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1.
22nd Annual International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2022 ; 13351 LNCS:259-265, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958884

ABSTRACT

Agent-based models frequently make use of scaling techniques to render the simulated samples of population more tractable. The degree to which this scaling has implications for model forecasts, however, has yet to be explored;in particular, no research on the spatial implications of this has been done. This work presents a simulation of the spread of Covid-19 among districts in Zimbabwe and assesses the extent to which results vary relative to the samples upon which they are based. It is determined that in particular, different geographical dynamics of the spread of disease are associated with varying population sizes, with implications for others seeking to use scaled populations in their research. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954242

ABSTRACT

Background: After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic, movement restrictions were implemented across sub-Saharan Africa. There has been much speculation on what the long-term impacts on urban transport might be. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the revealed and future travel impacts of the pandemic. Method: To pursue this aim, evidence was compiled from two sources: secondary big data;and a ( n = 15) two-wave Delphi panel survey of experts in the region. Results: It is predicted that longer-term impacts will take the form of: reduced travel by, and accessibility for, low-income households residing in peripheral locations because of decreased welfare;reduced transport service availability;operator reduction (particularly amongst unsubsidised formal operators);increased remote activity participation for a minority of better resourced households with white-collar workers;and disrupted trip distributions as the mix of city-centre land use changes in response to business attrition in economic recession rather than to disrupted bid rents. Conclusion: The major impact of the pandemic is likely to be on welfare, rather than on trip substitution. There is a need, therefore, to focus policy on the mitigation of these impacts and, more particularly, on ways of measuring changes in transport disadvantage and exclusion so that reliable data are available to inform mitigation strategies. The mitigation strategies considered should include investment in affordable ‘digital connectivity’ as a means of complementing accessibility from physical proximity and mobility. The pandemic also highlights the need to develop more robust transport planning practices to deal with uncertainty.

3.
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure ; 11(3):975-995, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1935033

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rapid decline in arrivals globally, not only due to travel restrictions, but also reduced traveller confidence given their often-tarnished reputations, the pandemic has added a unique challenge to African destinations in their bid to implement tourism recovery strategies. This study examines travellers’ risk perceptions and intentions to visit African destinations during the COVID-19 pandemic using South Africa and Zimbabwe as two competing case studies. Following a quantitative research design using an online survey, data was collected from 250 past visitors to the two countries. Firstly, results indicated a willingness to travel to Africa. Exploratory factor analysis and moderated multiple regression was used to test the effect of risk perception on brand image dimensions and revisit intentions for both countries respectively. Findings indicate that even though visitors may hold positive brand perceptions, risk perceptions weakened the relationship between specific dimensions of brand image (affective versus cognitive). However, these effects were not similar for the two countries. The study affirms that risk perceptions are country specific and highlights the importance of effective brand awareness and destination competitiveness to cushion the effects of perceived risk. Results also indicate that an increased frequency of visit increases destination familiarity which can mitigate some of the negative risk perceptions © 2022. AJHTL /Author(s) ;Open Access

4.
Handbook of research on future of work and education: Implications for curriculum delivery and work design ; : 422-437, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1934331

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic in motivating digital transformation in the education sector in Zimbabwe. The study tracked the rate at which the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources. The findings are that, in Zimbabwe, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote (online) learning. These observations reflect that Zimbabwe generally has some elements of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. The pandemic has presented an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
African Review of Economics and Finance-Aref ; 14(1):203-228, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1913140

ABSTRACT

The classical finance theory postulates that markets are informationally efficient and that the actions of arbitrageurs always bring stock prices to their correct values. Behavioural finance, on the other hand, emphasises the role of investor sentiment in the formulation of asset prices. In this study, we provide insights into the relationship between textual sentiment extracted from Twitter and stock returns in the fragile market of Zimbabwe between 24 February 2019 and 22 June 2020. Wavelet analysis is used to find the linkages between sentiment and returns in a frequency-time domain. The results from this study show that coherence is persistent and significant in highly volatile periods characterised by increasing inflation as well as during the time COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic. The findings also show that macroeconomic instability, especially hyperinflation, induces fear in investors while the onslaught of black swan events like the COVID-19 pandemic leads to greed in the financial markets as investors become uncertain about the future. The government could, therefore, prioritise macroeconomic stability as the high coherence between sentiment and returns during a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a crashing of the stock market. Classical finance theory, therefore, falls short in explaining the stock market returns as the evidence in the study shows that investors are susceptible to investor sentiment.

6.
African Journal of Sociological and Psychological Studies ; 2(1):87-87–105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912667

ABSTRACT

The present study emphasizes the reactions and perceptions of the effectiveness of online teaching and learning during COVID-19. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system was completely shut and this resulted in sudden migration to online teaching and learning. Hence, the present study provides an insight into the reactions of university students on the adoption of online teaching and learning and their views on its effectiveness. The interpretive phenomenological design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and fifteen (15) students participated. The following themes were derived from the data, distance learning, web-based e-learning platforms, inaccessibility, acceptance, not compatible, flexibility, loneliness and affordability. The results revealed that online teaching and learning was understood as distant learning via the internet. The sudden shift from in-person learning to online teaching and learning resulted in reactions like doubt, scepticism, worry, fear, distress, anxiety, sympathy, loneliness, disconnectedness, happiness, excitement, and relief. There was scepticism, uncertainty, and doubt over the success of online teaching and learning. Thus students feared the loss of an academic year. However, there was excitement and relief that learning was going to continue. Feelings of worry, distress, and anxiety prevailed among the students because they are accustomed to in-person learning. Online teaching and learning has been adopted and accepted as a new normal which enforces self-learning and adaptive learning. Furthermore, it has proved to be effective because learning was going on amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. It is a flexible method with multiple learning platforms. However, online teaching and learning does not cater for all students and is not fully optimized because of a deficiency in computer skills. The blended concept of learning, training in online teaching and learning, government subsidy on computer accessories, and improving connectivity were recommended to enhance online teaching and learning.

7.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(5/6):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912356

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have played a critical role in controlling disease outbreaks, hence the proliferation of the development and testing of multiple vaccine candidates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Randomised trials are gold standards for evaluating the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions such as COVID-19 vaccines. However, contextual differences may attenuate effects of COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, the need to conduct COVID-19 vaccine trials in all settings, including in Africa. We conducted a crosssectional analysis of planned, ongoing, and completed COVID-19 vaccine trials in Africa. We searched the South African National Clinical Trials Register, Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 12 January and 30 April 2022: and complemented this with a search of ClinicalTrials.gov on 17 May 2022. We screened the search output and included randomised trials with at least one recruitment site in Africa. We identified only 108 eligible trials: 90 (83%) evaluating candidate COVID-19 vaccines, 11 (10%) assessing if existing vaccines could prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 7 (7%) evaluating interventions for improving COVID-19 vaccination coverage. South Africa had the highest number of trials at 58 (54%). Beyond South Africa, countries with more than 10 trial sites include Kenya, Ghana, Egypt, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Among the trials, 14 (13%) do not have principal investigators based in Africa, 39 (30%) are funded by industry, and 91 (84%) are funded by institutions based outside the host country. COVID-19 vaccine trials with recruitment sites in Africa represented only 7% of the 1453 COVID-19 vaccine trials in the ICTRP The paucity of COVID-19 vaccine trials conducted on the African continent is a cause for concern. This has implications for the role that Africa may play in future pandemics.

9.
Afr J Disabil ; 11: 991, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911850

ABSTRACT

Background: People with disabilities are at higher risk of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Additionally, measures to mitigate COVID-19 transmission have impacted health service provision and access, which may particularly disadvantage people with disabilities. Objectives: To explore the perspectives and experiences of people with disabilities in accessing health services in Zimbabwe during the pandemic, to identify perceived challenges and facilitators to inclusive health and key actions to improve accessibility. Methods: We used in-depth interviews with 24 people with disabilities (identified through purposive sampling) and with 10 key informants (from expert recommendation) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on access to health care. Interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. We used the disability-inclusive health 'Missing Billion' framework to map and inform barriers to inclusive health care during COVID-19 and disparities in outcomes faced by people with disabilities. Results: People with disabilities demonstrated good awareness of COVID-19 mitigation strategies, but faced difficulties accessing COVID-19 information and health services. Challenges to the implementation of COVID-19 guidelines related to a person's functional impairment and financial ability to do so. A key supply-side constraint was the perceived de-prioritisation of rehabilitation services. Further restrictions on access to health services and rehabilitation decreased an individual's functional ability and exacerbated pre-existing conditions. Conclusion: The immediate health and financial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with disabilities in Zimbabwe were severe. Government departments should include people with disabilities in all communications and activities related to the pandemic through a twin-track approach, meaning inclusion in mainstream activities and targeting with specific interventions where necessary.

10.
Afr J Disabil ; 11: 990, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911849

ABSTRACT

Background: On average, people with disabilities have greater healthcare needs, yet face a range of barriers in accessing care. Objectives: Our objectives were to explore the experiences of people with disabilities in accessing care and identify opportunities for the health system to be designed for inclusion in Zimbabwe. Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between May and June 2021 with 24 people with disabilities (identified through purposive sampling) and with 10 key informants from local and national health authorities (identified through expert recommendations). Interviews explored the experience of accessing healthcare prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. We used the disability-inclusive health 'Missing Billion' framework to map and inform barriers to inclusive healthcare and disparities in outcomes faced by people with disabilities. Results: People with disabilities experienced difficulties accessing health services in Zimbabwe prior to COVID-19. These experiences were shaped by health literacy, self-stigma and affordability of services, which limited demand. Supply of health services was constrained by the perceived poor capacity of health workers to treat people with disabilities and discrimination. Inclusion was facilitated by clinic staff support of people with disabilities' access to medication through referral to mission hospitals and private clinics, and the lobbying of organisations of people with disabilities. Conclusion: Strategies to promote disability inclusion in healthcare include meaningfully engaging people with disabilities, investing in organisations of people with disabilities, protecting funding for disability inclusion, collecting and analysing disability-disaggregated data and strengthening a twin-track approach to health service provision.

11.
Africa ; 92(3):387-389, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908027

ABSTRACT

Relatedly, faith-based organizations were also influential in response efforts during Ebola and Zika, in part due to their ability to withstand time (in contrast to politicians, who come and go), as Chigudu correctly indicates.4 Ultimately, The Political Life of an Epidemic would greatly benefit from more comparative work with other epidemics, and in terms of political and social context. [...]it is hard to discern what is novel about this particular case study and what is generalizable. Overall, The Political Life of an Epidemic powerfully illustrates how the transformation of the bureaucratic state, in addition to the contentious politics of urban government, led to a public health disaster.

12.
Africa ; 92(3):386-387, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908026

ABSTRACT

Historical and political decisions (by both colonial and postcolonial states), including urban planning defined by racial segregation and spatial inequalities, failed public health infrastructure, and the postcolonial government’s struggle to maintain political power ‘converged to create a “perfect storm” for a ruinous cholera outbreak’ (p. 86). [...]Chigudu discusses what he terms ‘multiple ontologies’ to show the different forms, experiences and meanings the cholera epidemic took. [...]the exploration of historical memory and political subjectivities generated by the epidemic illustrates political consciousness amidst feelings of abandonment by the state.

13.
Africa ; 92(3):384-385, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908025

ABSTRACT

The book provides a valuable addition to growing calls for more interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and responding to epidemics, and for the integration of social-scientific analysis to shed light on the social dimensions of disease and effectively engage rather than eschew the political nature of health emergencies. [...]as the book shows, short-term fixes may simply prolong the status quo and even undermine states’ capacity for structural transformation, leaving the next crisis to be a matter of when, not if. The Political Life of an Epidemic provides us with an invaluable template for how to produce a post-mortem of a health emergency.

14.
Africa ; 92(3):390-392, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908024

ABSTRACT

Cholera – a bacterial infection of the intestine that is easy to prevent but deadly when left untreated – emerges and thrives where modern water and sanitation services have broken down, where people live in squalid and overcrowded conditions, where immune systems are weakened by malnutrition or concomitant infection. For Reddy, this argument underplays the limits of humanitarian responses to achieve more development-oriented transformation. [...]she points out that I don’t give quite enough analysis to the historical role that international organizations have played in Zimbabwe. For Muinde, my book shows how the cholera epidemic shaped new experiences of citizenship among Harare’s urban poor: it tapped into historical expectations of public service delivery, it provided an avenue for township residents to air outrage at the structural inequality in the city and at their political abjection, and it channelled fears about an increasingly fragile future.

15.
Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings ; : 67-76, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1904475

ABSTRACT

The share of tourism in the Croatian economy has been growing over the years whereby Croatia has one of the largest shares of tourism in Gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe. Therefore, tourism can be considered as one of the most important driver of the Croatian economy. The number of tourist arrivals affects many economic variables such as industry, retail trade, service activities, construction, employment, prices etc. In this paper, the focus will be on the impact of tourist arrivals on retail trade turnover in Croatia. By definition, retail trade is the sale of goods to final consumers for personal consumption or use in households and like tourism, retail trade is also very important component of Croatian GDP. For the purpose of the analysis, monthly data on the number of tourist arrivals and retail trade turnover (in real terms) are used. To determine the relationship between the variables the bounds testing (ARDL) approach for cointegration is applied. The results indicate the existence of stable cointegration relationship between the variables. In the long-run, an increase in tourist arrivals increases retail trade turnover in Croatia whereby in the short-run there is no impact. The error correction coefficient is highly statistically significant, has the correct sign and suggests slow speed of adjustment to the long-run equilibrium.

16.
Journal of African Media Studies ; 14(2):295-308, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1902659

ABSTRACT

This article examines theatre as a creative journalistic media deployed by theatre practitioners to map experiences of Zimbabweans during the COVID-19-induced lockdown. When the first positive case of COVID-19 was reported in March 2020, the Zimbabwe government, like many other countries, responded by introducing restrictions for public gatherings and ultimately a lockdown including arts events. Yet, theatricality has refused to capitulate. Artists re-invented their theatre productions into theatrical comic and satirical works posted on various social media platforms, in an effort to make sense of the pandemic, bring laughter and address a serious complex situation. We examine how artists deployed theatre to journal, capture and document the citizen’s collective experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, for both the present and posterity. We are specifically interested in analysing the different ways art is deployed to provide entertainment, a broader understanding and awareness of the social, psychological and economic impact of COVID-19 for the present and future generations. © 2022 Intellect Ltd.

17.
Journal of African Media Studies ; 14(2):189-207, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1902655

ABSTRACT

This article inquires why humour flourishes in face of tragedy. Memes, as we argue, give people a sense of power as they offer commentary that critiques and mocks the government policies and ineptness, simultaneously offering a sense of hope and relief in face of the pandemic. With a focus on the COVID-19 pandemic, this study probed the nature, character and the why of humour in two southern African countries: South Africa and Zimbabwe. Findings show that memes were used to comment on lockdown regulations and speak against public authorities, to raise awareness of COVID-19 and expose poor health delivery systems. Our findings show that memes in South and Zimbabwe were used to bring dialogue about the COVID-19 pandemic and communicate health-related issues. © 2022 Intellect Ltd.

18.
Stud Fam Plann ; 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901843

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious impacts on economic, social, and health systems, and fragile public health systems have become overburdened in many countries, exacerbating existing service delivery challenges. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family planning services within a community-based integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health intervention for youth aged 16-24 years being trialled in Zimbabwe (CHIEDZA). It examines the experiences of health providers and clients in relation to how the first year of the pandemic affected access to and use of contraceptives.

19.
13th EAI International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries, AFRICOMM 2021 ; 443 LNICST:80-92, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899010

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a narrative on developing a COVID-19 digital information and consultation platform for a province situated in southern Zimbabwe. In response to a WHO prediction and call to prepare for the worst, a team of medical and computer experts worked on a sovereign digital platform facilitating COVID-19 triaging over the phone. Ethnographic assessments revealed that platform developments benefitted from national dialogue, engaged communities and stakeholders, and use of locally available technologies and skills. In this paper, the development of this digital platform is placed in the broader facets of local development, data sovereignty, and growth of local capacity and abilities under the auspices of the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care. The paper reflects on the facets involved in developing this digital platform for digital health interventions aligned with local capacity and needs. © 2022, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

20.
Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion ; 18(5):462-481, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1893761

ABSTRACT

Indigenous knowledge and practices suffer marginalisation when it comes to seeking solutions to social problems. The world misses out on the richness of this knowledge and practices and role that they can play. This qualitative existential phenomenological study explored experiences of African indigenous knowledge holders and practitioners on their views regarding solutions towards COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were conducted through WhatsApp and face-to-face with ten participants and data were analysed thematically. The findings show African knowledge and practices that could combat COVID-19 in terms of restrictions, heat related remedies and plant related remedies, and how these knowledge and practices can be applied through ancestral, environmental, metaphysical and generational modes. Africa and the world could benefit from how indigenous people respond to diseases such as COVID-19 and adopt/adapt some of these knowledge and practices;indigenous knowledge and practices have a role to play by contributing solutions to the world's problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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