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1.
Avian Conservation and Ecology = Ecologie et Conservation des Oiseaux ; 17(2):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025208

ABSTRACT

Wildlife mortality caused by domestic cats is evident where free-roaming house cats are present in the tropical Andes region, a phenomenon for which there is a lack of scientific reports. Our goal is to present plausible range estimates of the potential avoidable number of birds killed by domestic cats in Colombia. We calculated estimates of the number of birds killed as the product of the number of cats, the proportion of cats with at least some outdoor access, the proportion of cats that hunt wildlife, the annual predation probability, and adjustments for estimates of total prey killed by cats. We extracted such data not only from public records, but also from a citizen science study, for which we circulated a questionnaire to examine cat owners' attitudes toward the impact of domestic cats on wildlife during the 2020 and 2021 COVID-19 lockdowns in Colombia. We estimated that three to 12 million birds are killed annually by domestic cats in urban and suburban areas. In addition, we estimated that cats kill eight to 29 million vertebrate fauna in the Andes of Colombia. The total kill estimate provides a first figure on the magnitude of the impact of an anthropogenic cause of wildlife mortality for Colombia. These estimates would be more rigorous if the unowned or feral cat population size in Colombia was better known. Because most pet cats in Colombia roam outdoors without supervision and their population is growing, they pose an increasing threat to wildlife. Intervention is urgent to mitigate bird mortality by domestic cats.Alternate :La mortalité de la faune sauvage causée par les chats domestiques est évidente dans les régions où des chats de maison évoluent librement dans la région tropicale des Andes, un phénomène au sujet duquel les rapports scientifiques sont insuffisants. Notre objectif est de présenter des estimations de plages plausibles du nombre potentiellement évitable d'oiseaux tués par des chats domestiques en Colombie. Nous avons calculé des estimations du nombre d'oiseaux tués en tant que produit du nombre de chats, de la proportion de chats ayant au moins un certain accès à l'extérieur, de la proportion de chats qui chassent des animaux sauvages, de la probabilité de prédation annuelle et des ajustements des estimations du nombre total de proies tuées par des chats. Nous avons extrait ces données non seulement des dossiers publics, mais aussi d'une étude scientifique réalisée auprès des citoyens, pour laquelle nous avons fait circuler un questionnaire afin d'examiner les attitudes des propriétaires de chats par rapport à la faune sauvage pendant les confinements de 2020 et 2021 liés au COVID-19 en Colombie. Nous avons estimé que trois à 12 millions d'oiseaux sont tués chaque année par des chats domestiques en ville et en banlieue. En outre, nous avons calculé que les chats tuent huit à 29 millions de vertébrés dans les Andes de Colombie. L'estimation totale du nombre d'animaux tués fournit un premier chiffre quant à la magnitude de l'impact d'une cause anthropique de la mortalité de la faune en Colombie. Ces estimations seraient plus rigoureuses si nous connaissions mieux la taille de la population de chats inconnus ou sauvages en Colombie. Dans la mesure où la plupart des chats domestiques en Colombie errent à l'extérieur sans surveillance et où leur population augmente, ils représentent une menace croissante pour la faune sauvage. Une intervention est urgente pour atténuer la mortalité des oiseaux causée par les chats domestiques.

2.
Oryx ; 56(5):760-763, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2016461

ABSTRACT

South-east Asia is home to exceptional biodiversity, but threats to vertebrate species are disproportionately high in this region. The IUCN Species Survival Commission Asian Species Action Partnership aims to avert species extinctions. Strengthening individual and organizational capacity is key to achieving long-term, sustainable conservation impact, and is a core strategic intervention for the Partnership. To look at the needs and opportunities for developing capacity for species conservation in South-east Asia, we undertook a needs assessment with organizations implementing species conservation within this region. We conducted a review of available training opportunities, mapping them against a list of identified competences needed for species conservation to determine gaps in current training. Our assessments revealed an imbalance in the focus of training opportunities vs the actual competences needed for effective species conservation, and that training opportunities within South-east Asia are limited in number and highly competitive. These findings corroborate other similar reviews, particularly on capacity gaps in the Global South. We discuss the implications of our review and use the findings to generate recommendations.

4.
Webology ; 19(3):1242-1261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940172

ABSTRACT

The study analyses the Scientometric analysis of the Quantitation techniques on the Publications trend has been measured in the field of Palaeontology based on the Scopus data for the period of study between 2005 and 2019. The topmost productive year was 2019 with 998 records (8.28%). Similarly the least productive year was 2005 with 371 records (3.08%). The publications, from 2005 to 2012 (8 years) 45.82% publications were found;whereas from 1913 to 2019 (7 years) 54.18% publications were found. The maximum number of citations in the year 2011 comprises 24683 citations and the minimum number of citations is 3115 in 2019. The maximum number of citations per paper is 39.28 in 2006. The highest exponential growth rate was found to be 1.23 in the year 2010 with 909 publications. The highest AGR was found in the year 2010 (23) followed by the year 2007 (21.83). The maximum RGR value is found to be 0.79 in the year 2006 and the minimum value is found to be 0.08 in the year 2018. Here the correlation coefficient of these two variables is 0.96. The highest CC 0.61 is reported in the year 2019. The overall CC =0.53 which is far from 0. The highest MCC 0.61 has been reported in the year 2019. The lowest MCC 0.40 has been reported in the year in 2006. The overall MCC is 0.53. The journal titled "Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology" occupied the first position with 1494 publications. The second most productive journal was " PLoS ONE " with 471 publications.

5.
Disease Models & Mechanisms ; 14(3), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1910408

ABSTRACT

First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Disease Models & Mechanisms, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Mugagga Kalyesubula and Ramgopal Mopuri are co-first authors on ‘High-dose vitamin B1 therapy prevents the development of experimental fatty liver driven by overnutrition’, published in DMM. Mugagga is a PhD student in the lab of Dr Hay Dvir at the Volcani Center – Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Rishon LeZion, Israel and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel, investigating therapy development for chronic metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ramgopal is a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Dr Hay Dvir at the Volcani Center – ARO in Rishon LeZion, Israel, developing therapeutic approaches for the management of fatty liver diseases.

6.
Koedoe ; 64(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1903643

ABSTRACT

The mismanagement of waste in protected areas may lead to significant and irreversible environmental, economic and social impacts, such as land degradation, resource depletion, surface and groundwater pollution, loss of biodiversity and impacts on the aesthetic value of these areas. This paper aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for sustainable solid waste management in privately protected areas, given the limited research conducted on this topic. A case study approach was followed, which focused on the Sabi Sand Wildtuin, a private nature reserve (PNR) in South Africa. Interviews were conducted with 30 participants, which included representatives from the management authority, commercial lodges, non-commercial properties and a waste service provider. Several challenges have been identified by interviewees. Behaviour was the most frequently mentioned challenge, where interviewees raised concerns about negative attitudes, unwillingness to implement waste management measures and a possible lack of support. Other frequently mentioned challenges included foreseen difficulties due to the size and location of the reserve and concerns around funding of waste management measures, especially given the financial implications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) travel and tourism restrictions. The most frequently identified opportunities included creating jobs and improving livelihoods, providing assurance and transparency of what happens to waste ‘beyond the gate’ and improving awareness, knowledge and skills related to waste management. To optimise the opportunities towards sustainable solid waste management, PNRs should focus on aligning their strategic direction to achieve legal compliance and support community initiatives to establish waste-related infrastructure and services that cannot be implemented within the reserve. Conservation implications: The pursuit of waste-related opportunities within privately protected areas could enhance the implementation of sustainable solid waste management in PNRs, whilst also contributing to pollution prevention, community upliftment and other secondary benefits, which could ultimately result in increased conservation efforts.

9.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine ; 18:1-13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848785

ABSTRACT

Background Hunting wild animals is essential for nutrition, clothing, predator control and disease treatment. As part of a system based on food choices and uses, it is influenced by ecological, economic and sociocultural patterns. In this context, the aim is to identify the game fauna of interest in the Brazilian semiarid region;indicate the methods, uses, patterns of choices and cultural importance of the fauna and identify which sociodemographic variables influence the knowledge and use of faunal resources. Methods Information on hunting and fauna use was obtained through semi-structured interviews, complemented with free interviews and informal conversations. The cultural importance of the species was calculated through the current use value. The generalized linear model was created to verify whether the sociodemographic profile of hunters influences the knowledge and use of game species. Results The results showed a representativeness of 56 species. The group of birds was the most representative in terms of taxonomic richness (48.2%), followed by the group of mammals (26.8%), reptiles (21.4%) and amphibians (3.6%). The animals mentioned are used for food, trade, control hunting (slaughter of animals considered invaders of property or harmful to humans), pets, zootherapy and ornamentation. Sociodemographic variables shaped the knowledge of faunal resources, in which the age of hunters showed a negative correlation with the number of known species. Conclusions The meaning and forms of use attributed to each species depend on ecological, economic and sociocultural factors, which dictate the relationship between human communities and natural resources. Socioeconomic variables shape hunting patterns in all its aspects, whether in perception that hunters have of the resources, forms of use and utilization of hunting strategies.

10.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1747, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837983

ABSTRACT

In this paper, an epidemiological study was performed by focusing on all confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Xuzhou, a prefecture-level city, and a transportation hub with 10.44 million population in the east region of China. The median age of the patients is 42-year-old and 45.57% are male;25 cases (31.65%) are imported. 23 cases (29.11%) were confirmed between January 26 to 31, 2020 while 56 cases (70.89%) were from February 1 to 16, 2020. Among the ten administrative divisions of Xuzhou city, Suining county (n=31) and Pizhou City (n=15) have the most cases while Tongshan district has none. A representative familial cluster with 6 cases was analyzed in detail in order to get a better understanding of the transmission routes of the virus. Furthermore, we performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 41 COVID-19 patients at Xuzhou Infectious Diseases Hospital in terms of clinical findings, which provided an insightful understanding of the disease.

11.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1893, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837738

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus commonly known as COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia. This pandemic started from Wuhan City, China and has spread throughout most parts of the world (210 countries). COVID-19 is a large sized, enveloped, positive stranded RNA virus. Out of the four known genera, alpha and beta corona viruses are the most commonly recognized viruses infecting human beings. COVID-19 is a new virus that is highly contagious. It spreads through infected persons in its prodromal stage which suggest its transmission is not likely through air. COVID-19 can affect people of all age groups and mostly results in the death of people with weak immune systems. Its most common reported symptoms are fever, fatigue, dry cough, lymphopenia, raised levels of lactate de-hydrogenase and, bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs (opacities may be mild damage of one lobe or all five lobes). This virus has the potential to affect pregnant women, however, its prevalence was not noticed in new-borns. Time to recovery is generally two weeks. To reduce the spread of COVID-19, observing hygienic practices like frequent hand washing, social distancing and drinking warm water and chloroquine phosphate are some of the measures to mitigate the effect of cronavirus.

12.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(1):433, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837597

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and this disease has infected millions of people globally now. COVID-19 is caused by a novel beta coronavirus strain known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Once SARS-CoV-2 manages to enter the body, it identifies and binds to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors through the binding receptor of Spike Protein (S-protein). The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemicals as potential inhibitors of the binding domain of S protein so that the binding of COVID-19 with ACE2 receptors could be restrained. For this purpose, the library of 2113 phytochemicals was docked against the binding domain of the S-protein. Top ten compounds with maximum binding affinity to the active sites of target protein were further screened for ADMET properties by adopting SwissADME and ADMETsar online servers. The compounds namely Morin, Curcumin, Apigenin, Cedronolactone A and Matairesinol showed acceptable drug-like properties therefore these compounds can be proposed as effective inhibitors, disrupting the S-protein-ACE2 interaction. This study might help in the development of a natural and cost-effective drug against COVID-19. Further, in vivo and in vitro examinations are required to validate our results.

13.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1899, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837596

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease.

14.
Journal of Animal Science ; 99(Supplement_3):214-215, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831225

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, most of the universities across United States limited the amount of in person instruction. This brought a challenging situation in animal sciences courses that required laboratory sessions and hands-on experiences. There is not a real solution to replace the in-person labs, however several approaches can be implemented to overcome some of the challenges for laboratory sessions. Some of the on-line approaches implemented in an introductory class of Animal Sciences during the semester of spring and fall 2020 were live (synchronous) laboratory sessions (live interactions with animals, pre-recorded sessions of the laboratory session, and 360-degree videos of tours to the farms). The main objective of the present report is to assess the usefulness and feedback of these approaches to teach laboratory sessions to an undergraduate introductory animal science course. The official (Blue) university student responses in the course were used to determine the perception and feedback to these approaches. A total of 123 responses were recorded (Spring: 42/96, Fall: 81/174). Overall, no significant differences were observed in terms of the student perception. Overall, the responses were positive toward the laboratory sessions even in an online environment. During the spring semester 40/42 (95%), whereas in 72/81 (88%) strongly agree/mildly agree that labs help them to learn respectively. In terms of the videos used in class and labs, during the spring semester 35/41 (85%) and 68/81 (83%) strongly agree/mildly agree that labs help them to learn. In summary, the new reality due to COVID pandemic is very challenging for Animal Science courses that have laboratory sessions that involves hands-on experiences. Despite this, in conclusion some approaches can be implemented to still provide meaningful experiences to undergraduate students to support their learning and engagement in the introductory animal science course.

16.
Oryx ; 56(3):323-328, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1815405

ABSTRACT

Source: Endangered Landscapes Programme (2022) endangeredlandscapes.org/second-herd-of-kulan-arrives-in-the-ukrainian-danube-delta Tweaked fences are helping to save Aberta's pronghorn The Alberta Fish and Game Association and the Alberta Conservation Association have wrapped up another season of their Pronghorn Corridor Enhancement Project, with changes to fencing that help pronghorns stay healthier and less vulnerable to predators. Source: CBC News (2021) cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/pronghorn-fence-alberta-conservation-1.6298645 Rare antelope population booming in Chinese nature reserve The population of a rare species of antelope, Przewalski's gazelle Procapra przewalskii, has surpassed 2,700 in Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve, in Qinghai Province in north-west China, according to the Reserve's administration. Sources: China Global Television Network (2022) news.cgtn.com/news/2022-01-02/Rare-antelope-population-booming-in-China-s-natural-reserve-16uFuq43E64/index.html & China News (2021) chinanews.com.cn/sh/shipin/cns/2021/12-23/news911159.shtml Scientists step up search for so-called Asian unicorn Weighing up to 100 kg and sporting long straight horns and white spots on its face, the saola does not sound like an animal that would be difficult to spot.

17.
Experimental Animals ; 70:S1-S85, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1776928
18.
Aquatic Mammals ; 48(2):126-131, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765571

ABSTRACT

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are cosmopolitan and highly migratory animals. They are found in all ocean basins and annually migrate between low-latitude waters, where they breed and calve during the winter and spring, and high-latitude waters, where they feed during the summer and autumn. Commercial whaling resulted in a considerable reduction in all humpback whale populations. In the Southern Hemisphere alone, more than 200,000 whales were caught. Most populations, including the Western South Atlantic Ocean Breeding Stock "A" (BSA), have shown signs of recovery after the International Whaling Commission (IWC) enacted a moratorium in the late 1960s.

19.
Koedoe ; 64(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1753745

ABSTRACT

Herbivores are a main driver of ecosystem patterns and processes in semi-arid savannas, with their effects clearly observed when they are excluded from landscapes. Starting in the 1960s, various herbivore exclosures have been erected in the Kruger National Park (KNP), for research and management purposes. These exclosures vary from very small (1 m2) to relatively large (almost 900 ha), from short-term (single growing season) to long-term (e.g. some of the exclosures were erected more than 60 years ago), and are located on different geologies and across a rainfall gradient. We provide a summary of the history and specifications of various exclosures. This is followed by a systematic overview of mostly peer-reviewed literature resulting from using KNP exclosures as research sites. These 75 articles cover research on soils, vegetation dynamics, herbivore exclusion on other faunal groups and disease. We provide general patterns and mechanisms in a synthesis section, and end with recommendations to increase research outputs and productivity for future exclosure experiments. Conservation Implications: Herbivore exclosures in the KNP have become global research platforms, that have helped in the training of ecologists, veterinarians and field biologists, and have provided valuable insights into savanna dynamics that would otherwise have been hard to gain. In an age of dwindling conservation funding, we make the case for the value added by exclosures and make recommendations for their continued use as learning tools in complex African savannas.

20.
Natural Sciences Education ; 50(1), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1748614

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the 2020 global health crisis, universities have been forced to alter teaching modalities. Much of this alteration involves increased use of the internet as a teaching tool in a variety of capacities. The evolving higher education landscape has resulted in many university faculty members reevaluating basic teaching concepts such as content delivery formats. These include delivering content either synchronously or asynchronously. Although existing literature examines the effectiveness of both synchronous and asynchronous delivery, very little exists pertaining to the role of internet access in higher education, even as rural America falls behind in broadband access. This accessibility increases in importance as more courses are taught online, with the digital divide introducing barriers for many rural students. As faculty work to maintain their own personal teaching styles while being cognizant of student needs, it is important to evaluate content delivery as a function of rural broadband availability.

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