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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 80, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease outbreak despite the significant increased activity and the difficulties to mobilize extra staff resources. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of two-level filtering on EMCC performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A before-after monocentric prospective study was conducted at the EMCC at the Nantes University Hospital. Using telephone activity data, we compared EMCC performance during 2 periods. In period one (February 27th to March 11th 2020), call takers managed calls as usual, gathering basic information from the caller and giving first aid instructions to a bystander on scene if needed. During period two (March 12th to March 25th 2020), calls were answered by a first-line call taker to identify potentially serious conditions that required immediate dispatch. When a serious condition was excluded, the call was immediately transferred to a second-line call taker who managed the call as usual so the first-line call taker could be rapidly available for other incoming calls. The primary outcome was the quality of service at 20 s (QS20), corresponding to the rate of calls answered within 20 s. We described activity and outcome measures by hourly range. We compared EMCC performance during periods one and two using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 45,451 incoming calls during the two study periods: 21,435 during period 1 and 24,016 during period 2. Between the two study periods, we observed a significant increase in the number of incoming calls per hour, the number of connected call takers and average call duration. A linear regression model, adjusted for these confounding variables, showed a significant increase in the QS20 slope (from - 0.4 to 1.4%, p = 0.01), highlighting the significant impact of two-level filtering on the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: We found that rapid access to our EMCC was maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic via two-level filtering. This system helped reduce the time gap between call placement and first-line call-taker evaluation of a potentially life-threatening situation. We suggest implementing this system when an EMCC faces significantly increased activity with limited staff resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/methods , COVID-19 , Controlled Before-After Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
3.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected patient experience of primary care both positive and negative. AIM: To assess the experiences of patients of primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN & SETTING: A qualitative study of patients from regions with high and low COVID-19 prevalence in the Netherlands. METHOD: A qualitative study using a phenomenological framework was performed among purposively sampled patients. Individual semi-structured interviews were performed and transcribed. Data were thematically analysed by means of an inductive approach. RESULTS: We interviewed 28 patients (13 men and 15 women, age range 27-91 years). After thematic analysis, two main themes emerged: accessibility and continuity of primary care. Changes considered positive during the pandemic regarding accessibility and continuity of primary care included having a quieter practice, having more time for consultations, and the use of remote care for problems with low complexity. However, patients also experienced decreases in both care accessibility and continuity, such as feeling unwelcome, the GP postponing chronic care, or seeing unfamiliar doctors due to care being segregated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite bringing several benefits, patients indicated that the changes to primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have threatened care accessibility and continuity, which are core values of primary care. These insights can guide primary care provision not only in this and future pandemics but also when implementing permanent changes to care provision in primary care.

4.
Community Dent Health ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A key aspect of the public health response to COVID-19 in Scotland was enhanced community surveillance, including testing in dental settings. Across Scotland, dental settings offered patients over 5-years-old the opportunity to participate in community surveillance of COVID-19. METHODS: A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment (HIIA) was conducted to understand the differential impacts the programme would have on the population and to improve the accessibility of the programme. HIIA is a tool to allow the assessment, understanding, and mitigation of impacts on people of a proposed policy or practice. It fulfils an organisational duty to meet the requirements of the Equality Act and Fairer Scotland Duty. The HIIA was conducted rapidly in parallel with the programme development. An action research approach included an online workshop, consultation, review of population data and a literature search. RESULTS: Adjustments were required to improve the programme's accessibility. Stakeholders, including dental teams from across Scotland were involved in the consultation and brought their front-line experience in different settings. Common issues identified included digital literacy and access, language and cultural barriers to participation, and issues relating to the implications of a positive COVID-19 result. Literature indicated limited evidence on the acceptability, accessibility, and equity of asymptomatic COVID-19 surveillance. CONCLUSION: This HIIA was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an example of good practice in tackling inequalities in access to programmes it should represent the benchmark for other similar initiatives.

5.
New Directions in Book History ; JOUR: 195-214,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2085236

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected children and their families. One of the many challenges families faced was limited or no access to age-appropriate reading material. On the one hand, sales data show that sales of children’s books, in particular activity books, increased markedly during lockdowns. On the other hand, spaces which grant children and families free access to books, such as daycare centers, schools, and public libraries, were closed for weeks at a time. This chapter sketches out the central role of books and reading in families as a pathway to literacy, education, and general well-being and draws on concepts such as book deserts and “book hunger” (Shaver 2020), before discussing the repercussions of limited book accessibility for families during the pandemic. Educational experts have hypothesized that children will experience a “COVID slide” in reading and that existing inequalities in reading progress will be exacerbated by prolonged shutdowns. The contribution also shows, however, how institutions and foundations, as well as individuals, have made books available to children and families in creative and pragmatic ways despite COVID-induced restrictions. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely access and attachment to a primary healthcare provider is associated with better population health outcomes. In Canada, community pharmacists are highly accessible and patients struggling to access a family physician or nurse practitioner (i.e., "unattached") may seek care from a community pharmacist. Community pharmacists took on additional roles during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known about how community pharmacists managed the needs of attached and unattached patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To describe Nova Scotian community pharmacists' roles in caring for unattached patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and identifying barriers and facilitators to optimizing patient access. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists (n = 11) across the province of Nova Scotia (Canada) were conducted. RESULTS: Five key themes were noted: (1) rising pressure on pharmacists to meet unique health needs of attached and unattached patients; (2) what pharmacists have to offer (e.g., accessibility, trustworthiness); (3) positioning pharmacists in the system (e.g., how pharmacists can address gaps in primary healthcare); (4) pharmacist wellbeing; and, (5) recommendations for practice post-pandemic (e.g., maintain some policy changes made during the COVID-19 pandemic). CONCLUSION: Before and during the pandemic, community pharmacists played a significant and increasing role providing care to patients, especially unattached patients. With growing numbers of unattached patients, it is vital that community pharmacists are supported to provide services to care for the health needs of patients.

7.
Xinan Jiaotong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University ; 57(4):253-261, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081550

ABSTRACT

Information Communication Technology (ICT) is advancing with rapid development aimed at offering quality education among learners to ensure satisfaction as well as convenience. With the devastating effects of Coronavirus, many institutions are relying on e-learning technologies to conduct both administrative and academic activities to promote social distancing as well as curb the spread of the novel coronavirus. E-learning allows students from different geographical locations to learn as if in the classroom through the internet;providing tools that enhance effective teaching and learning. The question we ask is are e-learning platforms performing as expected? To determine the answer to this question, five e-learning platforms of recognized institutions in Ghana were tested using heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing. This paper establishes a performance evaluation model for e-learning platforms, by elaborating some critical factors that are comprehensive compared to previous approaches and establishes a criterion for performance evaluation based on parameters such as usability in terms of, the design of the e-learning platforms, accessibility and response/request time. From our findings, we propose a model where the development of E-learning platforms is standardized globally under the guidelines from W3C. Additionally, design methods should be flexible and consider users with different backgrounds, abilities and skills. Also, video conferencing and voice tutorials must be implemented in the e-learning platform in different languages without relying on the third party applications such as Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams to promote the usability, accessibility and effectiveness of these platforms for teaching and learning. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

8.
Front Psychol ; 13: 906108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080250

ABSTRACT

At the 2019 and 2021 International Conference on Environmental Psychology, discussions were held on the future of conferences in light of the enormous greenhouse gas emissions and inequities associated with conference travel. In this manuscript, we provide an early career researcher (ECR) perspective on this discussion. We argue that travel-intensive conference practices damage both the environment and our credibility as a discipline, conflict with the intrinsic values and motivations of our discipline, and are inequitable. As such, they must change. This change can be achieved by moving toward virtual and hybrid conferences, which can reduce researchers' carbon footprints and promote equity, if employed carefully and with informal exchange as a priority. By acting collectively and with the support of institutional change, we can adapt conference travel norms in our field. To investigate whether our arguments correspond to views in the wider community of ECRs within environmental psychology, we conducted a community case study. By leveraging our professional networks and directly contacting researchers in countries underrepresented in those networks, we recruited 117 ECRs in 32 countries for an online survey in February 2022. The surveyed ECRs supported a change in conference travel practices, including flying less, and perceived the number of researchers wanting to reduce their travel emissions to be growing. Thirteen percent of respondents had even considered leaving academia due to travel requirements. Concerning alternative conference formats, a mixed picture emerged. Overall, participants had slightly negative evaluations of virtual conferences, but expected them to improve within the next 5 years. However, ECRs with health issues, facing visa challenges, on low funding, living in remote areas, with caretaking obligations or facing travel restrictions due to COVID-19 expected a switch toward virtual or hybrid conferences to positively affect their groups. Participants were divided about their ability to build professional relationships in virtual settings, but believed that maintaining relationships virtually is possible. We conclude by arguing that the concerns of ECRs in environmental psychology about current and alternative conference practices must be taken seriously. We call on our community to work on collective solutions and less travel-intensive conference designs using participatory methods.

9.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(5): 891-896, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a worsening mental health crisis, while also dramatically reducing access to in-person primary care services. Primary care, an essential provider of mental health services, rapidly adopted telemedicine to address behavioral health needs. Here we examine the provision of mental health services by primary care during the pandemic, including the essential use of telemedicine. METHODS: Data were collected via a series of national, cross-sectional surveys of primary care clinicians in November 2020 by the Larry A. Green Center. The survey was distributed through a network of partner organizations and subscribers. Descriptive and chi squared analysis were utilized. RESULTS: Among 1,472 respondents, 88% reported increased mental health needs and 37% reported higher rates of substance use among patients. Most (65%) clinicians became more involved in providing mental health support, and 64% reported using telemedicine to provide behavioral health services. Phone-based care was more common for care delivery among patients who were uninsured (60% vs 42%, P < .01), Medicare beneficiaries (45% vs 36%, P < .05), non-English speaking (67% vs 40%, P < .001), and racial and ethnic minorities (58% vs 34%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Primary care is a leading provider of mental health services and has played a critical role during the pandemic. Primary care clinicians have strong relationships with their patients as well as outreach within communities that may otherwise struggle to access mental health services. The use of telemedicine in primary care, and specifically phone-based services, has been an essential tool to providing equitable access to mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medicare , Primary Health Care
10.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 114, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose response training (OORT) and the need for its rapid expansion have become more significant as the opioid epidemic continues to be a health crisis in the USA. Limitation of funding and stigmatization often hinders expansion of OORT programs. Primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been widespread transition from in-person to virtual communication. However, OORT programs may benefit from long-term use of this modality of education if it can be as effective. OBJECTIVE: To measure the change in participant attitude after a brief, virtual OORT. METHODS: A 6.5-min OORT video explained recognition of opioid overdose, appropriate response and proper administration of intranasal naloxone. Pre- and post-video scores from a 19-item survey were used to determine the video's impact on participants' self-perceived competence and readiness to administer naloxone to a person with a suspected opioid overdose. Paired t tests were used in the analysis of pre- and post-video scores. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H testing were used to compare variance between several demographic subgroups of interest. RESULTS: A sample of 219 participants had a significant mean difference of 15.12 (SD 9.48; 95% CI 13.86-16.39, p < 0.001) between pre- and posttest scores. Improvements were found to be greatest in content-naïve participants with lower levels of education and non-health care-related jobs than participants endorsing previous content awareness, formal naloxone training, masters, doctorate or professional degrees and health care-related jobs. CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrated encouraging evidence that a brief, virtual, pre-recorded educational intervention improved participant-rated competence and readiness to administer intranasal naloxone in a suspected opioid overdose. Due to scalability and ability to overcome common healthcare accessibility barriers, short-form videos focused on key facts about naloxone and the benefits of its use could be part of a strategy for rapid expansion of OORT programs to mitigate opioid overdose fatalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opiate Overdose , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Humans , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
11.
World Leisure Journal ; : 1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070028

ABSTRACT

One of the prerequisites for the resurgence of the leisure and tourism sector in France, as in other countries, is the adoption of verification documents known as "Covid-19 Certificate" However, this introduction is widely debated. In an endeavor to inclusiveness, given the rejection of the use of this certificate among certain individuals, this exploratory study examines the impact of the Covid-19 certificate requirement on access to leisure. A sequential mixed-methods exploratory design was used to conduct two interrelated studies using data from a netnography (n = 250 online comments), and surveys among concerned subjects (n = 245 participants). First, six hypotheses are proposed to explain the causes of refusal. These hypotheses are tested and validated using SEM, and the results show that the requirement of the Covid-19 certificate to access leisure services places a part of the population at a disadvantage, leading to exclusion. The introduction of the Covid-19 certificate, poses a new challenge for the inclusive society. In the context of leisure, the results obtained allow to point out the constraints of participation related to the use of the Covid-19 certificate and can thus be useful to guide management strategies in an exceptional situation.

12.
Sustainable Cities and Society ; 87, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069677

ABSTRACT

Space-time flexibility is defined as the extent to which individuals can participate in activities at different lo-cations and different times. High space-time flexibility of travel enables people more freedom to choose when and where to make trips and assists in achieving both environmental and social sustainability. Applying a quasi -experimental approach - propensity score matching - to data obtained from 624 interviews in Chengdu (China), this paper aims to examine the effects of metro accessibility on space-time flexibility of shopping travel for non -daily goods. The results show that people residing around metro stations (i.e., high calculated accessibility) have a higher level of space-time flexibility of shopping travel than those living elsewhere. Meanwhile, people who perceive easy access to metro services (i.e., high perceived accessibility) are also likely to have a higher level of space-time flexibility. The findings highlight the importance of metro accessibility from the perspective of time geography. In practice, improving calculated and perceived accessibility to metro services may be an effective urban planning strategy to increase residents' space-time flexibility of shopping travel and inform policy rec-ommendations for the design of sustainable cities.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071893

ABSTRACT

Despite the benefits of immunization, differences in attitudes persist toward vaccines. We captured individuals' perceptions of vaccines and vaccination across the United States (US) to inform vaccine-related policy development. A survey was completed by 5000 respondents from 10 states. Respondents were screened for inclusion, which included individuals ≥ 18 years of age that had received a vaccine or were unvaccinated but indicated a favorable or neutral attitude towards vaccinations. Participants were excluded if they indicated they did not support the idea of vaccinations. Questions explored perceptions of vaccines for all age groups. Among unvaccinated individuals, the most common concerns were about safety (38%). Most respondents (95%) highlighted the importance of state immunization programs for disease prevention. Access to health and immunization records and immunization information systems were important to 96% and 88% of respondents, respectively, for future health planning. Doctors and healthcare professionals (HCPs) were considered trusted sources for vaccine information (95%). Overall, respondents recognized the importance of vaccination, but documented concerns among the unvaccinated indicated a need for greater promotion regarding vaccine safety. Doctors and HCPs, as trusted information sources, should continue to and increasingly advocate for the importance of immunization to increase vaccine uptake.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071382

ABSTRACT

In recent years, national and local efforts to improve diet and health in the United States have stressed the importance of nutrition security, which emphasizes consistent access to foods and beverages that promote health and prevent disease among all individuals. At the core of this endeavor is fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, a dietary practice that is integral to attaining and sustaining a healthy diet. Unfortunately, significant inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption exist, particularly among populations that are socially and economically disadvantaged. To achieve nutrition and health equity in the United States, the field must center the goal of nutrition security and initiatives that aim to increase FV consumption, specifically, in future work. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) Special Issue titled "Nutrition and Health Equity: Revisiting the Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Availability, Purchasing, and Consumption" features several scholarly publications from experts conducting timely research on these topics. In this commentary, we (1) summarize the U.S.-based literature on inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption, (2) describe how the contributions to this IJERPH special issue can advance nutrition security and health equity, and (3) outline future research questions from our perspective.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Vegetables , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Health Promotion , Humans , United States
15.
Nursing Older People ; 34(5):9-11, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2067175

ABSTRACT

The article offers tips for nurses on providing care for patients with continence issues. Topics discussed include the consequences of pressures on continence services, the lack of confidence among nurses in continence, tools used for initial assessment of bladder symptoms in adults, and the lack of services for younger patients with bladder and bowel issues in the Untied Kingdom.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12466, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066416

ABSTRACT

Poverty in rural areas remains rife and high despite the rapid societal developments and technological advancements the world is riding on, brought about by the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Most communities and individuals in many rural areas of the world often face near zero to limited access to basic services such as access to energy and healthcare. The study’s objective is to develop linkages between smart rural health indicators and smart rural energy indicators. This is achieved by using a six-stage method developed over a two year period. The method uses sustainable development goals as a point of departure;however, in this study, the focus is on healthcare and energy access. The following indicators has been derived: the number of patients in a village monitored remotely, the number of persons having access to a mobile health clinic powered by a renewable energy source, the number of network routers powered by renewable energy to enable drone usage in a village, and the accessibility of a patient’s database by the village surgeon remotely due to reliable and accessible servers powered by a mixture of sustainable and renewable energy. The paper concludes that a sustainable, renewable energy mix acts as the enabling link that renders healthcare services in rural villages accessible to all.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12122, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066383

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the spatial accessibility of tourism attractions in the urban destination city. An analytical framework for assessing urban tourism accessibility at different spatial scales was proposed to provide references on the interaction of urban transport and tourism systems. In addition to the travel time-based measure, a modified gravity model integrating the tourism destination attractiveness, urban transport system characteristics, and tourist demand distribution was developed to evaluate tourism accessibility in this study. Real-time travel data obtained from the Web Maps service were used to take the actual road network operation conditions into consideration and improve the accuracy of estimation results. Taking Nanjing as an example, the analysis results revealed the spatial heterogeneity of tourism accessibility and inequality in tourism resource availability at different levels. Road transport service improvement plays a dominant role in increasing tourism accessibility in areas with insufficient tourism resources, such as the outskirts of the destination city. As for areas with abundant attractions, authorities could pay attention to destination attractiveness construction and demand management in addition to the organization and management of road network operations around attractions during holidays. The results of this study provide a potentially valuable source of information for urban tourism destination management and transport management departments.

18.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344346

ABSTRACT

Patient privacy has always been important, but the shift in virtual healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic brought about different challenges. This brief legal analysis focuses on the nationwide efforts to increase access to care in the pandemic while still protecting privacy.

19.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1607-1613, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown in the most compelling way the need to vaccinate socially vulnerable and minority groups of the population. Factors that make their ability to participate in medical care limited or not accessible at all, expose them to a higher risk of being infected and getting sick from COVID-19. One of these groups with high rates of morbidity and mortality are the Roma population. Their inclusion in vaccination programs is extremely important because it protects them as a vulnerable group, protects society as a whole, builds a protective shield against the risk of disease spreading, helps to decongest the health system and contributes to the acquisition of collective immunity. In order to achieve the vaccination goal, the collaboration of the state with the Public Health bodies as well as with the various stakeholders (Non-Governmental Organizations, municipalities, etc.) is deemed necessary. As regards the Roma population, the implementation of a vaccination program follows the five steps of the decision-making process. At a time when the pandemic highlighted as the first priority the strengthening of the public health system, special importance must be given to social cohesion and to equal accessibility to health care system for all, in order to protect the whole of society.

20.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e40011, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak highlighted the importance of rapid access to research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate research communication related to COVID-19, the level of openness of papers, and the main topics of research into this disease. METHODS: Open access (OA) uptake (typologies, license use) and the topic evolution of publications were analyzed from the start of the pandemic (January 1, 2020) until the end of a year of widespread lockdown (March 1, 2021). RESULTS: The sample included 95,605 publications; 94.1% were published in an OA form, 44% of which were published as Bronze OA. Among these OA publications, 42% do not have a license, which can limit the number of citations and thus the impact. Using a topic modeling approach, we found that articles in Hybrid and Green OA publications are more focused on patients and their effects, whereas the strategy to combat the pandemic adopted by different countries was the main topic of articles selecting publication via the Gold OA route. CONCLUSIONS: Although OA scientific production has increased, some weaknesses in OA practice, such as lack of licensing or under-researched topics, still hold back its effective use for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Publications
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