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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872095

ABSTRACT

Preclinical studies have shown that volatile anesthetics may have beneficial effects on injured lungs, and pilot clinical data support improved arterial oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and decreased lung epithelial injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving inhaled sevoflurane compared to intravenous midazolam. Whether sevoflurane is effective in improving clinical outcomes among patients with ARDS is unknown, and the benefits and risks of inhaled sedation in ARDS require further evaluation. Here, we describe the SESAR (Sevoflurane for Sedation in ARDS) trial designed to address this question. SESAR is a two-arm, investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, randomized, stratified, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment designed to test the efficacy of sedation with sevoflurane compared to intravenous propofol in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. The primary outcome is the number of days alive and off the ventilator at 28 days, considering death as a competing event, and the key secondary outcome is 90 day survival. The planned enrollment is 700 adult participants at 37 French academic and non-academic centers. Safety and long-term outcomes will be evaluated, and biomarker measurements will help better understand mechanisms of action. The trial is funded by the French Ministry of Health, the European Society of Anaesthesiology, and Sedana Medical.

2.
Perfusion ; : 2676591221096225, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A strategy that limits tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures, improves outcomes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) may facilitate ultra-protective ventilation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of venovenous ECCO2R in supporting ultra-protective ventilation in moderate-to-severe ARDS. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were interrogated for studies (2000-2021) reporting venovenous ECCO2R use in patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS. Studies reporting ≥10 adult patients in English language journals were included. Ventilatory parameters after 24 h of initiating ECCO2R, device characteristics, and safety outcomes were collected. The primary outcome measure was the change in driving pressure at 24 h of ECCO2R therapy in relation to baseline. Secondary outcomes included change in tidal volume, gas exchange, and safety data. RESULTS: Ten studies reporting 421 patients (PaO2:FiO2 141.03 mmHg) were included. Extracorporeal blood flow rates ranged from 0.35-1.5 L/min. Random effects modelling indicated a 3.56 cmH2O reduction (95%-CI: 3.22-3.91) in driving pressure from baseline (p < .001) and a 1.89 mL/kg (95%-CI: 1.75-2.02, p < .001) reduction in tidal volume. Oxygenation, respiratory rate and PEEP remained unchanged. No significant interactions between driving pressure reduction and baseline driving pressure, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide or PaO2:FiO2 ratio were identified in metaregression analysis. Bleeding and haemolysis were the commonest complications of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Venovenous ECCO2R permitted significant reductions in ∆P in patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS. Heterogeneity amongst studies and devices, a paucity of randomised controlled trials, and variable safety reporting calls for standardisation of outcome reporting. Prospective evaluation of optimal device operation and anticoagulation in high quality studies is required before further recommendations can be made.

3.
Mol Biomed ; 3(1): 6, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879280

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is a highly contagious microorganism, and despite substantial investigation, no progress has been achieved in treating post-COVID complications. However, the virus has made various mutations and has spread around the world. Researchers have tried different treatments to reduce the side effects of the COVID-19 symptoms. One of the most common and effective treatments now used is steroid therapy to reduce the complications of this disease. Long-term steroid therapy for chronic inflammation following COVID-19 is harmful and increases the risk of secondary infection, and effective treatment remains challenging owing to fibrosis and severe inflammation and infection. Sometimes our immune system can severely damage ourselves in disease. In the past, many researchers have conducted various studies on the immunomodulatory properties of stem cells. This property of stem cells led them to modulate the immune system of autoimmune diseases like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's. Because of their immunomodulatory properties, stem cell-based therapy employing mesenchymal or hematopoietic stem cells may be a viable alternative treatment option in some patients. By priming the immune system and providing cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, stem cells can be employed to build a long-term regenerative and protective response. This review addresses the latest trends and rapid progress in stem cell treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) following COVID-19.

4.
Microorganisms ; 10(5)2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put significant pressure on hospitals and in particular on intensive care units (ICU). Some patients develop acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with profound hypoxia, which likely requires invasive mechanical ventilation during prolonged periods. Corticosteroids have become a cornerstone therapy for patients with severe COVID-19, though only little data are available regarding their potential harms and benefits, especially concerning the risk of a ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection (VA-LRTI). METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included patients admitted in four ICUs from Belgium and France for severe COVID-19, who required invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). We compared clinical and demographic variables between patients that received corticosteroids or not, using univariate, multivariate, and Fine and Gray analyses to identify factors influencing VA-LRTI occurrence. RESULTS: From March 2020 to January 2021, 341 patients required MV for acute respiratory failure related to COVID-19, 322 of whom were included in the analysis, with 60.6% of them receiving corticosteroids. The proportion of VA-LRTI was significantly higher in the early corticosteroid group (63.1% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.011). Multivariable Fine and Gray modeling considering death and extubation as competing events revealed that the factors independently associated with VA-LRTI occurrence were male gender (adjusted sHR:1.7, p = 0.0022) and corticosteroids (adjusted sHR: 1.44, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: in our multicenter retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients undergoing MV, early corticosteroid therapy was independently associated with VA-LRTI.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875642

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an overactivated inflammatory response caused by direct or indirect injuries that destroy lung parenchymal cells and dramatically reduce lung function. Although some research progress has been made in recent years, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS remains unclear due to its heterogeneity and etiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small noncoding RNA, play a vital role in various diseases. In ALI/ARDS, miRNAs can regulate inflammatory and immune responses by targeting specific molecules. Regulation of miRNA expression can reduce damage and promote the recovery of ALI/ARDS. Consequently, miRNAs are considered as potential diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of ALI/ARDS. Given that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, we review the miRNAs involved in the inflammatory process of ALI/ARDS to provide new ideas for the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of ALI/ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics
6.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221101970, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with multiple programmed levels of positive end expiratory pressure (programmed multi-level ventilation; PMLV) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study from November 2020 to February 2021. PMLV was used with PCV in all patients with intensive care admission until improvement in oxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ≤0.50 and oxygen saturation [SpO2] >92%). The observed outcomes were improvement of hypoxemia, length of mechanical ventilation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) stability, and adverse events. RESULTS: Of 188 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-related ARDS, we analyzed 60 patients treated with PMLV. Hypoxemia improved in 55 (92%) patients, as measured by the change in partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 and SpO2/FiO2 ratios on day 3 versus day 1, and in 32 (66%) ventilated patients on day 7 versus day 3. The median (interquartile range) length of mechanical ventilation for survivors and non-survivors was 8.4 (4.7-14.9) and 6.7 (3.6-10.3) days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PMLV appears to be a safe and effective ventilation strategy for improving hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. Further studies are needed comparing the PMLV mode with the conventional ARDS ventilatory approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Perfusion ; : 2676591221105603, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has become a support modality for patients with acute respiratory failure refractory to standard therapies. VV ECMO has been increasingly used during the current COVID-19 pandemic for patients with refractory respiratory failure. The object of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of VV ECMO in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients with non-COVID-19 viral infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients supported with VV ECMO between 8/2014 and 8/2020 whose etiology of illness was a viral pulmonary infection. The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes included length of ECMO course, ventilator duration, hospital length of stay, incidence of adverse events through ECMO course. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were included (35 COVID-19 vs 54 non-COVID-19). Forty (74%) of the non-COVID-19 patients had influenza virus. Prior to cannulation, COVID-19 patients had longer ventilator duration (3 vs 1 day, p = .003), higher PaCO2 (64 vs 53 mmHg, p = .012), and white blood cell count (14 vs 9 ×103/µL, p = .004). Overall in-hospital mortality was 33.7% (n = 30). COVID-19 patients had a higher mortality (49% vs. 24%, p = .017) when compared to non-COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 survivors had longer median time on ECMO than non-COVID-19 survivors (24.4 vs 16.5 days p = .03) but had a similar hospital length of stay (HLOS) (41 vs 48 Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenationdays p = .33). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients supported with VV ECMO have a higher mortality than non-COVID-19 patients. While COVID-19 survivors had significantly longer VV ECMO runs than non-COVID-19 survivors, HLOS was similar. This data add to a growing body of literature supporting the use of ECMO for potentially reversible causes of respiratory failure.

8.
Perfusion ; : 2676591221103545, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874961

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has emerged as a valid supportive intervention for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In this report we describe the use of prolonged ECMO (77 days) to support a patient with COVID-19, ultimately resulting in lung recovery and discharge home. This report also emphasizes the value of physiotherapy in patients on ECMO and the importance of collaboration between ECMO programs and lung transplant teams in the care of these patients.

9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(11): 1290-1299, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874930

ABSTRACT

Rationale: GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) has emerged as a promising target against the hyperactive host immune response associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Objectives: We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of gimsilumab, an anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of hospitalized patients with elevated inflammatory markers and hypoxemia secondary to COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, BREATHE (Better Respiratory Education and Treatment Help Empower), at 21 locations in the United States. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive two doses of intravenous gimsilumab or placebo 1 week apart. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality rate at Day 43. Key secondary outcomes were ventilator-free survival rate, ventilator-free days, and time to hospital discharge. Enrollment was halted early for futility based on an interim analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Of the planned 270 patients, 225 were randomized and dosed; 44.9% of patients were Hispanic or Latino. The gimsilumab and placebo groups experienced an all-cause mortality rate at Day 43 of 28.3% and 23.2%, respectively (adjusted difference = 5% vs. placebo; 95% confidence interval [-6 to 17]; P = 0.377). Overall mortality rates at 24 weeks were similar across the treatment arms. The key secondary endpoints demonstrated no significant differences between groups. Despite the high background use of corticosteroids and anticoagulants, adverse events were generally balanced between treatment groups. Conclusions: Gimsilumab did not improve mortality or other key clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and evidence of systemic inflammation. The utility of anti-GM-CSF therapy for COVID-19 remains unclear. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04351243).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Inflammation
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874929

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Autopsy and biomarker studies suggest that endotheliopathy contributes to COVID-19-associated ARDS. However, the effects of COVID-19 on the lung endothelium are not well-defined. We hypothesized that the lung endotheliopathy of COVID-19 is caused by circulating host factors and direct endothelial infection by SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or sera from patients with COVID-19 on permeability and inflammatory activation of lung microvascular endothelial cells. Methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells were treated with live SARS-CoV-2, inactivated viral particles, or sera from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers. Permeability was determined by measuring transendothelial resistance to electrical current flow, where decreased resistance signifies increased permeability. Inflammatory mediators were quantified in culture supernatants. Endothelial biomarkers were quantified in patient sera. Measurements and Main Results: Viral PCR confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 enters and replicates in endothelial cells. Live SARS-CoV-2, but not dead virus or spike protein, induces endothelial permeability and secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. There was substantial variability in the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on endothelial cells from different donors. Sera from COVID-19 patients induced endothelial permeability, which correlated with disease severity. Serum levels of endothelial activation and injury biomarkers were increased in COVID-19 patients and correlated with severity of illness. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infects and dysregulates endothelial cell functions. Circulating factors in COVID-19 patients also induces endothelial cell dysfunction. Our data point to roles for both systemic factors acting on lung endothelial cells and viral infection of endothelial cells in COVID-19-associated endotheliopathy. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

11.
Arkh Patol ; 84(3): 5-13, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with COVID-19 has a worse prognosis than ARDS with other diseases. Mortality from ARDS with COVID-19 is 26.0 - 61.5%, and due to other causes - 35.3-37.2%. OBJECTIVE: To find of the correlation between polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), lymphocytes, and macrophages in the cellular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate at different stages and phases of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with COVID-19, analyzing the autopsy material. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The lung tissue of 25 patients who died from ARDS with COVID-19 without a secondary bacterial or mycotic infection, another thanatologically significant pathology of the lungs, was studied. To study the cellular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate and the dynamics of its changes a double immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of antibodies to CD15, CD3, and CD68 was used. RESULTS: The inflammatory infiltrate and intraalveolar exudate in the exudative phase of DAD was represented by 56.8% of PMNs (CD15-positive cells; hereinafter - the average value of the percentage of positive cells to the total number of cells of the inflammatory infiltrate), 6.9% - lymphocytes (CD3-positive cells) and 19.5% macrophages (CD68-positive cells). In the early stage of the proliferative phase: 14.1% PMNs, 38.7% lymphocytes and 13.5% macrophages. In the late stage of the proliferative phase: 11.3% PMNs, 14.5% lymphocytes and 39.3% macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the exudative phase of DAD a statistically significant predominance of PMN was revealed, which could determine the main volume of lung damage and the severity of ARDS with COVID-19. In the early stage of the proliferative phase of DAD, a statistically significant change in the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate was revealed to compare with the exudative phase: a significant decrease in the content of PMNs relative to the total number of cells in the inflammatory infiltrate; an increase in the number of lymphocytes, which is probably associated with the start of organization and repair processes. In the late stage of the proliferative phase of DAD, compared with its early stage, was revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of macrophages in ratio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Autopsy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology
12.
2022 International Conference on Communication, Computing and Internet of Things, IC3IoT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874259

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe form of asthma. SARS-COV 2 is a virus that is the cause of the COVID epidemic. SARS- COV 2 is mostly transmitted through the air inhalation of respiratory droplets ejected by infected people. People are in danger as a result of this developing COVID-19 and other diseases like OMICRON with symptoms that are similar to COVID, by the patterns of transmission. The continuous pandemic demonstrates the need for us to work together to avoid disaster. Elevators are a type of transportation that are used even in small enclosed areas with a number of settings, frequently transporting a large number of users in a short period of time. For Infection prevention and control elevators should be redesigned. Currently, manual procedures are used for cleaning and disinfecting elevator cabins, which takes a lot of time and effort. User compliance is necessary for elevator hygiene standards such as hand sanitization and mask utilization. The proposed method presents a UV-C light-based technology for disinfecting elevator cabins automatically. This could be accomplished in a manner that does not intervene with the ordinary operation of elevator, which is controlled by a microcontroller. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(5): e0694, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874014

ABSTRACT

To evaluate safety and clinical outcomes of extracorporeal immunomodulation treatment with a selective cytopheretic device (SCD) in COVID-19 ICU patients with multiple organ failure. DESIGN: Two-center, prospective, single-arm treatment clinical trial. SETTING: ICUs at two academic medical centers between September 2020 and July 2021. PATIENTS: Twenty-two COVID-10 patients in the ICU with acute respiratory distress syndrome who required mechanical ventilation. Nearly all included patients in the intervention group except one had acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Sixteen subjects meeting enrollment criteria were selected as contemporaneous controls from a concurrent prospective registry CRRT trial. INTERVENTION: Treatment with an SCD integrated into a continuous renal replacement extracorporeal blood circuit for up to 10 days to provide autologous leukocyte cell processing to immunomodulate the hyperinflammatory disease state of COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: SCD treatment in COVID-19 ICU patients with multiple organ failure demonstrated an acceptable safety profile with no device-related serious adverse events. Treatment of these patients resulted in the selective removal of highly activated circulating leukocytes as determined by flow cytometry. Significant reductions were observed in the elevated plasma levels of eight cytokines and biomarkers, including interleukin (IL)6, IL15, IL10, and soluble ST2, which are predictive of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Significant improvements of leukocytosis and Po2/Fio2 ratios occurred during treatment not observed in the control group. SCD-treated subjects had a reduction in 60-day mortality of 50% compared with 81% in the control cohort. The subjects who received greater than 96 hours of SCD treatment, per protocol, had a further reduction in mortality to 31% (p < 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal immunomodulation therapy with an SCD demonstrated safety without any device-related serious adverse events. As a rescue therapy in COVID-19 ICU patients progressing to multiple organ failure despite maximal pharmacologic and organ support interventions, SCD treatment resulted in improved clinical outcomes. This autologous leukocyte cell processing technology may provide a new approach in the treatment of unremitting hyperinflammation of COVID-19.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873928

ABSTRACT

The effects of dexamethasone (DXM) treatment on pulmonary immunity in COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) remain insufficiently understood. We performed transcriptomic RNA-seq analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 mechanically ventilated patients: 12 with CARDS (DXM+ or DXM-) and 8 non-COVID-19 critically ill controls. CARDS (+DXM) was characterized by upregulation of genes related to B-cell and complement pathway activation, antigen presentation, phagocytosis and FC-gamma receptor signalling. Most ISGs were upregulated in CARDS, particularly in CARDS (-DXM). In conclusion, DXM treatment was not associated with regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways in CARDS but with regulation of other local immune responses.

15.
Cytotherapy ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a massive release of inflammatory cytokines and high mortality. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory properties and have shown activity in treating acute lung injury. Here the authors report a case series of 11 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS (CARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation who were treated with remestemcel-L, an allogeneic MSC product, under individual patient emergency investigational new drug applications. METHODS: Patients were eligible if they were mechanically ventilated for less than 72 h prior to the first infusion. Patients with pre-existing lung disease requiring supplemental oxygen or severe liver or kidney injury were excluded. Each patient received two infusions of remestemcel-L at a dose of 2 million cells/kg per infusion given 48-120 h apart. RESULTS: Remestemcel-L infusions were well tolerated in all 11 patients. At the end of the 28-day follow-up period, 10 (91%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 59-100%) patients were extubated, nine (82%, 95% CI, 48-97%) patients remained liberated from mechanical ventilation and were discharged from the intensive care unit and two (18%, 95 CI%, 2-52%) patients died. The median time to extubation was 10 days. Eight (73%, 95% CI, 34-100%) patients were discharged from the hospital. C-reactive protein levels significantly declined within 5 days of MSC infusion. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrate in this case series that remestemcel-L infusions to treat moderate to severe CARDS were safe and well tolerated and resulted in improved clinical outcomes.

16.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(2): 365-377, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873066

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant mortality in the United States with more than 800,000 deaths in 2020 and 2021. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 who develop severe disease varies but is decreasing over time with growing population immunity and improved therapeutic options. Patients who are 65 years and older represent the largest proportion of deaths from COVID-19. Additional risk factors include immunosuppression and chronic medical conditions. Vaccination dramatically reduces the risk of severe COVID-19. Although critical illness from COVID-19 is mostly driven by respiratory disease, critical illness can manifest in several ways and affect several organ systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , United States , Vaccination
17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869737

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used in the management of respiratory viral infections. This study aimed to determine the effects of the most commonly used analgesics (paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) on the mRNA expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry and arachidonic-acid-metabolizing genes in mouse lungs. A total of twenty eight Balb/c mice were divided into four groups and treated separately with vehicle, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac in clinically equivalent doses for 14 days. Then, the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 entry, ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Ctsl genes, in addition to the arachidonic-acid-metabolizing cyp450, cox, and alox genes, were analyzed using real-time PCR. Paracetamol increased the expressions of TMPRSS2 and Ctsl genes by 8.5 and 5.6 folds, respectively, while ibuprofen and diclofenac significantly decreased the expression of the ACE2 gene by more than 2.5 folds. In addition, all tested drugs downregulated (p < 0.05) cox2 gene expression, and paracetamol reduced the mRNA levels of cyp4a12 and 2j5. These molecular alterations in diclofenac and ibuprofen were associated with pathohistological alterations, where both analgesics induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and airway wall thickening. It is concluded that analgesics such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac alter the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry and arachidonic-acid-metabolizing genes in mouse lungs.

18.
Pathophysiology ; 29(2): 233-242, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869731

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the identification of the patients admitted with severe infection-who are disposed to a high risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) development, is of a major significance for the determination of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. Laboratory records in admission were retrospectively reviewed from 493 cases of severe COVID-19 divided into two groups: Group 1 with ARDS and Group 2 without ARDS. The platelet distribution width (PDW) difference between Group 1 and Group 2 is significant-15.10 ± 2.08 fl for those who developed ARDS versus 12.94 ± 2.12 fl for those without ARDS. The sensitivity and the specificity of this parameter is lower than that of D-dimer. After grouping of the PDW values into intervals and combining them with the rate of increase in D-dimer (D-PDWf index) to form a forecasting index, a significant increase in the specificity and sensitivity of the two parameters is identified-area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.874 for D-PDWf index, with respective AUC for PDW 0.768 and AUC for D-dimer 0.777. Conclusion: PDW is a significant predictive parameter at admission for subsequent development of ARDS in patients, with increased significance in combination with the degree of increase in D-dimer.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869538

ABSTRACT

Few studies have reported on the effectiveness of awake prone therapy in the clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of awake prone therapy during spontaneous breathing on the improvement of oxygenation over 3 weeks for COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. Data of consecutive COVID-19 patients with lung disorder with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) ≥ 0.4 and without tracheal intubation were analyzed. We examined changes in SpO2/FIO2, ROX index ((SpO2/FIO2)/respiratory rate) and the seven-category ordinal scale after the initiation of FIO2 ≥ 0.4 and compared these changes between patients who did and did not receive prone therapy. Of 58 patients, 27 received awake prone therapy, while 31 did not. Trend relationships between time course and change in SpO2/FIO2 and ROX index were observed in both groups, although a significant interaction in the relationship was noted between prone therapy and change in SpO2/FIO2 and ROX index. The seven-category ordinal scale also revealed a trend relationship with time course in the prone therapy group. The awake prone therapy was significantly associated with a lower rate of tracheal intubation. In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia treated with FIO2 ≥ 0.4, awake prone therapy may improve oxygenation within two weeks.

20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 49: 101473, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867082

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term prognosis of COVID-19 survivors remains poorly understood. It is evidenced that the lung is the main damaged organ in COVID-19 survivors, most notably in impairment of pulmonary diffusion function. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of the potential risk factors for impaired diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in convalescent COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid databases for relevant studies from inception until January 7, 2022, limited to papers involving human subjects. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. Fix-effects and random-effects models were used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. The publication bias was assessed using the Egger's test. PROSPERO registration: CRD42021265377. Findings: A total of eighteen qualified articles were identified and included in the systematic review, and twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our results showed that female (OR: 4.011; 95% CI: 2.928-5.495), altered chest computerized tomography (CT) (OR: 3.002; 95% CI: 1.319-6.835), age (OR: 1.018; 95% CI: 1.007-1.030), higher D-dimer levels (OR: 1.012; 95% CI: 1.001-1.023) and urea nitrogen (OR: 1.004;95% CI: 1.002-1.007) were identified as risk factors for impaired DLCO. Interpretation: Pulmonary diffusion capacity was the most common impaired lung function in recovered patients with COVID-19. Several risk factors, such as female, altered chest CT, older age, higher D-dimer levels and urea nitrogen are associated with impairment of DLCO. Raising awareness and implementing interventions for possible modifiable risk factors may be valuable for pulmonary rehabilitation. Funding: This work was financially supported by Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory (EKPG21-29, EKPG21-31), Incubation Program of National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars by Guangzhou Medical University (GMU2020-207).

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