees may be at slightly higher risk of infectious diseases including tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis and schistosomiasis. Systematic reviews have found that tuberculosis and hepatitis B and C prevalence is higher among migrants arriving in Europe, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and infections was higher in refugees and asylum seekers than in other migrant groups. Infectious diseases in migrants may be explained by a higher prevalence in migrants' countries of origin, barriers to health care in host/transit countries, and poor living conditions. These factors are especially relevant in vulnerable populations (refugees, documented migrants).

18.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Medical Sciences. Series VI ; 15(1):43-52, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1975790

ABSTRACT

Since the Zika virus outbreak in the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that among people with confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy, Zika-associated birth defects occured in 5% of babies [4]. According to cohorts from Colombia, Puerto Rico, and French Guiana, the cumulative risk of ZIKV infection for pregnant women living in epidemic areas ranged from 21 to 44 percent [5]. Blood donors who were asymptomatic and Zika virus RNA positive were found in Florida and Texas in 2017 [7]. [...]Zika virus sexual transmission is possbile from both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections through genital, oral and anal intercourse [7]. According to these data, pregnant women in the US are more likely than non-pregnant women of reproductive age to get SARS-CoV-2 infection and accompanying symptoms [12].

19.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(6):1574-1583, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928934

ABSTRACT

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of heme to CO, biliverdin, and iron, which together protect cells from oxidative and inflammatory damage and play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. In recent years, HO-1 has also been found to have antiviral biological effects, and the induced expression of HO-1 inhibits the replication of various viruses such as hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, ebolavirus, influenza A virus, Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus 71. The inhibitory effect of HO-1 on these viruses involves three mechanisms, including direct inhibition of virus replication by HO-1 and its downstream products, enhancement of type I interferon responses in host cell, and attenuation of inflammatory damage caused by viral infection. This review focuses on the recent advances in the antiviral effect of HO-1 and its mechanism, which is expected to provide evidence for HO-1 as a potential target for antiviral therapy.

20.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology ; 87(SUPPL 1):57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927547

ABSTRACT

Problem: Trophoblast organoids derived from human placental villi provide a powerful 3D model system of placental development, but access to first-trimester tissues is limited due to ethical and legal restrictions. Here we sought to establish a methodology for establishing 3D trophoblast organoids from naïve human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which have an expanded potential for extraembryonic differentiation. Method of Study: We previously demonstrated that naïve hPSCs readily give rise to self-renewing human trophoblast cells (hTSCs) that resemble post-implantation cytotrophoblast (CTB) progenitors and can further differentiate into specialized trophoblast lineages. Here we examined whether hTSCs derived from three distinct sources (naïve hPSCs, human blastocysts, and first-trimester placental tissues) have the potential to self-organize into 3D trophoblast organoids by transfer to Matrigel droplets in the presence of trophoblast organoid medium. The expression of protein markers in the resulting stem cellderived trophoblast organoids (SC-TOs) was examined by immunofluorescence and light-sheet microscopy, while their single cell transcriptome was analyzed using the 10X Genomics platform. We also investigated the X chromosome inactivation (XCI) status of organoids derived from female naïve hPSCs and their ability to differentiate into invasive extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organoids. Finally, we evaluated whether SC-TOs are susceptible to infection by various emerging pathogens (SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus), as a basis for establishing a stem cell-based model system of placental infections during the first trimester. Results: Trophoblast organoids generated from naïve and primary hTSCs displayed comparable tissue architecture, placental hormone secretion, microRNA expression, and capacity for long-term selfrenewal. In-depth single cell transcriptome profiling revealed that SCTOs encompass a variety of trophoblast identities that closely correspond to CTB progenitor, syncytiotrophoblast (STB) and EVT cell types found in human post-implantation embryos. Interestingly, the cellular composition in trophoblast organoids derived from naïve and primary hTSCs was highly similar, which suggests that trophoblast organoid culture represents a powerful attractor state in which the influence of subtle epigenetic differences between naïve and primary hTSCs is mitigated. These organoid cultures displayed clonal XCI patterns previously described in the human placenta.Upon differentiation into specialized EVT organoids, extensive trophoblast invasion was observed in co-culture assays with human endometrial cells. We further demonstrated that SC-TOs display selective vulnerability to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus, which correlated with the expression levels of their respective entry factors. Conclusions: The generation of trophoblast organoids from naïve hPSCs provides an accessible and patient-specific 3D model system of the developing placenta and its susceptibility to emerging pathogens. The ability to genetically manipulate naïve hPSCs prior to differentiation into SC-TOs enables functional interrogation of regulatory factors implicated in placental organogenesis.

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