Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 260
Filter
1.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-7, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097057

ABSTRACT

A 23-year-old man presented with the blurring of vision in the left eye for 4 days. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 N6 in both eyes. Examination revealed an unremarkable right eye while the left eye showed occlusive retinal vasculitis with no retinitis, choroiditis, or macular involvement. Fundus fluorescein angiography confirmed the same. History revealed the patient had received 2nd dose of Covishield vaccination 4 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Blood investigations were negative for infectious or any systemic autoimmune disease. Serum homocysteine and serum CMV IgG levels were grossly increased while tests for antiphospholipid syndrome were weakly positive. He responded well to a combination of intravitreal and oral antivirals, oral steroids for vasculitis and tablets Clopilet and Homin. This case is extremely intriguing in terms of the involvement of the adenoviral vector vaccine either as a causative factor or being just a coincidental finding.

2.
Biosci Trends ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090751

ABSTRACT

Recently, the morbidity of acute severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children (SHIC) has tended to decrease, but this condition should not be ignored because of its uncertain but severe nature. The current study briefly summarizes updated information regarding the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological aspects of SHIC based on the newest information available. Opinions from pediatricians are also presented. In light of the status quo of SHIC and COVID-19 globally, several suggestions are proposed to improve future studies, which could help to further explore the underlying mechanisms of SHIC in the context of COVID-19.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 967926, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089823

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the severe acute respiratory syndrome, is one of the major emergencies that have affected health care systems. Drugs and oxygen are only partially effective in saving lives in patients with severe COVID-19, and the most important protection from death is vaccination. The widespread use of COVID-19 adenovirus-based vaccines has provided evidence for the occurrence of rare venous thrombotic events including cerebral venous thrombosis and splanchnic venous thrombosis in recipients of Vaxzevria and Jcovden vaccines and the review focus on them. One year ago, thromboses in Vaxzevria recipients have been associated with thrombocytopenia in the presence of antibodies to platelet factor 4 and have been called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). The incidence of VITT is equal to 9-31 events per one million doses of vaccines as evaluated by health agencies worldwide and is higher in female and young vaccine recipients. More recently, by using the European EudraVigilance database, it has been demonstrated that the incidence of thrombosis in recipients of adenovirus-based vaccines is 5-10 fold higher than that of VITT and 7-12 fold higher than observed in the recipients of Comirnaty, an mRNA-based vaccine, suggesting that adenovirus-based vaccines cause not only VITT but also thrombosis without thrombocytopenia (non-VITT thrombosis). The incidence of the vaccine-dependent non-VITT thrombosis is different in the adenovirus-based vaccines and the VITT/non-VITT incidence ratio depends on the severity of thrombosis and is inversely related to the age of the recipients. The possible causes and clinical implications of non-VITT thrombosis in vaccine recipients are discussed.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159579, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086714

ABSTRACT

As of 8 July 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) have reported 1010 probable cases of acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children worldwide, including approximately 250 cases in the United Kingdom (UK). Clinical presentations have often been severe, with liver transplantation a frequent clinical outcome. Human adenovirus F41 (HAdV-F41) has been detected in most children with acute hepatitis, but its role in the pathogenesis of this infection has yet to be established. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has become a well-established tool for monitoring the community spread of SARS-CoV-2, as well as other pathogens and chemicals. In this study, we adopted a WBE approach to monitoring levels of HAdV-F40/41 in wastewater before and during an acute hepatitis outbreak in Northern Ireland. We report increasing detection of HAdV-F40/41 in wastewater, concomitant with increasing numbers of clinical cases. Amplicon whole genome sequencing further classified the wastewater-derived HAdV as belonging to the F41 genotype which in turn was homologous to clinically derived sequences. We propose that WBE has the potential to inform community surveillance of HAdV-F41 and can further contribute to the ongoing global discussion supporting HAdV-F41 involvement in acute hepatitis cases.

5.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 105(9):915-923, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067677

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 has proven to be a tremendous challenge to the medical community. The greatest challenge since the turn of the century. The authors summarized the main cardiovascular (CV) complications and mechanisms of COVID-19 and its vaccines. COVID-19 has lung tropism, but it has been reported to affect the CV system as well. The presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, CV disease, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased the risk of developing serious complications and in turn mortality significantly. The common CV complications include cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and cardiac failure, which occurred in around 20% of all COVID-19 patients. The present difficulty in the diagnosis of CV complications were that COVID-19 symptoms often mimic CV events. Furthermore, the rapid diagnosis and management of serious CV events are sometimes overlooked due to COVID-19. Access to medical treatments were sometimes restricted due to the limited healthcare resources during the pandemic. The advent of various covid vaccines have reduced the number of these complications. However, CV events following mRNA vaccines or adenoviral vector vaccines are recognized as well as myocarditis and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. With increasing experience in managing covid patients with CV complications, physicians are becoming better equipped in preventing, detecting, and treating these complications.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066128

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients often develop coagulopathies including microclotting, thrombotic strokes or thrombocytopenia. Autoantibodies are present against blood-related proteins including cardiolipin (CL), serum albumin (SA), platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (ß2GPI), phosphodiesterases (PDE), and coagulation factors such as Factor II, IX, X and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Different combinations of autoantibodies associate with different coagulopathies. Previous research revealed similarities between proteins with blood clotting functions and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, adenovirus, and bacterial proteins associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infections. This study investigated whether polyclonal antibodies (mainly goat and rabbit) against these viruses and bacteria recognize human blood-related proteins. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus recognized vWF, PDE and PF4 and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies also recognized additional antigens. Most bacterial antibodies tested (group A streptococci [GAS], staphylococci, Escherichia coli [E. coli], Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) cross-reacted with CL and PF4. while GAS antibodies also bound to F2, Factor VIII, Factor IX, and vWF, and E. coli antibodies to PDE. All cross-reactive interactions involved antibody-antigen binding constants smaller than 100 nM. Since most COVID-19 coagulopathy patients display autoantibodies against vWF, PDE and PF4 along with CL, combinations of viral and bacterial infections appear to be necessary to initiate their autoimmune coagulopathies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Antigens, Bacterial , Autoantibodies , Bacterial Proteins , Blood Coagulation Factors , Capsid Proteins , Cardiolipins , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Factor IX , Factor VIII , Humans , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Prothrombin , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , von Willebrand Factor
7.
Arab Journal of Urology. ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062473

ABSTRACT

The first described case of deep dorsal vein thrombosis of the penis secondary to vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a complication of COVID adenoviral vector vaccines. The patient reported pain in the penis one month after vaccination. On ultrasound, a deep dorsal vein thrombosis was found and a biological workup was ordered to confirm the VITT trail. Anticoagulant therapy was immediately initiated and the patient responds well while suffering from erectile dysfunction. VITT is a potentially serious event that can be life-threatening;every practitioner should know how to deal with it. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A1060, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060762

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Ever since the global introduction of adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after immunization has been reported, posing a challenge to global effects on vaccine implementation. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33 year old male presented to emergency room with altered mental status after a left sided seizure episode at home. Patient had a 1week history of occipital headache after receiving Ad26.COV2·S Johnson and Johnson vaccine 2 weeks prior. MRI showed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis and right high frontal hemorrhage 8.6x4.7x4.9 cm. CT angiography confirmed nearly occlusive thrombosis of superior sagittal sinus with extension to right transverse sinus. Noted to have a hemoglobin of 15, platelet count of 74000, PT/INR 16/1.2 and PTT of 28. Started on intravenous heparin and intubated for GCS of 4. Heparin was stopped due to supra therapeutic PTT of 200 overnight, drop in platelet count to 55 and hemoglobin to 13. Repeat ct head done for change in neurological exam of dilated right pupil, showed frontoparietal hemorrhage 9.3 cmx4.1 cm and 7 mm midline shift. Heparin was reversed with protamine and transfused 1 unit platelets prior to emergent decompressive craniectomy and thrombectomy. Heparin induced platelet antibody and SRA came back positive confirming vaccine induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Treatment was initiated with argatroban and IVIG. Platelet count improved with no further propagation of thrombus. Patient underwent feeding tube and tracheostomy placement after 10 days due to prolonged ventilator weaning period and poor mental status. Patient's neurological status continued to improve significantly over subsequent months in acute rehabilitation facility with only residual left sided hemiparesis. Patient was successfully decannulated and anticoagulation switched to apixaban DISCUSSION: Possible pathophysiology is thought to be due to a trigger in spike protein production after biodistribution of adenovirus vaccine and a subsequent autoimmune response resulting in thrombosis. Similar to HIT, platelet consumption leads to thrombocytopenia and the continued platelet and monocyte activation increases thrombin generation, resulting in thrombosis. CDC advices to maintain a high suspicion of cases with symptoms that may indicate an underlying thrombotic event along with simultaneous thrombocytopenia. Heparin use is discouraged, unless HIT testing is negative. The International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH), recommend considering non-heparin anticoagulants and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). While platelet transfusions are avoided, rapid progression with rising ICP may necessitate transfusion to enable neurosurgical intervention CONCLUSIONS: Management of complications including seizures and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality risk. Reference #1: Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021;384:2092–101. Reference #2: Muir KL, Kallam A, Koepsell SA, Gundabolu K. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1964–5 Reference #3: Pavord S, Scully M, Hunt BJ, et al. Clinical Features of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2021;385:1680–9 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Axel Duval No relevant relationships by Nadish Garg No relevant relationships by ARCHANA SREEKANTAN NAIR

9.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104298, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intranasal vaccination may induce protective local and systemic immune responses against respiratory pathogens. A number of intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have achieved protection in pre-clinical challenge models, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222, University of Oxford / AstraZeneca). METHODS: We performed a single-centre open-label Phase I clinical trial of intranasal vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in healthy adults, using the existing formulation produced for intramuscular administration. Thirty SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naïve participants were allocated to receive 5 × 109 viral particles (VP, n=6), 2 × 1010 VP (n=12), or 5 × 1010 VP (n=12). Fourteen received second intranasal doses 28 days later. A further 12 received non-study intramuscular mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination between study days 22 and 46. To investigate intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 as a booster, six participants who had previously received two intramuscular doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and six who had received two intramuscular doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer / BioNTech) were given a single intranasal dose of 5 × 1010 VP of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Objectives were to assess safety (primary) and mucosal antibody responses (secondary). FINDINGS: Reactogenicity was mild or moderate. Antigen-specific mucosal antibody responses to intranasal vaccination were detectable in a minority of participants, rarely exceeding levels seen after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Systemic responses to intranasal vaccination were typically weaker than after intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Antigen-specific mucosal antibody was detectable in participants who received an intramuscular mRNA vaccine after intranasal vaccination. Seven participants developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: This formulation of intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed an acceptable tolerability profile but induced neither a consistent mucosal antibody response nor a strong systemic response. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics ; 13(Supplement 1):17-18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058426

ABSTRACT

The side effects of COVID-19 vaccines can be divided into three categories: (1) common but non-significant complications;(2) uncommon but significant complications;(3) complications that currently have no causal relationship with the COVID-19 vaccine and are more commonly referred to as associations. Non-significant complications can be local or systemic, such as pain at the injection site, swelling, redness, axillary lymphadenopathy on the injection site, fever, chills, headache, nausea, tiredness, joints pain, nausea and vomiting. Significant side effects include the following four: (1) anaphylaxis;(2) myocarditis/ pericarditis;(3) thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS);(4) Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cases such as tinnitus, Bell's palsy, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) without further thrombocytope18 nia are now referred to as associations. Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome: Currently, adenovirus vector vaccines such as AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are accused of causing these two complications, and mRNA vaccines have not been shown to produce such a complication. Myocarditis/Pericarditis: mRNA vaccines such as Pfizer and Moderna have been implicated in causing this complication, and no adenovirus vector vaccines such as Johnson & Johnson have been reported. Contraindications to the Injection of COVID-19 Vaccines: Any immediate allergic reaction to the vaccine or its associated ingredients with any severity such as anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs within 4 hours of injection. Precautions for COVID-19 Vaccines: History of any Immediate Allergies to Other Vaccines and Injectable Drugs: A history of anaphylaxis to mRNA vaccines for Johnson & Johnson vaccine and a history of anaphylaxis to Johnson & Johnson vaccine for mRNA vaccines is considered a precaution. If you have a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia within the last 90 days, the CDC recommends that you do not get AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson vaccine. However, a history of any thrombotic events without thrombocytopenia is not prohibited for any type of corona vaccine. Items that are Neither Contraindications nor Precautions: Presence of erythematous skin lesions with a sharp border at the injection site, usually one week after receiving the mRNA vaccine Consumption of Anticoagulants: Swelling of the face at the site of application of cosmetic skin fillers following the use of mRNA vaccine.

11.
Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics ; 13(Supplement 1):5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057539

ABSTRACT

We have been experiencing more allergic reactions to vaccines during the recent pandemic. Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare and difficult to predict. It might be defined as an idiosyncratic reaction caused by an immunologic mechanism. Regarding the World Allergy Organization (WAO) recommendation, immunologic reactions to drugs are categorized based upon the timing of the appearance of symptoms. This system defines two general types of reactions: immediate and delayed. Recently COVID vaccines are broadly applied worldwide. The CDC has provided the following differentiation: (1) contraindication: persons with a known (diagnosed) allergy to PEG, polysorbate, or another component of a COVID-19 vaccine or who have experienced a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous COVID-19 vaccine dose have a contraindication to vaccination;(2) precaution: persons with an immediate allergic reaction to other (non-COVID-19) vaccines or injectable therapies OR a non-severe immediate allergic reaction (onset < 4 hours) after a previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine fall into this category. May proceed with COVID-19 vaccine: (1) persons with a history of food, pet, insect, venom, environmental, oral medication (including the oral equivalent of an injectable medication) or latex allergies;or (2) a family history of allergies. Other reactions like vaccineinduced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) or thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) have been reported with adenoviral vector covid-19 vaccines. Myocarditis/pericarditis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome are also reported with COVID vaccines. Results of safety monitoring from VAERS and V-safe after one month of vaccinations show that over 90% of reactions were nonserious. Anaphylaxis rates (4.5 per million doses) remain in the range of other vaccines. The female gender may be a risk factor for adverse reactions and anaphylaxis. To sum up, COVID vaccines are very safe, and severe allergic reactions are exceedingly rare.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2689-2697, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051172

ABSTRACT

The rapid widespread Omicron subvariant BA.5 of SARS-CoV-2 has become a potential imminent pandemic threat, but available vaccines lack high efficacy against this subvariant. Thus, it is urgent to find highly protective vaccination strategies within available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, by using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay, we demonstrated that the aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine after two dose of inactivated vaccine (I-I-Ad5) led to higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against D614G strain (2041.00[95% CI, 1243.00-3351.00] vs 249.00[149.10-415.70]), Omicron BA.2 (467.10[231.00-944.40] vs 72.21[39.31-132.70]), BA.2.12.1(348.5[180.3-673.4] vs 53.17[31.29-90.37]), BA.2.13 (410.40[190.70-883.3] vs 48.48[27.87-84.32]), and BA.5 (442.40 vs 56.08[35.14-89.51]) than three inactivated vaccine doses (I-I-I). Additionally, the level of neutralizing antibodies against BA.5 induced by I-I-Ad5 was 2.41-fold higher than those boosted by a third dose of RBD subunit vaccine (I-I-S) (p = 0.1308). The conventional virus neutralizing assay confirmed that I-I-Ad5 induced higher titre of neutralizing antibodies than I-I-I (116.80[84.51-161.5] vs 4.40[4.00-4.83]). In addition, I-I-Ad5 induced higher, but later, anti-RBD IgG and IgA in plasma than I-I-I. Our study verified that mucosal immunization with aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine may be an effective strategy to control the probable wave of BA.5 pandemic in addition to two inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adenoviridae/genetics
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2127292, 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051159

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has illustrated the critical need for effective prophylactic vaccination to prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Intranasal vaccination is an attractive approach for preventing COVID-19 as the nasal mucosa is the site of initial SARS-CoV-2 entry and viral replication prior to aspiration into the lungs. We previously demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of a candidate adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine encoding the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (AdCOVID) induced robust immunity in both the airway mucosa and periphery, and completely protected K18-hACE2 mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Here we show that a single intranasal administration of AdCOVID limits viral replication in the nasal cavity of K18-hACE2 mice. AdCOVID also induces sterilizing immunity in the lungs of mice as reflected by the absence of infectious virus. Finally, AdCOVID prevents SARS-CoV-2 induced pathological damage in the lungs of mice. These data show that AdCOVID not only limits viral replication in the respiratory tract, but it also prevents virus-induced inflammation and immunopathology following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases ; 9:S8-S9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043385

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy. This is the first systematic clinical guideline, developed by an international task force using formal GRADE methodology. The diagnostic criteria remain primarily clinical, based on history and examination findings of acute progressive limb weakness and areflexia. Variants of GBS may include motor GBS, Miller Fisher Syndrome, and regional variants with weakness predominantly in lower limbs, face, or pharynx/neck/ arms. The differential diagnosis is wide. When uncertain, diagnosis may be assisted by nerve conduction tests, raised cerebrospinal fluid protein, and less often by MRI spine with contrast, or serum antibodies to gangliosides (especially for variants) or nodalparanodal antibodies (especially if not improving). Axonal versus demyelinating subtyping does not affect clinical management. A history of recent gastrointestinal or respiratory infection or of surgery may support the diagnosis. The risk of GBS is only very slightly increased after Covid-19 infection and after the adenovirus-vector vaccines to SARS-CoV2 (AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson) but not mRNA vaccines. Immune treatment is recommended with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange, for most patients except those mildly affected or after four weeks from onset. A repeat course is reasonable after a treatment-related fluctuation. Corticosteroids are not recommended. There is no evidence of benefi t from any other disease-modifying treatment. Respiratory function should be monitored by forced vital capacity and single breath count to assess the risk of needing mechanical ventilation, guided by the mEGRIS scale. Pain is very common. It may be musculoskeletal or neuropathic, and treated with gabapentin, tricyclic antidepressants or carbamazepine. Patients who fail to improve should be reassessed for the correct diagnosis and for axonal degeneration. Around 5% of patients with GBS may later develop CIDP but no test can reliably indicate this within the first eight weeks. Nodal-paranodal antibodies should be tested if CIDP is suspected or if the patient is not recovering well. The long-term outcome is less good in patients of older age, with preceding diarrhoea, or more severe weakness, as quantified by the mEGOS scale, and also in patients with smaller motor potential amplitudes or raised serum neurofilament light chain level.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 206-211, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare messenger RNA (mRNA)-based and adenovirus-vectored vaccines (ADVVs) with inactivated virus vaccines (IVVs) using real-world aggregate data. METHODS: We performed longitudinal analyses of publicly accessible epidemiological, clinical, virological, vaccine-related, and other public health data from 41 eligible countries during the first half of 2021. The relationships between vaccination coverage and clinical outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures correlation analyses and mixed-effects modeling to adjust for potential mediating and confounding factors. RESULTS: Countries that used mRNA and/or ADVV (n = 31) vs IVV, among other vaccine types (n = 10), had different distributions of age (42.4 vs 33.9 years, respectively; P-value = 0.0006), gross domestic product per capita ($ 38,606 vs $ 20,422, respectively; P <0.0001), and population sizes (8,655,541 vs 5,139,162, respectively; P-value = 0.36). After adjustment for country differences, the stringency of nonpharmaceutical interventions, and dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant types, populations that received mRNA and/or ADVV had significantly lower rates of cases and deaths over time (P <0.001 for each analysis). Populations vaccinated with IVV, among others, had significantly higher rates of cases and deaths over time (P <0.05 for each analysis). CONCLUSION: The real-world effectiveness of IVV may be inferior to mRNA and/or ADVV, and prospective comparative studies are needed to critically evaluate the role of IVV in the context of contemporary SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
16.
Vet Res Commun ; 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041311

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly contagious canine pathogens; dogs with these diseases are difficult to treat. In a previous study, we developed a recombinant adenovirus expressing canine interferon lambda 3 (Ad-caIFNλ3) in canine epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antiviral activity of Ad-caIFNλ3 against CCoV, CPV, and CDV in two canine cell lines, A72 and MDCK. Ad-caIFNλ3 transduction suppressed replication of these viruses without cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that Ad-caIFNλ3 may be a therapeutic candidate for canine viral diseases.

17.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 138, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe adenovirus (Adv) pneumonia with refractory hypoxic respiratory failure (RHRF) in paediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Patients with RHRF caused by Adv pneumonia who received ECMO support after mechanical ventilation failed to achieve adequate oxygenation between 2017 and 2020 were included. The outcome variables were the in-hospital survival rate and the effects of ECMO on the survival rate. RESULTS: In total, 18 children with RHRF received ECMO. The median age was 19 (9.5, 39.8) months, and the median ECMO duration was 196 (152, 309) h. The in-hospital survival rate was 72.2% (13/18). Thirteen patients (72.2%) required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to fluid imbalance or acute kidney injury (AKI). At ECMO initiation, compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [49 (34.5, 62) vs. 63 (56, 71); p = 0.04], higher oxygen index (OI) [41 (34.5, 62) vs. 30 (26.5, 35); p = 0.03], higher vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) [30 (16.3, 80) vs. 100 (60, 142.5); p = 0.04], longer duration from mechanical ventilation to ECMO support [8 (4, 14) vs. 4 (3, 5.5) h, p=0.02], and longer time from confirmed RHRF to ECMO initiation [9 (4.8, 13) vs. 5 (1.3, 5.5) h; p = 0.004]. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <61 mmHg or an OI >43 and hypoxic respiratory failure for more than 9 days before the initiation of ECMO had worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO seemed to be effective, as severe paediatric Adv pneumonia patients with RHRF had a cumulative survival rate of 72.2% in our study. Our study provides insight into ECMO rescue in children with severe Adv pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , China , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0109722, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029474

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus type 26 (HAdV26) has been recognized as a promising platform for vaccine vector development, and very recently vaccine against COVID-19 based on HAdV26 was authorized for emergency use. Nevertheless, basic biology of this virus, namely, pathway which HAdV26 uses to enter the cell, is still insufficiently known. We have shown here that HAdV26 infection of human epithelial cells expressing low amount of αvß3 integrin involves clathrin and is caveolin-1-independent, while HAdV26 infection of cells with high amount of αvß3 integrin does not involve clathrin but is caveolin-1-dependent. Thus, this study demonstrates that caveolin-1 is limiting factor in αvß3 integrin-mediated HAdV26 infection. Regardless of αvß3 integrin expression, HAdV26 infection involves dynamin-2. Our data provide for the first-time description of HAdV26 cell entry pathway, hence increase our knowledge of HAdV26 infection. Knowing that functionality of adenovirus vector is influenced by its cell entry pathway and intracellular trafficking, our results will contribute to better understanding of HAdV26 immunogenicity and antigen presentation when used as vaccine vector. IMPORTANCE In order to fulfill its role as a vector, adenovirus needs to successfully deliver its DNA genome to the host nucleus, a process highly influenced by adenovirus intracellular translocation. Thus, cell entry pathway and intracellular trafficking determine functionality of human adenovirus-based vectors. Endocytosis of HAdV26, currently extensively studied as a vaccine vector, has not been described so far. We present here that HAdV26 infection of human epithelial cells with high expression of αvß3 integrin, one of the putative HAdV26 receptors, is caveolin-1- and partially dynamin-2-dependent. Since caveolin containing domains provide a unique environment for specific signaling events and participate in inflammatory signaling one can imagine that directing HAdV26 cell entry toward caveolin-1-mediate pathway might play role in immunogenicity of this virus. Therefore, our results contribute to better understanding of HAdV26 infection pathway, hence, can be helpful in explaining induction of immune response and antigen presentation by HAdV26-based vaccine vector.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Caveolin 1/genetics , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Dynamin II/metabolism , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
19.
Yonago Acta Med ; 65(3): 244-253, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026592

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections were not prevalent in Yonago and its vicinity during autumn 2020, and the relative frequencies of pathogen-induced respiratory infections during this period are unclear. Methods: We collected 109 nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 pediatric patients who visited Tottori University Hospital between October 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. These samples were comprehensively tested for 18 pathogens with the FilmArray® respiratory panel test (v2.1) using nested real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the frequency of pathogens detected per month was calculated. In addition, we compared the duration of fever and the blood test results of patients infected with each pathogen or multiple pathogens. Results: Of the 109 samples, 42 were obtained from female patients and 67 from male patients (median age, 3 years; range, 0-15 years). Overall, 62 patients (56.9%) had a fever ≥ 38 °C at the time of examination, and the median duration of fever ≥ 38 °C was 2 days (1-12). During the study period, the highest number of samples (22) were collected in November 2020. Among samples that tested positive, the most common pathogens were rhino/enteroviruses (52 samples; 76.5%), followed by adenoviruses (7 samples; 10.3%), coronavirus NL63 (6 samples; 8.8%), coronavirus OC43, parainfluenza virus type 1, and parainfluenza virus type 2 (1 sample each; 1.5% each). The duration of fever was significantly longer in adenovirus-infected patients than in patients infected with other viruses (P < 0.05). Hemoglobin and sodium levels were also significantly lower among the adenovirus-infected patients. However, these variations were mostly within the normal range. No clinically meaningful differences were found between rhino/enterovirus-infected and non-rhino/enterovirus-infected cases, between coronavirus NL63-infected and non-coronavirus NL63-infected cases, and between cases with multiple- and single-pathogen infections. Conclusion: Rhino/enteroviruses were the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in areas without endemic SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Chemistryselect ; 7(34), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013789

ABSTRACT

A series of 42 diarylethers and their analogues were synthesized. All compounds were tested in vitro against six viruses. Two diarylethers in this series demonstrated selective and remarkable activity toward Human Coronavirus OC43 and Human Adenovirus 5 (SI 97.4 and 99.7, respectively). QSARs for the investigated antiviral activities were explored. The analysis was based on a large library of 113 diarylethers and their analogues comprising the compounds reported in this paper, as well as compounds previously synthesized and tested by us. Statistically reliable regression and discriminant models were derived which revealed structural and physicochemical features of the compounds important for the antiviral activities. These models may be used as guidance for synthesis of lead compounds with promising antiviral activity toward the investigated viruses.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL