Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.785
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computer vision syndrome (CVS) can be described as ocular-related symptoms that result from prolonged exposure and use of computers, smartphones, tablets, and other devices with digital displays. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVS among school-age children, the associated signs, risk factors, and the association between the disease before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The targeted population was school-going children aged 6 to 18 in the Jazan region in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. A sample of 440 participants was selected to represent the population under study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded, such as age, gender, education level, parents' education, occupation, frequency, and intensity of eye symptoms if present. RESULTS: Most of the participants were adolescents between 16 and 18 and at a high-school education level. According to the total symptoms score, the CVS prevalence was 35.4%. Prevalence of CVS significantly affects age, gender, and school level (p < 0.05 for all). A similar significant association was reported between the symptoms experienced before and during COVID-19 and the CVS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A total of 407 adolescents aged 16-18 responded to the questionnaire (response rate of 92.5%; 407 out of 440). The study estimated the prevalence of CVS among school-going children in Jazan to be low. The main signs associated with CVS included headache, tearing, itchiness, blurred vision, eye redness, eye pain, and dryness. The attitude of children toward their health condition during the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevalence of CVS have a significant relationship.

2.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 84, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109076

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of face masks in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic has promoted research on their effect on the perception and recognition of faces. There is growing evidence that masks hinder the recognition of identity and expression, as well as the interpretation of speech from facial cues. It is less clear whether and in what manner masks affect the perception of age from facial cues. Recent research has emphasized the role of the upper region of the face, a part not covered by a mask, in the evaluation of age. For example, smile-related wrinkles in the region of the eyes make smiling faces appear older than neutral faces of the same individuals (the aging effect of smiling, AES). In two experiments, we tested the effect of face masks on age evaluations of neutral and smiling faces in a range of different age groups from 20 to 80 years. The results showed that smiling faces were perceived as older than neutral faces even when individuals were wearing a face mask-and there was no effect of masks on bias in age evaluations. Additional analyses showed reduced accuracy in age evaluations for smiling compared to neutral faces and for masked compared to unmasked faces. The results converge on previous studies emphasizing the importance of the upper region of the face in evaluations of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smiling , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Young Adult
3.
International Journal of Innovation and Learning ; 32(3):322-340, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2109367

ABSTRACT

Today’s youth face prejudice and stereotyping in the workplace;in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, their prevalence and strength may increase. We conducted a qualitative study of social representations of key exchange partners – leaders and career beginners. In the first phase, we conducted semi-structured interviews to identify the dominant social representations that small business leaders (N = 9) hold about career beginners. In the second phase, we examined how future career beginners (N = 26) responded to five hypothetical work situations based on the leaders’ social representations. The social exchange partners shared the narrative that career growth, advancement, and financial incentives are important motivators for career beginners, but contradicted each other in their accounts of career beginners’ initiative levels and in their accounts of preferred leadership styles. The findings help to raise awareness of the mutual representations and expectations of different age groups in the work context. © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

4.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104976

ABSTRACT

Ongoing uncertainty over the relative importance of aerosol transmission of COVID-19 is in part rooted in the history of medical science and our understanding of how epidemic diseases can spread through human populations. Ancient Greek medical theory held that such illnesses are transmitted by airborne pathogenic emanations containing particulate matter ("miasmata"). Notable Roman and medieval schol-ars such as Varro, Ibn al-Khatib and Fracastoro developed these ideas, combining them with early germ theory and the concept of contagion. A widely held but vaguely defined belief in toxic miasmatic mists as a dominant causative agent in disease propagation was overtaken by the science of 19th century micro-biology and epidemiology, especially in the study of cholera, which was proven to be mainly transmitted by contaminated water. Airborne disease transmission came to be viewed as burdened by a dubious his-torical reputation and difficult to demonstrate convincingly. A breakthrough came with the classic mid -20th century work of Wells, Riley and Mills who proved how expiratory aerosols (their "droplet nuclei") could transport still-infectious tuberculosis bacteria through ventilation systems. The topic of aerosol transmission of pathogenic respiratory diseases assumed a new dimension with the mid-late 20th cen-tury "Great Acceleration" of an increasingly hypermobile human population repeatedly infected by dif-ferent strains of zoonotic viruses, and has taken centre stage this century in response to outbreaks of new respiratory infections that include coronaviruses. From a geoscience perspective, the consequences of pandemic-status diseases such as COVID-19, produced by viral pathogens utilising aerosols to infect a human population currently approaching 8 billion, are far-reaching and unprecedented. The obvious and sudden impacts on for example waste plastic production, water and air quality and atmospheric chem-istry are accelerating human awareness of current environmental challenges. As such, the "anthropause" lockdown enforced by COVID-19 may come to be seen as a harbinger of change great enough to be pre-served in the Anthropocene stratal record.(c) 2021 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

5.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106859

ABSTRACT

Online activities have spiked due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including language learning activities. As the world is aging, this affects senior citizens too. Yet, few studies have been conducted studying online (language) learning in this age-group. Moreover, no concrete pointers exist on how to go about such an online language learning course. This paper examines what should be considered when designing and implementing online language learning courses for seniors. To that end we present data from 73 senior language learners from two independent language learning contexts: the Netherlands and Scotland. The data were collected between May 2020 and August 2021. Data includes spoken and written samples from lessons, focus groups, interviews and questionnaires. Given the qualitative nature of the data and the aim of identifying patterns of meaning across the respective datasets, a reflexive thematic analysis (TA) approach was adopted. We employed an inductive approach to coding, using both semantic (explicit or overt) and latent (implicit, underlying) coding frameworks, in order to inform two overarching themes: "Navigating the digital highway" and "Camera ready for new friends." We discuss these themes and their sub-themes and arrive at concrete recommendations for the third-age language learning classroom.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2016-2026, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103284

ABSTRACT

Data on social contact patterns are widely used to parameterize age-mixing matrices in mathematical models of infectious diseases. Most studies focus on close contacts only (i.e., persons spoken with face-to-face). This focus may be appropriate for studies of droplet and short-range aerosol transmission but neglects casual or shared air contacts, who may be at risk from airborne transmission. Using data from 2 provinces in South Africa, we estimated age mixing patterns relevant for droplet transmission, nonsaturating airborne transmission, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, an airborne infection where saturation of household contacts occurs. Estimated contact patterns by age did not vary greatly between the infection types, indicating that widespread use of close contact data may not be resulting in major inaccuracies. However, contact in persons >50 years of age was lower when we considered casual contacts, and therefore the contribution of older age groups to airborne transmission may be overestimated.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Aerosols , Models, Theoretical , South Africa/epidemiology
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(30): 11210-11213, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100434

ABSTRACT

Numerous risk variables, including age, medical co-morbidities, and deranged inflammatory response, lead to higher mortality in a senior population with coronavirus disease 2019. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase inflammatory protein secreted by the liver, was tested in the elderly, showing a diagnostic and prognostic role. However, recent research has shed light on new applications for CRP in geriatrics. It was used as a follow-up marker and as a therapeutic target. Early and accurate identification of patients' risks may mitigate the devastation of the invading virus in older cases and permit the implementation of a quick treatment plan for those most likely to deteriorate.

8.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0130922, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097933

ABSTRACT

mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was initiated worldwide in late 2020, and its efficacy has been well reported. However, studies about vaccine-related side effects are sparse. A total of 262 health care workers who received mRNA COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 were recruited, and their vaccine-related side effects were investigated. Impact of sex and age on the side effects was statistically analyzed. A higher number of vaccine-related side effects among females versus males was identified (median 3 versus 2, P < 0.05, after the first dose, and 5 versus 2.5, P < 0.01, after the second dose). General fatigue, headache, chills, and fever were the culprit adverse symptoms. In multivariate analysis, females had an increasing number of side effects after receiving their first (B = 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 1.2) and second (B = 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7 to 2.2) vaccine doses compared to that of males. In age analysis, the older group (≥60 years old) had a lower number of side effects than the younger group (B = -0.5 with a 95% CI of -1.1 to -0.02 after the first vaccine dose, and B = -2.1 with a 95% CI of -2.9 to -1.2 after the second vaccine dose). Additionally, prolonged time to recovery was found among females (P = 0.003 after the first dose; P = 0.008 after the second dose). Specifically, symptoms of general fatigue, headache, itching, swelling at the injection site, and dizziness were the culprit symptoms affecting recovery time. Several cutaneous and membranous symptoms, including "COVID arm," were identified among females. These results highlight the impact of sex and age on side effects from mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and will aid in creating a safer vaccine. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate sex- and age-related impact on mRNA COVID-19 vaccine-related side effects, with a higher number and frequency of side effects and prolonged time to recovery in females compared to males and negative correlation between age and vaccine-related side effects. Identification of unique age- and sex-specific adverse symptoms will provide the opportunity to better understand the nature of sex- and age-associated immunological differences and develop safer and more efficacious vaccines.

10.
Management Research Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097577

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of risk-taking and auditor characteristics on value creation in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. In addition, it investigates the moderator role of auditor characteristics in the impact of risk-taking on value creation, especially in pre-Covid 19 and post-Covid 19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The information about 199 company in 2014-2021 was examined. In the present study, in accordance with the related theoretical literature and the importance of auditor specialization, auditor tenure and auditor reputation, these factors were considered as the auditor characteristics. Findings The present findings based on the generalized least squares (GLS) method showed that risk-taking positively affects the value creation. The auditor characteristics (auditor specialization, auditor tenure and auditor reputation) have a significant positive effect on the value creation. Furthermore, the auditor characteristics enhance the impact of risk-taking on value creation. The results of generalized method of moments method and robust regression analysis are consistent with the GLS results. To take into account the Covid-19 conditions, the data were divided into pre-Covid-19 and post-Covid-19 years. The results showed that auditor characteristics moderate the impact of risk-taking on value creation in pre-Covid 19 and post-Covid 19. Originality/value The study highlights the role of auditor characteristics in the value creation, especially in the emerging market. Given that Covid-19 has seriously damaged global economic well-being and has put companies at a double risk, the present findings can be useful for managers, investors and the international community, and help company managers make risk-taking policies and select auditors with appropriate characteristics.

11.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(2): e26043, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 poses different levels of threat to people of different ages, health communication regarding prevention measures such as social distancing and isolation may be strengthened by understanding the unique experiences of various age groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine how people of different ages (1) experienced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) their respective rates and reasons for compliance or noncompliance with social distancing and isolation health guidance. METHODS: We fielded a survey on social media early in the pandemic to examine the emotional impact of COVID-19 and individuals' rates and reasons for noncompliance with public health guidance, using computational and content analytic methods of linguistic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 17,287 participants were surveyed. The majority (n=13,183, 76.3%) were from the United States. Younger (18-31 years), middle-aged (32-44 years and 45-64 years), and older (≥65 years) individuals significantly varied in how they described the impact of COVID-19 on their lives, including their emotional experience, self-focused attention, and topical concerns. Younger individuals were more emotionally negative and self-focused, while middle-aged people were other-focused and concerned with family. The oldest and most at-risk group was most concerned with health-related terms but were lower in anxiety (use of fewer anxiety-related terms) and higher in the use of emotionally positive terms than the other less at-risk age groups. While all groups discussed topics such as acquiring essential supplies, they differentially experienced the impact of school closures and limited social interactions. We also found relatively high rates of noncompliance with COVID-19 prevention measures, such as social distancing and self-isolation, with younger people being more likely to be noncompliant than older people (P<.001). Among the 43.1% (n=7456) of respondents who did not fully comply with health orders, people differed substantially in the reasons they gave for noncompliance. The most common reason for noncompliance was not being able to afford to miss work (n=4273, 57.3%). While work obligations proved challenging for participants across ages, younger people struggled more to find adequate space to self-isolate and manage their mental and physical health; middle-aged people had more concerns regarding childcare; and older people perceived themselves as being able to take sufficient precautions. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of natural language can provide insight into rapidly developing public health challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic, uncovering individual differences in emotional experiences and health-related behaviors. In this case, our analyses revealed significant differences between different age groups in feelings about and responses to public health orders aimed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. To improve public compliance with health orders as the pandemic continues, health communication strategies could be made more effective by being tailored to these age-related differences.

12.
Journal of Building Engineering ; : 105466, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095675

ABSTRACT

Ventilation in confined spaces is essential to reduce the airborne transmission of viruses responsible for respiratory diseases such as COVID-19. Mechanical ventilation using purifiers is an interesting solution for elevator cabins to reduce the risk of infection and improve the air quality. In this work, the optimal position and blowing direction of these devices to maximize ventilation and minimize the residence time of the air inside two cabins (large and small) is studied. Special attention is devoted to idle periods when the cabin is not used by the passengers, in order to keep the cabin ambient safe and clean, avoiding that the trapped air in the cabin (after its use) could suppose a reservoir for contaminants. CFD numerical models of two typical cabin geometries, including the discretization of small slots and grilles for infiltration, have been developed. A full 3D URANS approach with a k-epsilon RNG turbulence model and a non-reactive scalar to compute the mean age of air (MAA) was employed. The CFD results have been also validated with experimental measurements from a home-made 1:4 small-scale mock-up. The optimal position of the purifier is on the larger sidewall of the cabins for a downward blowing direction (case 1 of the database). Flow rates in the range of 0.4–0.6 m3/min, depending on the size of the cabin, are sufficient to assure a correct ventilation. Upward blowing may be preferable only if interaction of the jet core with the ceiling or other flow deflecting elements are found. In general, the contribution of infiltrations (reaching values of up to 10%), and how these secondary flows interact with the main flow pattern driven by the purifier, is relevant and not considered previously in the literature. Though an optimal position can improve ventilation considerably, it has been proven that a good choice of the purification flow rate is more critical to ensure an adequate air renewal.

13.
J Popul Res (Canberra) ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094797

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the demographic heterogeneity of COVID-19 infection to reveal the role of age structure and gender on COVID-19 diffusion patterns, demonstrating that the infection is distributed unevenly across ages, genders, and outbreak times. Based on cluster analysis, we analysed the 4-month COVID-19 outbreak data (N = 3017) in Thailand from January 12 to May 12, 2020, covering the early to late outbreak period of the initial wave. Results revealed that there are 7 pertinent clusters of COVID-19 outbreaks. Infection risk was classified by age, sex, and confirmed infection period. Results showed that elderly and young male clusters were at risk of becoming infected at the very beginning of the wave. Working-age male, young female, and elderly male clusters were key clusters controlling transmission when spreading became pervasive. Relevant clusters addressed at the end of the wave included general public and younger age clusters. Unlike other regions, the infection risk in Thailand is interestingly stronger among younger age clusters and male populations. Even though elderly individuals are at risk of becoming infected earlier than other clusters, the infection proportion was low. The findings provide new insights into the risk for COVID-19 infection.

14.
Discov Soc Sci Health ; 2(1): 20, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094907

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 has exerted distress on virtually every aspect of human life with disproportionate mortality burdens on older individuals and those with underlying medical conditions. Variations in COVID-19 incidence and case fatality rates (CFRs) across countries have incited a growing research interest regarding the effect of social factors on COVID-19 case-loads and fatality rates. We investigated the effect of population median age, inequalities in human development, healthcare capacity, and pandemic mitigation indicators on country-specific COVID-19 CFRs across countries and regions. Subject and methods: Using population secondary data from multiple sources, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used regional analysis to compare regional differences in COVID-19 CFRs as influenced by the selected indicators. Results: The analysis revealed wide variations in COVID-19 CFRs and the selected indicators across countries and regions. Mean CFR was highest for South America at 1.973% (± 0.742) and lowest for Oceania at 0.264% (± 0.107), while the Africa sub-region recorded the lowest scores for pandemic preparedness, vaccination rate, and other indicators. Population Median Age [0.073 (0.033 0.113)], Vaccination Rate [-3.3389 (-5.570.033 -1.208)], and Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [-0.014 (-0.023 -0.004)] emerged as statistically significant predictors of COVID-19 CFR, with directions indicating increasing Population Median Age, higher inequalities in human development and low vaccination rate are predictive of higher fatalities from COVID-19. Conclusion: Regional differences in COVID-19 CFR may be influenced by underlying differences in sociodemographic and pandemic mitigation indicators. Populations with wide social inequalities, increased population Median Age and low vaccination rates are more likely to suffer higher fatalities from COVID-19.

15.
Prospects (Paris) ; 51(4): 563-572, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094723

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest social and economic shock of our lifetimes. As governments grapple with their responses to the virus, more than half the world's countries have closed their schools and severely limited almost all forms of public life. This will have a profound impact on children, both now and in the decade to come. As many countries start to send children back to school, a question arises: who should go back to school first? This Viewpoint addresses that question in the context of a middle-income country, South Africa. Based on a review of much of the evidence available at the time of publication, it concludes that the youngest children are least susceptible to harm from COVID-19, are less likely to spread the virus than adults, and also have the most to lose by being out of school. Hence, they should be the ones to return to school first.

16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the immune response of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and vertical transmission of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included pregnant women in Bahrain Defense Force Hospital from March 2021 to September 2021 who were vaccinated with Sinopharm or Pfizer/BioNTech. Testing of anti-N and -S levels from paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood was performed at the time of delivery. The immune response to vaccination, association with maternal and fetal factors, and vertical transmission of antibodies were studied. RESULTS: The current study included 79 pregnant women. The median gestational age for those vaccinated with Sinopharm was 28 weeks and those vaccinated with Pfizer was 31 weeks, with 100% of the vaccinated population generating antibodies and showing vertical transmission. The anti-N and -S titers and interval frequencies varied in both vaccinations. The anti-N and -S and transfer ratio statistically correlated with maternal age, gestational age at delivery, latency period, and birth weight of the neonates differently in both vaccines. In addition, the peak level of antibodies and transfer ratios varied. CONCLUSION: Although variations are exhibited in both types of vaccination, the vaccinated pregnant population generated a significant level of anti-N and -S and showed vertical transmission.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090137

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 at the end of 2019 triggered more psychological problems than usual among the public. During this epidemic, the use of social media was very high, and several studies confirmed a positive correlation between social media use and people's psychological problems. The Chinese government has subsequently implemented a series of policies concerning the social media environment to tackle this "infodemic". After the containment of the first COVID-19 outbreak, China saw a new wave of COVID-19 cases in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province in January 2021. How the optimized social media could have impacted public mental health remained to be revealed. Our research data come from an online survey of Chinese residents during the regional epidemic in Shijiazhuang, with a total of 904 valid samples from 18 different provinces in China. The results showed that this new round of outbreaks caused a high incidence of depression (38.9%) among the public. Compared with relatively advantaged groups, disadvantaged groups have a higher depression. Attributed to the optimization of the social media environment, the prevalence of social media use during the epidemic helped to markedly mitigate anxieties from depression. This is particularly demonstrated in vulnerable groups. We found, for the first time, a change in the relationship between social media use and resident depression, and more importantly, a stronger correlation between social media use and depression in relatively disadvantaged groups. Therefore, during the epidemic, actively optimizing the social media environment has a significant and positive effect on the mental health of residents, especially vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090069

ABSTRACT

For almost two years, populations around the globe faced precariousness and uncertainty as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults were highly affected by the virus, and the policies meant to protect them have often resulted in ageist stereotypes and discrimination. For example, the public discourse around older adults had a paternalistic tone framing all older adults as "vulnerable". This study aimed to measure the extent to which perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the sense of loneliness and social isolation, fear and perception of COVID-19 risks, had a negative effect on older adults' mental illness. To do so, a self-report questionnaire was administered to 1301 participants (average age: 77.25 years old, SD = 5.46; 56.10% females, 43.90% males). Descriptive and correlational analyses were performed, along with structural equation modelling. Results showed that perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic positively predicts loneliness and also indirectly predicts mental illness. In addition, loneliness is the strongest predictor of mental illness together with fear of COVID-19 and social isolation. Such results highlight the importance of implementing public policies and discourses that are non-discriminating, and that favour the inclusion of older people.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Perception
19.
J Public Health Res ; 11(4): 22799036221115769, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089145

ABSTRACT

This research aims to present a legal history of the prisoners' treatment in global crises along with presenting an overview of prisoners' treatment during Covid-19 in view of International Humanitarian Laws. Using the formative research method with a conceptual approach and statute approach, data was gathered from various legal documents related to prisoners' health laws linked to legal purpose theories. This study further explains the need to treat old age prisoners on a priority basis and to what extent international health organizations are making efforts to establish criteria to vaccinate this societal segment. The international regulatory framework was deeply analyzed to draw conclusions and recommendations along with WHO efforts. It was revealed that there exist adequate laws regarding priority health treatment of the prisoners in crises times but existed an enormous need to highlight and address the sensitive humanitarian issue. Additionally, WHO and other international organizations have also revised the international laws during Covid-19 to treat the prisoners. However, there is an immense need to devise explicit regulations regarding the accessibility of the vaccine to all the groups of society, including prisoners. The provision of a detailed overview of international laws and treaties regarding prisoners' priority health treatment is a major advance of this research. Further recommendations for the developed and developing nations and future research directions are suggested.

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e065610, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088816

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental disorder and is a major cause of years lived with disability. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in the prevalence of depression worldwide. Our aim is to identify and synthesise the determinants of depression, the diagnostic assessment tools used to evaluate depression, and the interventions carried out since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population aged 60 and older. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review of the literature will be conducted. The following databases will be searched: CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MedicLatina, MEDLINE with Full Text, and Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection. The search strategy will include the following Medical Subject Headings or similar terms: "Depression", "Depressive Disorder", "Depressive Symptoms", "Older Adults", "Aging", "Elderly", Pandemic" and "COVID-19". Two independent reviewers will ascertain whether the resulting articles meet inclusion and exclusion criteria, and perform the analysis of data quality. Disagreements will be resolved by a third reviewer. All studies reported between December 2019 and March 2022 meeting the following criteria will be included: studies in adults aged 60 and over, and articles written in English, Portuguese, Spanish or German. Information on determinants of depression, assessment instruments used to assess depressive symptoms and/or interventions to decrease depression are reported. Studies will not be excluded based on geographical area study context (eg, community, culture or specific environment). All studies related to diagnostic assessment, care planning and/or intervention strategies specifically for older adults with depression will be included. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As only secondary data will be analysed, no ethical approval is required for this study. This scientific article is a systematic review protocol for which data have not yet been extracted or analysed. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022299775.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL