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1.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(10): 1101-1108, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We attempted to investigate the change in mortality of intubated patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from first to subsequent waves across several countries. METHODS: We pre-registered our meta-analysis with PROSPERO [Anonymized]. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and gray literature for observational studies reporting data on all-cause mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 recruited both during first and subsequent waves of the pandemic. We considered studies published after 31 August 2020 up to 12 July 2021. The primary outcome of the meta-analysis was all-cause mortality. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: By incorporating data of 363,660 patients from 43 countries included in 28 studies, we found that all-cause mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 increased from first to subsequent waves (from 62.2% to 72.6%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94, p < 0.00001). This finding was independent of the geo-economic variation of the included studies and persisted in several pre-specified subgroup and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The robust finding of this meta-analysis suggests that mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 did not improve over time. Future research should target this group of patients to further optimize their management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(11):1196-1201, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100193

ABSTRACT

Background: Of the factors influencing severity and outcomes following coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), cellular immune response has a strong impact. The spectrum of response varies from over-activation to hypo-functioning. The severe infection leads to reduction in numbers and dysfunction of T-lymphocytes/subsets. Patients and Methods: This retrospective, single-center study aimed to analyze the expression of T-lymphocyte/subsets by flow cytometry and inflammation-related biomarker, serum ferritin in real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive patients. According to oxygen requirements, patients were stratified into nonsevere (room air, nasal prongs, and face mask) and severe [nonrebreather mask (NRBM), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO), and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)] subgroups for analysis. Patients were classified into survivors and nonsurvivors. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences in T-lymphocyte and subset values when classified according to gender, the severity of COVID, outcome, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Cross tabulations were computed for categorical data and compared using Fisher's exact test. Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation of T-lymphocyte and subset values with age or serum ferritin levels. p <0.05 values were considered to be statistically significant. Result(s): A total of 379 patients were analyzed. Significantly higher percentage of patients with DM were aged >=61 years in both nonsevere and severe COVID groups. A significant negative correlation of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ was found with age. CD3+ and CD4+ absolute counts were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Patients with severe COVID had significantly lesser total lymphocyte (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts as compared to those with nonsevere COVID (p <0.05). T-lymphocyte subsets were reduced in patients with severe disease. A significant negative correlation of total lymphocyte (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts was found with serum ferritin levels. Conclusion(s): T-lymphocyte/subset trends are an independent risk factor for clinical prognosis. Monitoring may help in intervening in patients with disease progression. Copyright © The Author(s). 2022.

3.
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo ; 22:S1-S10, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094965

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The inclusion of non-invasive ventilatory support systems in the management of ARDS in adults during the current pandemic, has been a lifeline given the lack of resources in the current international health situation. Systems such as the high flow nasal cannula have proven not to be just a temporary ventilatory system while awaiting invasive mechanical ventilation, on the contrary it has been shown that the high flow nasal cannula is an effective therapy tool in ARDS. Objective: To provide an easy guideline for the management of high-flow cannulas in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia due to ATS criteria secondary to SARS COV2-COVID 19. Materials and methods: This is a prospective, single-centre observational study, including 59 patients, all with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia between January and April 2021. The patients were initially managed in an intermediate care unit with high nasal cannula flow (HFNC). Results: We were able to show that there is a statistically significant correlation between age > 65 years and respiratory rate ≥28 and mortality;likewise, between age > 50 years, NEWS > 6 and again a respiratory rate ≥28 with treatment failure. Conclusions: HFNC in respiratory failure related to coronavirus disease 2019 should become a viable management alternative, particularly in settings with limited access to intensive care unit resources, taking the indications into account and recognizing that a high percentage of patients who receive it can be successfully weaned without the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. © 2022 Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Crítica y Cuidado lntensivo

4.
Deutsches Arzteblatt International ; 119(4):A134, 2022.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2093016
5.
Can J Respir Ther ; 58: 151-154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091556

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) is a simple method that can reduce intubation in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF). Early and prolonged prone position has demonstrated benefits on mortality in mechanically ventilated patients and on intubation in awake patients with ARF. However, strategies to achieve adherence to awake prone positioning (APP) have not been previously described. Case and outcomes: We present six patients with ARF due to COVID-19 treated with HFNO and APP. The median (p25-75) of PaFiO2 upon admission was 121 (112-175). The average duration of APP on the first day was 16 h (SD 5 h). Duration (median p25-75) in APP for the following 20 days was 13 (10-18) h/day. Several strategies such as the presence of a health care team, recreational activities, adaptation of the circadian rhythm, oral nutritional support, and analgesics were used to improve prone tolerance. None of the patients suffered from delirium, all were ambulating on discharge from the ICU and none require intubation. Conclusion: The case series presented show the feasibility of prolonged use of HFNO and APP in patients with COVID-19 and severe persistent hypoxemia and described strategies to enhance adherence.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1023229, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080188

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective strategies for managing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients suffering from acute respiratory distress are constantly evolving. The timeline and threshold for transitioning from non-invasive ventilation to intermittent mandatory ventilation in critical cases who develop COVID-19-related respiratory distress are undetermined. The present research intends to investigate if emergency room intubations in COVID-19 patients affect mortality. Methods: Between January 1, 2021 and June 30, 2021, we retrospectively reviewed chart analysis on all patients with confirmed positive COVID-19 screening and who underwent endotracheal intubation. Depending on when the intubation was performed; early in the emergency room or delayed outside the emergency room, patients were separated into two cohorts. In addition to comorbid clinical manifestations, the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score, and in-hospital mortality were all recorded as demographic and clinical information. Results: Fifty-eight of the 224 corona-positive patients who underwent intubation had their intubations performed in the emergency room. Age, sex, alcohol use, and smoking status did not significantly differ between the two categories at the baseline. The mean qSOFA score was higher in the early intubation cohort (3.5; p < 0.000) along with more underlying comorbidities (3.0; p < 0.000). When compared to the late intubation cohort (45.78%), patients treated with early intubation had a significantly greater death rate (67.24%). Conclusion: In summary, we discovered that patients who underwent intubation in the emergency units exhibited a high quick SOFA score as well as maximum co-morbid conditions than patients intubated somewhere else in the hospital. The findings of our investigation imply that intubating patients too early might be risky.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071534

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: In COVID-19 patients, the occurrence of thromboembolic complications contributes to disease progression and mortality. In patients at increased risk for thrombotic complications, therapeutic enoxaparin should be considered. However, critically ill COVID-19 patients could develop resistance to enoxaparin. Bivalirudin, a thrombin inhibitor, may be an alternative. This pilot multicenter randomized controlled trial aims to ascertain if bivalirudin may reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation, as compared to enoxaparin. (2) Methods: Intubated COVID-19 patients at risk for thrombo-embolic complications were randomized to receive therapeutic doses of enoxaparin or bivalirudin. We ascertained the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation during the first 28 days from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A standardized weaning protocol was implemented in all centers. In addition, we assessed the occurrence of thromboembolic complications, the number of patients requiring percutaneous tracheostomy, the gas exchange, the reintubation rate, the ICU length of stay, the ICU and 28-days mortalities. (3) Results: We enrolled 58 consecutive patients. Bivalirudin did not reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to enoxaparin (12 [8; 13] vs. 13 [10; 15] days, respectively; p = 0.078). Thrombotic (p = 0.056) and embolic (p = 0.423) complications, need for tracheostomy (p = 0.423) or reintubation (p = 0.999), the ICU length of stay (p = 0.076) and mortality (p = 0.777) were also similar between treatments. Patients randomized to bivalirudin showed a higher oxygenation at day 7 and 15 after randomization, when compared to enoxaparin group. (4) Conclusions: In intubated COVID-19 patients at increased risk for thromboembolic complications, bivalirudin did not reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation, nor improved any other clinical outcomes.

8.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1159-1160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066997
9.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: LUS is a validated tool for the management of COVID-19 pneumonia. Chair positioning (CP) may have beneficial effects on oxygenation and lung aeration, and may be an easier alternative to PP. This study assessed the effects of a CP session on oxygenation and lung aeration (LA) changes in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study was conducted in an ICU. We analyzed data from LUS exams and SpO2:FiO2 performed before/after a CP session in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. Patients were divided into groups of responders or non-responders in terms of oxygenation or LA. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included in the study; fourteen (44%) were oxygenation non-responders and eighteen (56%) were oxygenation responders, while thirteen (40.6%) and nineteen (59.4%) patients were classified as LA non-responders and responders, respectively. Changes in oxygenation and LA before/after a CP session were not correlated (r = -0.19, p = 0.3, 95% CI: -0.5-0.17). The reaeration scores did not differ between oxygenation responders and non-responders (1 (-0.75-3.75) vs. 4 (-1-6), p = 0.41). The LUS score was significantly correlated with SpO2:FiO2 before a CP session (r = 0.37, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.03-0.64) but not after (r = 0.17, p = 0.35, 95% CI: -0.19-0.50). CONCLUSION: A CP session was associated with improved oxygenation and LA in more than half of the non-intubated COVID-19 patients.

10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 70, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and nasal (ΔPnos) as a potential measure of inspiratory effort in spontaneously breathing patients with de novo ARF. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to September 1, 2021, 61 consecutive patients with ARF (83.6% related to COVID-19) admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) and candidate to escalation of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) were enrolled. Clinical features and tidal changes in esophageal and nasal pressure were recorded on admission and 24 h after starting NRS. Correlation between ΔPes and ΔPnos served as primary outcome. The effect of ΔPnos measurements on respiratory rate and ΔPes was also assessed. RESULTS: ΔPes and ΔPnos were strongly correlated at admission (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and 24 h apart (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). The nasal plug insertion and the mouth closure required for ΔPnos measurement did not result in significant change of respiratory rate and ΔPes. The correlation between measures at 24 h remained significant even after splitting the study population according to the type of NRS (high-flow nasal cannulas [R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001] or non-invasive ventilation [R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ARF, nasal pressure swings did not alter respiratory mechanics in the short term and were highly correlated with esophageal pressure swings during spontaneous tidal breathing. ΔPnos might warrant further investigation as a measure of inspiratory effort in patients with ARF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03826797 . Registered October 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
11.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 263, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Crescent cannula adhesion in the setting of COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is a novel complication. The objective of this case presentation is to highlight this rare complication and to explore potential predisposing factors and our management strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 25 y.o. patient with COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring ECMO support for 16-days in which a 32 Fr crescent cannula became adherent to the SVC and proximal jugular vein. Attempts to remove the cannula at the bedside failed due to immobility of the cannula. Ultrasound of the right neck was unremarkable, so he was taken to the hybrid OR where both TEE and fluoroscopy were unrevealing. An upper sternotomy was performed, and the superior vena cava and proximal jugular vein were dissected revealing a 2 cm segment of the distal SVC and proximal jugular vein that was densely sclerosed and adherent to the cannula. The vessel was opened across the adherent area at the level of the innominate vein and the cannula was then able to be withdrawn. The patient suffered no ill effects and had an unremarkable recovery to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there have been no reports of crescent cannula adhesion related complications. In patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring ECMO, clinicians should be aware of widespread hypercoagulability and the potential of unprovoked, localized venous sclerosis and cannula adhesion. We report our technique of decannulation in the setting of cannula adhesion and hope that presentation will shed further light on this complication allowing clinicians to optimize patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Vena Cava, Superior
12.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1110, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063405

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Kidney transplantation has become the optimal treatment for end stage renal disease (ESRD), allowing dialysis free survival. Despite widespread availability of transplant programs;rural patients have limited access to transplantation due to several barriers including increased travel time and financial burden. We report outcomes after establishment of a kidney transplant program serving rural West Virginia. Method(s): A retrospective review of the first 15 kidney transplants performed at a newly established Appalachian transplant program was conducted. Primary outcomes measured were graft survival and function. Other outcomes included graft rejection, patient survival and complications. Data related to patient demographics, etiology of ESRD, type of renal replacement therapy, time on transplant waitlist and average travel to transplant center were also collected. Result(s): The first 15 kidneys transplanted had an overall death censored graft survival rate of 100%. Median patient age was 53 (Range 31- 73 years) and a median follow-up of 6 months (Range 1-13 months). The average time on dialysis for this cohort was 4 years (n=13, Range 1-6 years) and average time on waitlist was 4.06 months (Range 0.4-13.2 months). The most common type of dialysis was hemodialysis (77%) followed by peritoneal dialysis (15%). Two patients were predialysis. Diabetes with hypertension (20%), IgA nephropathy (13%) and diabetes without hypertension (13%) were the most common causes of ESRD. Median graft creatinine was 1.51 mg/dL (Range 1.26 - 1.83 mg/dL) with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 51.38 (Range 41.86-70) at one year. One patient developed acute antibody mediated rejection and one developed borderline T cell mediated rejection (13.3%), which were successfully treated with steroids, plasmapheresis and immune globulin therapy. Two patients died (13.3 %);one from acute respiratory failure following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and one from cardiac arrest secondary to myocarditis (possible COVID-19). Patients experienced COVID-19 infection at a rate of 13.3 %. The average distance patients had to travel was 94 miles (Range 12 - 164 miles) with a travel time of 1 hour and 52 minutes on average (Range 20 minutes - 2.5 hours) to reach the transplant center. Conclusion(s): We report comparable outcomes from our new rural transplant program despite several barriers to delivery of quality care to our population.

13.
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care ; 6(2):103-107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062347

ABSTRACT

Introduction Respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is well established and its popularity has increased during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) time. The efficacy of ECMO has been proved in refractory respiratory failure with varied etiology. More than 85,000 respiratory ECMO cases (neonatal, pediatric, adult) registered as per Extracorporeal Life support Organization (ELSO) statistics April 2022 report, with survived to discharge or transfer ranging from 58 to 73%. Early initiation of ECMO is usually associated with shorter ECMO run and better outcome. Many patient factors have been associated with mortality while on ECMO. Pre-ECMO patient pH and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (paCO2) have been associated with poor outcome. We designed a retrospective study from a single tertiary care center and analyzed our data of all respiratory ECMO (neonatal, pediatric, and adult) to understand the effect of pre ECMO, paCO2, and arterial pH to ECMO outcome. Methods It is a retrospective analysis of data collected of patients with acute respiratory failure managed on ECMO from January 2010 to December 2021. Pre-ECMO (1-6 hours before initiation), paCO2, and arterial pH level were noted and analyzed with primary and secondary outcome. Primary outcome goal was survivor and discharged home versus nonsurvivor, while secondary goal was the number of ECMO days and incidence of neurological complications. The statistical analysis was done for primary outcome and incidences of neurological complications and p-value obtained by using chi-squared method. Meta-analysis was done by classifying the respiratory ECMO cases in three major category-COVID-19, H1N1 non-COVID-19, and H1N1 respiratory failure. Results The total 256 patients of respiratory failure were treated with ECMO during specified period by Riddhi Vinayak Multispecialty Hospital ECMO team. Data analysis of 251 patients (5 patients were transferred for lung transplant, hence been not included in study) done. Patients were divided on the basis of pH level less than 7.2 and more than 7.2 and analyzed for primary and secondary outcome. Similarly, patients were divided on the basis of paCO2 level of less than 45 and more than 45. Patient with pre-ECMO pH level more than 7.2 has statistically better survived extracorporeal life support (ECLS) (p-value: 0.008) and survival to discharge home (p-value: 0.038) chances. Pre-ECMO paCO2 level of less than 45 also showed better survival chance of survived ECLS (46.67 vs. 36.02) and survived to discharge home (42.22 vs. 31.06) but not statistically significant (p-value: 0.15 and 0.18, respectively). There was no significant difference in average number of ECMO days in patient survived to discharge home with paCO2 less than 45 and more than 45 (15.7 vs. 11.1 days), and also in pH more than 7.2 and pH less than 7.2 (15.8 vs. 11.6). The incidence of neurological complications was also found lower in patient with pH more than 7.2 (7.5 vs. 17.3%, p-value: 0.034) and in paCO2 level of less than 45 (4.4 vs. 12.65, p-value: 0.15). Conclusion Pre-ECMO arterial pH of more than 7.2 (statistically significant) and paCO2 of less than 45 (statistically not significant) have definitely better survival chances and have lesser incidences of neurological complications. There was no significance difference in the number of ECMO days in either group. Authors recommends early initiation of ECMO for mortality and morbidity benefits.

14.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061578

ABSTRACT

Although standard oxygen face masks are first-line therapy for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy has gained major popularity in intensive care units. The physiological effects of high-flow oxygen counterbalance the physiological consequences of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure by lessening the deleterious effects of intense and prolonged inspiratory efforts generated by patients. Its simplicity of application for physicians and nurses and its comfort for patients are other arguments for its use in this setting. Although clinical studies have reported a decreased risk of intubation with high-flow oxygen compared with standard oxygen, its survival benefit is uncertain. A more precise definition of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, including a classification of severity based on oxygenation levels, is needed to better compare the efficiencies of different non-invasive oxygenation support methods (standard oxygen, high-flow oxygen, and non-invasive ventilation). Additionally, the respective role of each non-invasive oxygenation support method needs to be established through further clinical trials in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, especially in severe forms.

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2245, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060918

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Disease with Diffuse Lung Symptoms Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) is a rare and potentially fatal manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM) and has considerable impact in terms of the prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old male demonstrated DM-typical rash, fever, mialgias, and mild muscle weakness 3 months after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Two weeks later dysphonia and progressive dyspnea appeared. Lung CT scan showed the picture of organizing pneumonia. His COVID-19 PCR test was negative multiple times. Laboratory tests revealed the following numbers: ALT 210 IU/L, AST 748 IU/L, LDH 613 IU/L, CPK 1165 IU/L, ferritin 1145ϻg/l, CRB 11 mg/l. The patient was tested positive for anti-Ro52 antibodies, while anti-synthetase and scleroderma-associated antibodies were not discovered. Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) test was not available due to the lack of the necessary test systems in the country. The patient was diagnosed with DM. Combined immunosuppressive therapy was administered, including: oral prednisolone 60 mg per day and 720 mg intravenously, dexamethasone 64-24 mg intravenously per diem, ciclosporin 200 mg и cyclophosphamide 600 mg, and 3 plasmapheresis sessions followed by an intravenous immunoglobulin. As a result of the therapy, muscle weakness disappeared and CPK levels returned to normal limits, however dyspnea progressed and ferritin levels hit 3500ϻg/l. After the following 3 weeks of intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy, the patient demonstrated symptoms of severe respiratory failure (RF). CT scan showed multiple traction bronchiectasis, wide areas of ground glass opacity, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of a neck and supraclavicular regions. Ciclosporin was replaced with tofacitinib with the dose of 10 mg per diem, IL-6 inhibitor (olokizumab 256 mg) was injected intravenously, massive broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was administered. RF progressed and the patient was put on mechanical ventilation. The patient died of acute RF and sepsis a week later. DISCUSSION: RP-ILD is a common manifestation of severe MDA5+ DM, which is also associated with necrotizing vasculitis and amyopathic/hypomyopathic muscle involvement. In this case acute ILD in a patient with typical DM could also have been provoked by previous COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The courses of disease for COVID-19 and MDA5+ DM have several similarities, which means it can be the same for their pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. In spite of early screening and intensive immunosuppressive therapy in such cases, the prognosis of patients with DM and RP-ILD is still poor and is associated with high mortality. Reference #1: Wang G, Wang Q, Wang Y, et al. Presence of Anti-MDA5 Antibody and Its Value for the Clinical Assessment in Patients With COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec 20;12:791348. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.791348. PMID: 34987516;PMCID: PMC8720853. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Lidia Ananyeva No relevant relationships by Maria Aristova No relevant relationships by Liudmila Garzanova No relevant relationships by Anna Khelkovskaya-Sergeeva No relevant relationships by Dmitry Kulikovsky

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A1323, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060806

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Respiratory Care: Oxygen, Rehabilitation, and Inhalers SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: INTRODUCTION: Oxygen is life saving if administered properly. Low and middle income countries recently faced a acute oxygen shortage during covid surge. We aim to study the oxygen requirement and its administration in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring oxygen therapy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the oxygen requirement and its utilization in patients with acute respiratory failure 2. To study the effectiveness of oxygen saving protocols and its impact on healthcare delivery METHODS: Sample size: 50 patients with acute respiratory failure INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Patients aged 20 years and above 2. Patients with acute respiratory failure 3. Patients requiring oxygen EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1.Patients unable to consent 2.Patients requiring NIV 3.Patients with poisoning METHODOLOGY: We developed a protocol according to which ROX index of each patient was calculated and suitable interface like nasal prongs, face mask, NRB mask etc were used. Oxygenation was delivered with the target oxygen saturation of 92% and above. Also the oxygen delivery system was checked for potential leakage. RESULTS: 1. 80% of the oxygen delivery lines had a minute leakage and were a source of oxygen wastage 2. 92% patients just removed the oxygen mask for drinking water, eating, etc without turning off the valve 3. Night nursing staff was a bit careless and never cared to check for oxygen leakage from mask in night shifts. It accounted for approximately 24% of total leakage per patient 4. 56% of patients were not aware of proper usage of nasal prongs 5. Unavailability of liquid oxygen storage facilities in hospitals was a cause of delayed supply of oxygen during the crises CONCLUSIONS: Liquid medical oxygen is a life saving in patients of acute respiratory failure. However proper supply, storage facilities and usage protocols have to be followed rigorously to avoid acute shortages. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Oxygen if used properly is a live saving measure in patients of respiratory failure. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sarang Patil

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A1117, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060772

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: SESSION TYPE: PRESENTED ON: PURPOSE: Critical Care Medicine (CCM) patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) but receiving ongoing care in the Emergency Department (ED) while awaiting an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) bed has been a growing area of concern. This has occurred more frequently during the COVID-19 global pandemic and resultant surge conditions at many hospitals. METHODS: This project presents a retrospective chart review and analysis, inclusive of 455 patients admitted to the medical ICU but receiving initial care while in the ED at Cleveland Clinic Akron General between October 1st 2020 and January 1st 2022. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare the association of boarding time (in total minutes after CCM assumed care,) ICU length of stay, and total ventilator days. Logistical regression analysis was used to investigate the association between boarding time and in-hospital mortality. Patients were further stratified into a subset of those with a diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) in the setting of COVID-19 positivity. RESULTS: The total number of patients admitted under the ICU service was 454 (n=454). The total number of patients in a subset with ARF in the setting of COVID-19 positivity was 275 (n=275). Median age was 62.8 +/- 16.9 years. Mean ED boarding time was 462 +/- 1108 minutes. There was a statistically significant association between boarding time and ICU length of stay and boarding time and ventilator days. Linear regression analysis showed the variance between the ED boarding time and length of stay to be 0.024% (p-value 0.0116) and with ventilator days to be 0.023% (p-value 0.0401). Logistical regression analysis investigating an association between boarding time and in-hospital mortality did not reveal any significant relationship between these two variables. For the sub-group of ARF and COVID-19 positivity, there were no statistically significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: The overall impact of boarding time on ICU length of stay and in-hospital mortality was rather small, yet statistically significant: for every one additional minute of boarding time, ICU length of stay increased by 0.024% and ventilator days increased by 0.023%. Forthcoming analysis will stratify patients based on acuity and risk-adjustment metrics, in order to further eliminate confounding factors which may influence boarding time. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The question of ED-CCM boarding is worthy of further examination in the setting of new and increased demands and strain on the national Critical Care Medicine infrastructure, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This project aims to characterize the problem further and explore associated outcomes. This may provide the basis for further investigations, or targeted interventions, around the issue of EM-CCM boarding. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Amit Diwakar No relevant relationships by Zachary Jerusalem No relevant relationships by Palak Rath No relevant relationships by Sterling Shriber

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A978-A979, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060744

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Management of COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), typically veno-venous, is used to treat COVID19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is associated with decreased mortality in some reports. This study sought to determine the effect of ECMO versus conventional invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on hospital mortality for ARDS due to COVID19, and to compare functional status at discharge. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of adult patients admitted for COVID19 within a large US hospital network between March 1, 2020 and October 31, 2021. Patients were included if they required IMV with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of at least 80% or VV ECMO. Patients were excluded if they were not independent, had a history of severe neurologic impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic systolic heart failure, end stage renal disease, cirrhosis, metastatic malignancy, or a length of stay <24 hours. ECMO criteria and management were at the discretion of the treating center. Conventional IMV patients were assigned a randomized pseudo-baseline, and coarsened exact matching was used to match ECMO to conventional IMV patients based on age, sex, body mass index, pre-baseline severity of hypoxemia, prone positioning, receipt of corticosteroids, Tocilizumab, Baricitinib, acute renal replacement therapy, and vasopressors. Differences in hospital mortality and discharge destination were assessed through weighted logistic regression and weighted multinomial logit regression, respectively. RESULTS: We identified 207,965 patients across 168 hospitals for review, and 10,571 patients met study criteria. After matching, 275 ECMO patients and 5,808 conventional IMV patients were available for comparison. ECMO was associated with a significant mortality reduction, 36% versus 61% (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.57). Compared to conventional IMV survivors, ECMO survivors were significantly more likely to be discharged to acute rehabilitation than long term acute care (relative risk ratio (RRR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.16-4.32). ECMO survivors were also significantly more likely to be discharged to another acute care hospital for further management (RRR 3.21, 95% CI 1.75-5.92). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ECMO support is significantly associated with reduced mortality in patients with severe ARDS due to COVID19 compared to conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies are needed to aid in prognostication, patient selection, and timing of intervention to maximize the benefit of this limited resource. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings illustrate the importance of timely referral to an ECMO center for severely ill COVID19 patients, and may influence ECMO-capable centers to expand the use of ECMO in appropriate patients for this indication. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Elliott Cohen No relevant relationships by Katherine Cyr No relevant relationships by Jeffrey DellaVolpe No relevant relationships by Jamie Jarzembowski No relevant relationships by Chandra Kunavarapu no disclosure on file for Thomas Mcrae;Employee relationship with HCA Healthcare Please note: 6/1/2017 to current Added 04/04/2022 by Daniel Schlauch, value=Salary No relevant relationships by Owen Stell No relevant relationships by sage whitmore

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A674-A675, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060664

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Management of COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: To compare the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAI) in patients treated with systemic corticosteroids (dexamethasone or equivalent alternative corticosteroid) with high (> 10 mg/day) vs low (6 mg/day) dose for COVID-19 related acute hypoxemic failure METHODS: Observational cohort study of COVID-19 patients from July 25 and Oct 1, 2021 at a tertiary care hospital. 227 hospitalized patients were positive for COVID-19. 168 patients were included in the analysis. Corticosteroid type and dose was analyzed. Comparison of high vs low dose cohorts was done. Primary outcome measure was incidence of HAI in each group. Bloodstream Infections (BSI), Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) were included. Secondary measures were number of patients requiring intubation, length of ICU stay and inpatient mortality. Descriptive statistics were used to compare variables between cohorts including body mass index (BMI), severity of illness (SOFA and modified SOFA scores) and glucose control RESULTS: Of 168 patients: 68 (40%) received high dose (> 10 mg dexamethasone) & 100 patients (60%) received low dose (6 mg dexamethasone) corticosteroids. High vs Low dose: Demographics: Age (57 vs. 64 years;p 0.21), sex (51% vs. 57% female;p 0.77) & chronic comorbidities including BMI (29.2 vs 33.1;p 0.45). Severity of illness scores at day of corticosteroid use were similar (SOFA 4.7 vs 4.1;p 0.71 & mSOFA 2.6 vs 2.3;p 0.07) despite difference in rates of patients that required intubation (56% vs 18%;p<0.001). 45% of intubated died in high dose compared to 18% in low dose group. Overall mortality was 29.4% vs 11%;p 0.011. Glucose control (insulin > 50 u/day) was worse in high dose group (35% vs 14%;p<0.01). Baricitinib or tocilizumab used in 60% vs 44% of intubated;p0.62). HAI data: BSI- High dose 18/68 (26.5 %) vs low dose group 13/10 (13%);p 0.07. UTI-High dose 4/68 (6%) vs low dose group 5/100 (5%);p 1.00. HAP-High dose 27/68 (39.7%) vs low dose group 11/100 (11%);p <0.001. High dose group HAP > 1 organism: 15/27 (MSSA 44%, Aspergillus 18%, MRSA 18%, Streptococcus 26%, Pseudomonas 18%, rest were Enterobacter, H Influenzae, Acinetobacter, Serratia, E coli, Klebsiella, Providencia and Citrobacter species at 3% each). Low dose group HAP > 1 organism: 2/11 (Streptococcus 36%, MSSA 27%, H Influenzae 18%, rest were pseudomonas, E coli, stenotrophomonas and acinetobacter species) CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, high dose dexamethasone use was associated with significantly higher HAP rates compared to low dose dexamethasone. Moreover the high dose group had higher BSI, worse glucose control, higher intubations and deaths in the intubated cohort despite similar severity of illness in either group CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: High dose dexamethasone may increase susceptibility to HAIs and negatively impact outcomes in COVID-19 associated hypoxemic failure DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Beenish Bhutta No relevant relationships by Rosalyn Chi No relevant relationships by Jason Graf No relevant relationships by mohsin iqbal No relevant relationships by Rajat Kapoor No relevant relationships by Rachel Kruer No relevant relationships by Connor Parker No relevant relationships by Omar Rahman No relevant relationships by James Skinner

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A585, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060637

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare cause of acute respiratory failure. AEP has been reported in association with smoking, drugs, and infections. Very few reports of AEP accompanied by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exist in current literature. Here we describe a case of AEP in association with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old female, non-smoker, with no medical history presented to the emergency room with fever, cough, and shortness of breath for 10 days. She received two doses of vaccine against COVID-19. Her vital signs were notable for oxygen saturation of 56% on room air and respiratory rate of 35 breaths per minute. Her physical exam was notable for distress, tachypnea, and diffuse rhonchi on lung auscultation. Her chest x-ray showed multifocal bilateral peripheral and basilar airspace opacities. A respiratory pathogen panel detected SARS-CoV-2. She was admitted to the medical intensive care unit and suffered worsening acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring intubation. She was treated with dexamethasone 6mg for a 10-day course with gradually decreasing oxygen requirements, and she underwent tracheostomy on hospital day 11. Despite this, she continued to deteriorate clinically. Review of laboratory results showed significant eosinophilia of 15.6% on her complete blood count upon withdrawal of steroids. A CTA scan of the chest showed no evidence of pulmonary embolic disease and demonstrated bilateral extensive dense consolidations. A diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected. Fungal cultures and stool ova and parasites were negative. She was started on methylprednisolone 1mg/kg and a bronchoscopy was performed with bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) samples showing 4% eosinophils despite high dose steroid therapy. She was continued on high dose steroids with rapid improvement in her oxygen requirements. DISCUSSION: AEP is an acute febrile illness that can lead to acute respiratory failure. The presence of dense infiltrates in the early stages of COVID-19 and elevated inflammatory markers and reticence to perform bronchoscopy can delay making a diagnosis of AEP in a patient diagnosed with COVID19. The diagnostic hallmark of AEP is the detection of > 25% eosinophils in BAL samples. While this patient did not meet that criterion, she received high dose corticosteroids which may have suppressed pulmonary eosinophilia. A high index of suspicion for AEP should be maintained in patients with COVID-19 with evidence of eosinophilia and clinical deterioration, given that AEP improves rapidly with the appropriate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: AEP is an uncommon cause of respiratory failure that should be considered in patients with unexplained worsening respiratory status and evidence of eosinophilia. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage should be considered early, even in the setting of COVID-19 in patients without risk factors who develop severe disease. Reference #1: De Giacomi F, Vassallo R, Yi ES, Ryu JH. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Causes, Diagnosis, and Management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197(6):728-736. doi:10.1164/rccm.201710-1967CI Reference #2: Murao K, Saito A, Kuronuma K, Fujiya Y, Takahashi S, Chiba H. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied with COVID-19: a case report. Respirol Case Rep. 2020;8(9): e00683. Published 2020 Nov 16. doi:10.1002/rcr2.683 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Hadya Elshakh No relevant relationships by Christina Jee Ah Rhee no disclosure on file for Lourdes Sanso;

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