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1.
Foods ; 11(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065793

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a critical factor for chronic metabolic syndromes. The culinary plant fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda) has been reported for its anti-obesity activity. The anti-adipogenic effects of pandurantin A, a main component of fingerroot cultivated in Indonesia, have been studied. Nevertheless, the suppressive effect and related mechanisms of pinostrobin, a major constituent of Thai fingerroot, on adipogenesis have never been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of pinostrobin to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Culturing pre-adipocytes from both mouse (3T3-L1) and human (PCS-210-010) with pinostrobin at non-toxic concentrations (5-20 µM) for 48 h obviously hindered their differentiation into mature adipocyte as evidenced by reduced cellular lipid droplets. The lower levels of lipid metabolism-mediating proteins, namely C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP-1c, as well as cellular triglyceride content were demonstrated in pinostrobin-treated 3T3-L1 cells when compared to the untreated control group. Additionally, pinostrobin modulated the signals of MAPK (p38 and JNK) and Akt (Akt/GSK3ß, Akt/AMPKα-ACC). These findings suggest the benefit of fingerroot as a source of phytopharmaceuticals for obesity prevention and management, with pinostrobin as the active principle.

2.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 916-931, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038256

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional membrane-enclosed organelle. One of the major ER functions is cotranslational transport and processing of secretory, lysosomal, and transmembrane proteins. Impaired protein processing caused by disturbances in the ER homeostasis results in the ER stress. Restoration of normal ER functioning requires activation of an adaptive mechanism involving cell response to misfolded proteins, the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Besides controlling protein folding, UPR plays a key role in other physiological processes, in particular, differentiation of cells of connective, muscle, epithelial, and neural tissues. Cell differentiation is induced by the physiological levels of ER stress, while excessive ER stress suppresses differentiation and can result in cell death. So far, it remains unknown whether UPR activation induces cell differentiation or if UPR is initiated by the upregulated synthesis of secretory proteins during cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is an important stage in the development of multicellular organisms and is tightly controlled. Suppression or excessive activation of this process can lead to the development of various pathologies in an organism. In particular, impairments in the differentiation of connective tissue cells can result in the development of fibrosis, obesity, and osteoporosis. Recently, special attention has been paid to fibrosis as one of the major complications of COVID-19. Therefore, studying the role of UPR in the activation of cell differentiation is of both theoretical and practical interest, as it might result in the identification of molecular targets for selective regulation of cell differentiation stages and as well as the potential to modulate the mechanisms involved in the development of various pathological states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Differentiation , Fibrosis , Humans , Unfolded Protein Response
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934133

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase and is upregulated in human obesity. CX-4945 (Silmitasertib) is a CK2 inhibitor with anti-cancerous and anti-adipogenic activities. However, the anti-adipogenic and pro-lipolytic effects and the mode of action of CX-4945 in (pre)adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we explored the effects of CX-4945 on adipogenesis and lipolysis in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, a murine preadipocyte cell line. CX-4945 at 15 µM strongly reduced lipid droplet (LD) accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, indicating the drug's anti-adipogenic effect. Mechanistically, CX-4945 reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and perilipin A in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Strikingly, CX-4945 further increased the phosphorylation levels of cAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1) while decreasing the intracellular ATP content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, CX-4945 had abilities to stimulate glycerol release and elevate the phosphorylation levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), pointing to the drug's pro-lipolytic effect. In addition, CX-4945 induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), and PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, attenuated the CX4945-induced glycerol release and HSL phosphorylation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, indicating the drug's ERK-1/2-dependent lipolysis. In summary, this investigation shows that CX-4945 has strong anti-adipogenic and pro-lipolytic effects on differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, mediated by control of the expression and phosphorylation levels of CK2, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, AMPK, LKB-1, ERK-1/2, and HSL.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Casein Kinase II , Naphthyridines , Phenazines , 3T3-L1 Cells , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/metabolism , Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glycerol/pharmacology , Humans , Lipolysis/drug effects , Mice , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Perilipin-1/metabolism , Phenazines/pharmacology , Sterol Esterase/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715401

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an increasingly severe public health problem, which brings huge social and economic burdens. Increased body adiposity in obesity is not only tightly associated with type 2 diabetes, but also significantly increases the risks of other chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver diseases and cancers. Adipogenesis describes the process of the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, which accumulate in distributed adipose tissue at various sites in the body. The major functions of white adipocytes are to store energy as fat during periods when energy intake exceeds expenditure and to mobilize this stored fuel when energy expenditure exceeds intake. Brown/beige adipocytes contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis upon cold exposure and adrenergic stimulation, and thereby promote energy consumption. The imbalance of energy intake and expenditure causes obesity. Recent interest in epigenetics and signaling pathways has utilized small molecule tools aimed at modifying obesity-specific gene expression. In this review, we discuss compounds with adipogenesis-related signaling pathways and epigenetic modulating properties that have been identified as potential therapeutic agents which cast some light on the future treatment of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/drug effects , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Obesity/drug therapy , Adiposity/drug effects , Animals , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thermogenesis/drug effects
5.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408628

ABSTRACT

The present study sought to identify gene networks that are hallmarks of the developing inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (iWAT) and the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the mouse. RNA profiling revealed that the iWAT of postnatal (P) day 6 mice expressed thermogenic and lipid catabolism transcripts, along with the abundance of transcripts associated with the beige adipogenesis program. This was an unexpected finding, as thermogenic BAT was believed to be the only site of nonshivering thermogenesis in the young mouse. However, the transcriptional landscape of BAT in P6 mice suggests that it is still undergoing differentiation and maturation, and that the iWAT temporally adopts thermogenic and lipolytic potential. Moreover, P6 iWAT and adult (P56) BAT were similar in their expression of immune gene networks, but P6 iWAT was unique in the abundant expression of antimicrobial proteins and virus entry factors, including a possible receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In summary, postnatal iWAT development is associated with a metabolic shift from thermogenesis and lipolysis towards fat storage. However, transcripts of beige-inducing signal pathways including ß-adrenergic receptors and interleukin-4 signaling were underrepresented in young iWAT, suggesting that the signals for thermogenic fat differentiation may be different in early postnatal life and in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes, Beige/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Cycle/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Biological , Muscle Development/genetics , Neuropeptides/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346501

ABSTRACT

17,18-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) are bioactive epoxides produced from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. However, these epoxides are quickly metabolized into less active diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We have previously demonstrated that an sEH inhibitor, t-TUCB, decreased serum triglycerides (TG) and increased lipid metabolic protein expression in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. This study investigates the preventive effects of t-TUCB (T) alone or combined with 19,20-EDP (T + EDP) or 17,18-EEQ (T + EEQ) on BAT activation in the development of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders via osmotic minipump delivery in mice. Both T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed significant improvement in fasting glucose, serum triglycerides, and higher core body temperature, whereas heat production was only significantly increased in the T + EEQ group. Moreover, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed less lipid accumulation in the BAT. Although UCP1 expression was not changed, PGC1α expression was increased in all three treated groups. In contrast, the expression of CPT1A and CPT1B, which are responsible for the rate-limiting step for fatty acid oxidation, was only increased in the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups. Interestingly, as a fatty acid transporter, CD36 expression was only increased in the T + EEQ group. Furthermore, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed decreased inflammatory NFκB signaling in the BAT. Our results suggest that 17,18-EEQ or 19,20-EDP combined with t-TUCB may prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, in part through increased thermogenesis, upregulating lipid metabolic protein expression, and decreasing inflammation in the BAT.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Arachidonic Acids/therapeutic use , Benzoates/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology , Adipose Tissue, Brown/drug effects , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Arachidonic Acids/administration & dosage , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Benzoates/administration & dosage , Benzoates/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Epoxide Hydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/metabolism , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology
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