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1.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29191, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072198

ABSTRACT

Transverse myelitis is a nontraumatic spinal cord injury that presents with sudden onset weakness, sensory deficits, and autonomic dysfunction. It can be caused by multiple etiologies including malignancy, autoimmune disorders, viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, and environmental factors. In this article, we describe cases of two elderly male patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients did not exhibit classic or had only mild classic symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, both patients developed transverse myelitis. Patients were treated with intravenous steroids and therapeutic plasmapheresis, achieving partial improvement. The study aimed to understand rare complications like transverse myelitis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment accordingly.

2.
Current Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 35(1):16-22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058971

ABSTRACT

Patients rely on healthcare providers as their most credible and frequent source of vaccine information. It is therefore crucial that healthcare providers are informed and have evidence-based, objective and clear guidance on vaccine efficacy and specific adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). Reported serious AEFIs are extremely rare for the COVID-19 vaccines. This article discusses the main AEFIs attributed to COVID-19 vaccines, including neurological complications of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and acute transverse myelitis (ATM), thrombosis;cardiac complications, including myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiomyopathy;and allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, urticaria and skin rashes. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the risks;however, it is important that healthcare providers are aware of the risks and know how to recognise and manage them.

3.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S106-S109, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024832

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord involvement in COVID-19 infections can be varied and may present as acute transverse myelitis, acute necrotizing myelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Myelin oligodendrocyte-associated glycoprotein (MOG) antibody myelitis, and SARS-CoV-2 myelitis. We retrospectively analyzed eight cases of COVID-19-associated myelitis. All patients had only mild antecedent symptoms of COVID-19 infection and were admitted with clinical features of acute transverse myelitis confirmed on neuroimaging. Seven patients had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Serum Aquaporin-4 antibodies (NMO), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands, and RT PCR for COVID-19 were negative. Serum MOG antibodies were positive in three patients;out of this two had CSF pleocytosis. All patients were treated with steroids followed by plasmapheresis. Five cases showed good improvement (increase in power by grade 2 or more), while three cases that were MOG positive had poor outcomes with either minimal or no improvement. The severity of COVID-19 infection was not related to the development of myelitis. Seven cases had LETM. Response to therapy was not uniform and the presence of MOG antibodies and CSF pleocytosis was associated with poor outcomes. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

4.
Journal of Pediatrics Review ; 10:433-438, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979953

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies have reported neurological manifestations and complications related to specific coronavirus genotypes, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, we examined one of the rare clinical manifestations of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was one of the first cases of acute transverse myelitis in children in the world. Case presentation: This case report was dedicated to a little girl with COVID-19 admitted with weakness, lethargy, and constipation. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed signal changes accompanied by edema. The patient did not show an optimal response to the methylprednisolone succinate and intravenous human immunoglobulins (IVIG) and experienced cardiorespiratory arrest. The patient was eventually discharged with partial recovery in limb power. Conclusions: his study demonstrates the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of the sequelae of COVID-19 infections.

5.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925398

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody syndrome associated with the Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, and a case of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) associated with the Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Background: Post-vaccination CNS demyelinating syndromes have been reported with different vaccines, most notably the influenza and human papilloma vaccines. Two cases of new-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) and a case of new-onset neuromyelitis optica (NMO) associated with the Pfizer vaccine have been reported. One case of new-onset relapsing-remitting MS was reported after the Moderna vaccine. Design/Methods: NA Results: A 38-year-old man developed left blurry vision, lower extremity weakness/paresthesia and bowel/bladder dysfunction three days after receiving the Moderna vaccine. He was diagnosed with left optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis;he tested positive for MOG antibody. A 39-year-old woman presented with progressive lower extremity weakness/numbness seven days after receiving the Pfizer vaccine. She was diagnosed with ATM. Both patients improved with intravenous corticosteroids. Conclusions: The association between CNS demyelinating syndromes and vaccination has been reported for many years. The proposed pathogenesis of CNS demyelinating syndromes after vaccines includes molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation, effects of adjuvants, and depends on vaccine-related factors like type, dose, and route of administration. The adjuvanticity of COVID-19 vaccines is novel in that it involves Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 7 and 9 agonism, and several immune-mediated disorders have been linked to altered nucleic acid metabolism and processing that have stimulated TLR-7 and TLR-9 experimentally. While the risk of CNS demyelinating events is non-negligible, the incidence is very low. The rate of demyelinating events after the COVID-19 infection is higher. Therefore, we feel that the overall benefits of vaccination outweigh the marginal risk. However, providers should be aware of this potential neurological complication of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.

6.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925336

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess if patients with persistent positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab for SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus seem to be at a higher risk of developing complications like acute transverse myelitis (ATM). Background: ATM as post-infectious sequelae was mostly attributed to bacteria-like Mycoplasma pneumonia or viruses like varicella in the pre-pandemic times. However, in the light of the world seeing two waves of the COVID-19, ATM as a post-COVID-19 sequelae is being reported more frequently. Design/Methods: The literature search was done using PubMed and Google scholar using keywords. The search criteria was set to filter cases of ATM in COVID-19 patients, reports between Jan 2020 to July 2021. A total of eight case reports were selected from peer reviewed journals. Results: The reported cases included a total of eight patients ranging from 32-72 years of age. Of the eight case reports, five presented after two weeks of initial COVID-19 symptoms. Seven of the eight patients tested positive for a nasopharyngeal PCR swab for COVID-19 at the time of presentation with ATM symptoms. The most common initial manifestation was acute onset bladder dysfunction and lower limb weakness. In six out of eight cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine showed cervicothoracic cord hyperintensities. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone started on day 2 of ATM at a 1g/day dose showed clinical improvement in three patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) at a dose of 25- 30g/day for three days showed improvement in two patients, and one patient improved with plasma exchange following steroid therapy. Conclusions: Most patients with ATM presented with a long latency period (beyond 2 weeks after the initial COVID-19 positive test) and intravenous steroid therapy helps, but most patients seem to require additional IVIg or plasma exchange before showing clinical improvement. We encourage further large scale studies in this regard.

7.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925335

ABSTRACT

Objective: NA Background: COVID-19 associated thromboembolism has attained considerable interest in recent times. However, most studies focus on venous and pulmonary embolism only. We present a case of COVID-19 associated massive aortic thrombosis which presented as paraparesis mimicking transverse myelitis. Design/Methods: NA Results: This is a case of 42-year-old female presented with acute onset paraparesis with paraesthesia and back pain. She was provisionally diagnosed as a case of acute transverse myelitis. During evaluation she developed fever with respiratory distress. Her COVID RTPCR came positive, along with HRCT thorax showing evidence of viral pneumonia with severity score 13/25. She was shifted to COVID-19 facility and managed as per standard protocol. After stabilization, a repeat examination revealed discoloration in left lower limb which was also cold to touch. CT angiography revealed a massive thrombus in distal abdominal aorta extending up to left common iliac artery, while MRI Spine was normal. Patient was transferred to vascular surgery department for further management. To best of our knowledge this is first case reporting arterial thrombosis mimicking myelitis in COVID-19. Conclusions: To conclude, COVID-19 patients are susceptible to thrombosis and aortic thrombosis can mimic transverse myelitis in presentation.

8.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925288

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report a novel case of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a pediatric patient. Background: Since the development and administration of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, there has been an increasing number of vaccine associated adverse reactions reported. Although acute transverse myelitis has been well reported to be a direct effect of coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19), there have been a limited but growing number of cases documenting this phenomenon as a likely immune mediated adverse reaction of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Based on our literature review however, there has yet to be a case of this phenomenon described in the pediatric population. Here, we report a case of a previously healthy 17-year-old male who had progressive lower extremity weakness and numbness which began two days after administration of the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine, he was found to have edema and heterogenously hyperintense T2 signal involving the entirety of the spinal cord, most marked in the cervical and mid thoracic segments. The imaging was consistent with acute onset longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). The patient underwent broad autoimmune, infectious, paraneoplastic, and inflammatory workup, all of which was non-diagnostic. Given no alternative cause was able to be identified, the LETM was attributed to be an adverse reaction of the COVID-19 vaccine. The patient's symptoms improved considerably with high dose corticosteroid therapy, nevertheless he continued to have mild residual deficits upon discharge. Design/Methods: NA Results: NA Conclusions: Although vaccination against COVID-19 should not be deferred for healthy eligible patients due to the rare incidence of adverse reactions, clinicians should be aware of the possible association between COVID-19 vaccination and transverse myelitis.

9.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925285

ABSTRACT

Objective: Determine neuromuscular manifestation incidence in COVID-19 patients from the longitudinal electronic health record database Optum. Background: Both central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported. A Chinese retrospective case series, on 214 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, found that 8.9% presented with peripheral nerve disease and 7% had muscular injuries. Other studies looking at the prevalence of PNS manifestations are limited and have significantly lower numbers. Design/Methods: The COVID-19 data is sourced from more than 700 hospitals and 7000 clinics in the US. Patients with numerous neuromuscular diagnoses were identified based on ICD-10 coding. Examples include carpal tunnel syndrome, radial nerve lesion, sciatic nerve lesion, myasthenia gravis, acute transverse myelitis, Bell's palsy, and trigeminal neuralgia. Results: We reviewed a total of 598,847 patients with positive COVID-19 PCR and/or diagnosis coding. Neuromuscular complications must have been within 45 days of diagnosis to be included. Incidence of similar neuromuscular complaints was evaluated in 3,001,153 controls without COVID-19. Critical illness neuropathy was found in 35,782 COVID-positive patients and 6,281 of those without. Retrospective study limitations include temporal relationship to COVID-19 does not necessarily indicate causality and inability to confirm the coding by record review or EMG/NCS. Conclusions: Incidence of neuromuscular disorders is generally lower or equivalent in COVID19 patients than in the general population, except for critical illness neuropathy and myopathy. This finding may be explained by more COVID-19 patients being in the intensive care unit and bedbound for longer periods. It is worth noting that a small case series of COVID-related critical illness neuropathy and myopathy patients showed no histopathological or clinical differences compared to non-COVID patients. To our knowledge, this report includes an analysis of neuromuscular manifestations in one of the largest cohorts of COVID-19 patients. This can assist with risk-benefit discussions regarding treatment initiation, etiology of diagnoses, and counseling for COVID-19 questions.

10.
Vox Sanguinis ; 117(SUPPL 1):223, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916309

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM) is a very uncommon neurological syndrome, characterized by acute or subacute spinal cord dysfunction that can lead to paresthesias, sensory/autonomic impairment and paralysis. The aetiology is often unclear, but infectious, para-infectious, systemic autoimmune diseases, paraneoplastic, ischemic diseases and drugs are potential causes. Vaccine administration can also trigger an immune response and induce an autoimmune response;however, ATM has rarely been reported as a complication of COVID-19 infections or vaccination. The treatment mainly consists of steroids and plasmapheresis, which often reverses any neurologic symptoms. The therapeutic plasmapheresis is a highly complex procedure. It separates the patient's blood components replacing the plasma removed by solution that can be fresh frozen plasma or albumin, allowing the removal of the autoantibody, immune complex, lipoprotein or endotoxin that's causing the pathology. Aims: Clinical case report. Methods: A 46-year-old male patient, with personal history of hypertension and obesity, 3 weeks after COVID-19 vaccination, presented to the emergency department due to urinary complaints (urgency and pollakiuria), progressive numbness, paresthesias and decreased muscle strength in the lower limbs and decreased sensibility in the perineal region. Physical examination revealed total gait disability, decreased sensation and strength in the right lower limb, loss of sensation and plegia in the left lower limb and urinary incontinence. Initial laboratory workup and CT imaging of the brain, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine were normal. The patient was admitted to Neurology internment for further study and treatment. During hospitalization, lumbar puncture and MRI of the dorsal and lumbosacral neuraxis were performed, but only allowed us to exclude infectious and compressive etiologies. The inflammatory aetiology was assumed as the most probable, so acute therapy with pulses of methylprednisolone was initiated. In the remaining study, weakly positive anti-MOG (Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein) antibodies were detected in the serum. Therapeutic plasmapheresis using a cell separator (which use centrifugal force to separate components according to their density) was proposed as additional therapy. Seven sessions were performed without intercurrences. Results: During acute therapy, there was a partial improvement in sensitivity and strength in lower limbs. The patient started a rehabilitation program with favourable neurological recovery. At the time of hospital discharge, he still needed crutch support for walking and had muscle strength grade 4-/5 bilaterally. Summary/Conclusions: Although the patient maintained some functional limitation and there was not a complete resolution of the neurological symptoms, he showed a good response to acute therapy. The plasmapheresis, by permitting the antibody to be removed faster than would occur by its endogenous clearance, proved to be fundamental in the clinical recovery of the patient. No relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and the event was established.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911727

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old woman presented with paraparesis and paresthesia in both legs 19 and 3 days after BNT162b2 vaccination and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, respectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, nerve conduction study, electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging, and autoantibody tests were performed. Neurological examination showed hyperesthesia below the T7 level and markedly impaired bilateral leg weakness with absent deep tendon reflexes on the knees and ankles. CSF examination revealed polymorphonuclear dominant pleocytosis and elevated total protein levels. Enhancement of the pia mater in the lumbar spinal cord and positive sharp waves in the lumbar paraspinal muscles indicated infectious polyradiculitis. In contrast, a high signal intensity of intramedullary spinal cord on a T2-weighted image from C1 to conus medullaris and positive anti-aquaporin-4 antibody confirmed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The patient received intravenous methylprednisolone, antiviral agents, and antibiotics, followed by a tapering dose of oral prednisolone and azathioprine. Two months after treatment, she was ambulatory without assistance. The dual pathomechanism of NMOSD triggered by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and polyradiculitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may have caused atypical clinical findings in our patient. Therefore, physicians should remain alert and avoid overlooking the possibilities of diverse mechanisms associated with neurological manifestations after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.

12.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24222, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to have neurological manifestations and one of them is acute transverse myelitis (ATM). Despite being exceedingly rare (1.34-4.6 cases per million/year), COVID-19-associated ATM cases have continuously been reported and have significant health impact to patients. This case report presents a previously healthy, unvaccinated male who developed COVID-19-associated ATM.

13.
Cureus ; 14(4): e23877, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822590

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an extensive spectrum of clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Previous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 often exhibits central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and spinal cord pathologies. To date, few cases of COVID-19-associated transverse myelitis (TM) have been described. A 40-year-old unvaccinated man with no significant medical history presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, worsening burning sensation in his lower extremities, unsteady gait, and difficulty initiating urination for five days. Twelve days before presentation, the patient had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Physical examination revealed hyperesthesia, starting around the nipple line (T4) and extending distally, involving the lower extremities, accompanied by symmetric weakness in the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine with and without contrast revealed mild intramedullary signal abnormality at T3-T4 and T6-T8, confirming the suspicion of TM. Further laboratory testing revealed a C-reactive protein level of 67 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase level of 181 mg/L, serum B12 level of 781 pg/mL, methylmalonic acid level of 165 nmol/L, folate of >24.5 ng/mL, and thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 0.481 µIU/L. Lumbar puncture was performed, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a cell count of 14 cells/µL, with 69% lymphocytes, glucose level of 81 mg/dL, protein level of 32 mg/dL, and negative cultures. Human immunodeficiency virus, antinuclear antibody screening, anti-DNA, rapid plasma reagin, Lyme serology, anti-SSA, and anti-SSB antibodies were unremarkable. Serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G was negative, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies were positive. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and oral gabapentin and was discharged after five days when his urinary retention improved. Most previously reported cases of COVID-19-related TM were negative for autoimmune workup. Although the exact pathophysiology of COVID-19-related TM remains unclear, one hypothesis suggests that it is a consequence of the direct viral invasion. However, our patient had MOG antibodies, suggesting the possible involvement of a different mechanism. In MOG-associated TM, it has been suggested that MOG antibodies gain access to the CNS through disruption of the blood-brain barrier. This unique presentation demonstrates that further studies are needed to understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immune and nervous systems. It also highlights that young and otherwise healthy patients are at risk of severe COVID-19-related complications, including CNS disorders.

14.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(1): 133-137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes a wide range of diseases with varying pathophysiology in children and adults. Although the disease mainly affects the respiratory tract, neurological involvement is also reported in the literature. The most common neurological complaints due to COVID-19 are headache, dizziness and anosmia. Acute necrotizing myelitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), acute axonal neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and Guillian-Barre syndrome have been reported as neurological dysfunctions associated with COVID-19. CASE: A ten-year-old male patient presented with complaints of fever, headache and generalized muscle pain. The patient developed inability to walk and significant muscle weakness during the disease course, and he was diagnosed with ADEM and transverse myelitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As the etiological agent, COVID-19 was detected in both the respiratory panel sample and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis treatment were administered. He started to stand with support during follow-up. CONCLUSION: We presented a case of COVID-19 related ADEM and transverse myelitis who responded to pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Encephalomyelitis/complications , Encephalomyelitis/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis/therapy , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy
15.
Cureus ; 14(2): e21875, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716112

ABSTRACT

The clinical impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is growing, and vaccine-associated complications are becoming more evident. Although global vaccination against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an outstanding accomplishment, safety concerns and adverse outcomes are also emerging that need to be addressed promptly. The most reported side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine include fever, myalgia, headache, and injection site reactions. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) following the CoronaVac vaccine are rarely reported. We report a case of ILD followed by acute myelopathy in a female who presented with dyspnea, cough, and fever after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. On the third day of admission, she developed paresthesia and bilateral upper and lower limb weakness. She was diagnosed with ILD and ATM due to the COVID-19 vaccine based on imaging and detailed investigations after ruling out all possible causes. Her neurological and respiratory manifestations improved gradually after starting intravenous methylprednisolone.

16.
Ter Arkh ; 93(11): 1375-1380, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698738

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (AEM) and acute transverse myelitis (OPM) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Two clinical observations of AEM and OPM developed after suffering acute coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2) are presented. Differential diagnosis was carried out with multiple sclerosis, encephalitis of an infectious nature, compressive myelopathy, and opticomyelitis. Both observations show an almost complete recovery of lost functions. The pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of AEM and OPM in patients with coronavirus infection are discussed. The onset of central nervous system dysimmune lesion in the context of coronavirus infection makes it necessary to monitor the clinical situation with the involvement of a neurologist for timely diagnosis and determination of therapeutic tactics that can reduce the degree of disability of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Myelitis, Transverse , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/drug therapy , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20628, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675215

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) following coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of ATM after COVID-19 infection in a female who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limb weakness, paresthesia, and urinary retention. She developed fever, cough, dyspnea two weeks ago, and her COVID-19 test was positive one week later. After a complete physical examination and detailed investigations, including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, autoimmune screening, and infectious workup, a diagnosis of ATM due to COVID-19 was made. Magnetic resonance imaging of the whole spine confirmed the diagnosis of ATM. She was managed with intravenous methylprednisolone, physical therapy, and bladder training and her condition improved gradually.

18.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3230-3244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An incremental number of cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in individuals with ongoing or recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of cases of ATM described in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by screening both articles published and in preprint. RESULTS: Twenty cases were identified. There was a slight male predominance (60.0%) and the median age was 56 years. Neurological symptoms first manifested after a mean of 10.3 days from the first onset of classical, mostly respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Overall, COVID-19 severity was relatively mild. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all 14 cases examined. Cerebrospinal fluid findings reflected an inflammatory process in most instances (77.8%). Aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte protein antibodies in serum (tested in 10 and nine cases, respectively) were negative. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord lesions spanned a mean of 9.8 vertebral segments, necrotic-hemorrhagic transformation was present in three cases and two individuals had additional acute motor axonal neuropathy. More than half of the patients received a second immunotherapy regimen. Over a limited follow-up period of several weeks, 90% of individuals recovered either partially or near fully. CONCLUSION: Although causality cannot readily be inferred, it is possible that cases of ATM occur para- or post-infectiously in COVID-19. All identified reports are anecdotal and case descriptions are heterogeneous. Whether the condition and the observed radiological characteristics are specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18509, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497848

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a non-compressive localized inflammation involving one or more levels of the spinal cord due to various etiologies characterized by motor weakness, sensory impairments, and autonomic dysfunction. It can be idiopathic or primary or secondary due to infection, autoimmune disorder, connective tissue disorder, and uncommonly after vaccination which came to the limelight during the ongoing massive vaccine drive against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report a case of a 21-years-old male who presented with gradually progressive weakness of both lower limbs following urinary tract infection (UTI) with a history of similar illness in the family which improved with high dose methylprednisolone and antibiotic therapy followed by physical rehabilitation. A diagnosis of long segment ATM possibly following UTI was suggested after ruling out other secondary causes and was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord. Asymmetric symptoms and signs with small lesions involving

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