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1.
Preventive Medicine Reports ; JOUR: 102037,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095895

ABSTRACT

Becoming homebound can be devastating for older adults in rural communities. This study aimed to identify protective or high-risk social activities associated with homebound status among the rural young old (ages 65–74) and the oldest old (ages ≥75). We used data from a survey of older adults in a rural community of Japan in 2014. Questions covered sociodemographic characteristics, homebound status (i.e., going out less than once a week), physical and psychological status, and social activities. Using survey data, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify protective and high-risk social activities associated with homebound status. Of the 1,564 participants, 51.0% were the oldest old, and the mean age was 75.2 (±7.0) years. The prevalence of homebound status was 10.5% total: 5.2% among the young old and 15.7% among the oldest old and highest among the female oldest old (19.4%). The main protective social activity for the young and the oldest old was visiting friends’ houses (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–17.64 and AOR 3.49, 95% CI 1.07–11.42, respectively). For the young old, specific high-risk social activities were advising family and friends (AOR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.62) and activities to support older adults (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03–0.84). For the oldest old, a protective social activity was participating in long-term care prevention programs (AOR 28.94, 95% CI 1.90–441.63). To prevent rural older adults from becoming homebound, support should be provided according to protective and high-risk social activities for age groups, with particular attention to safe socialization amid the threat of COVID-19.

2.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport ; JOUR:S6, 25(Supplement 2).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2095704

ABSTRACT

Background: The success to well-being has been attributed to the higher level of Physical activities in our day-to-day routine activities. The true meaning of fitness for a humankind has wider spectrum. It can be correlated with being free from various disorders including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychosocial condition and thus lead an enhanced quality of life which can be significantly achieved by incorporating adequate physical activities. The World Health Organization has declared physical inactivity as fourth leading cause of death and major risk factor non-communicable diseases. Studies suggest that the higher prevalence for non-communicable disease adds to extreme health and financial burden to United Arab Emirates and promotion of physical activities could help combat this situation (Arena et al. 2015). Thus, the project aimed to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases through promoting outdoor physical activity while utilizing the beneficial effects of Badminton sports on cardiovascular and neuromuscular functions. Research Objectives 1. To analyze the changes in cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness parameters and their effect on the disease outcome for older adults with and without non-communicable disease in UAE. 2. To compare the in cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness between older adults with and without non-communicable disease while engaging in Physical activity through Badminton Sport Methodology: The study was conducted at the Body and Soul Indoor Badminton Court, under the Gulf Medical University Premises. A total of 80 participants were recruited under the study divided into two groups of 40 each under the purposive sampling method. An ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review board (IRB/COHS/FAC/67/Sep-2021) prior to data collection. All participants were engaged in badminton sessions for minimum of 45 minutes and 24 sessions (3 times a week for two months). The neuromuscular outcome variables included joint power, peak force using isokinetic for quadriceps and hamstring, agility, response time, muscle length and strength, kinetics using force plate and kinematics using the BTS 3D motion analysis system. The Cardiovascular outcome measures included 6-minute walk test. Result(s): The findings of the study suggested a statistically significant difference for both neuromuscular and cardiovascular parameters (p <= 0.05) in both groups. More changes were observed in people with communicable disease particularly in peak isokinetic muscle force. Conclusion(s): The badminton is a very safe and encouraging mode of physical health promotion among elderly population. Badminton showed significant improvement in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular functions among both communicable and non -communicable group whereas changes were higher in the communicable group. Due to the non-contact nature of the sport chances of Covid spread was reduced significantly while engaging the participants into physical training while engaging them into regular physical activity and health promotion. Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest. Funder: Badminton World Federation Research Grant 2021 Copyright © 2022

3.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097113

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. However, its stress on the mental health of young to middle-aged adults is largely unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the mental health difficulties during the resurgent phase of COVID-19 among young to middle-aged adults in China. There were 1,478 participants with a median age of 26 years (IQR, 23 - 30), including 535 males (36.2%). The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 8.6%, 11.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. Participants aged 29 - 59 years (OR, 95% CI: 2.46, 1.23 - 4.91) and females (2.49, 1.55 - 4.01) had a higher risk of anxiety. Education status, worried level about the current COVID-19, and the level of COVID-19's impact on life were significantly associated with the prevalence of anxiety. Besides, the level of COVID-19's impact on life was positively related to the prevalence of depression and insomnia. Our study provided novel evidence of psychological difficulties among young to middle-aged adults during the resurgent stage of the COVID-19 epidemic. Psychological intervention should be continuously implemented to prevent long-term psychological comorbidities during the COVID-19 epidemic.

4.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 222(8): 468-478, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Various studies have identified factors associated with risk of mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their sample size has often been limited and their results partially contradictory. This study evaluated factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the population of Madrid over 75 years of age, in infected patients, and in hospitalized patients up to January 2021. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study analyzed all residents of the Community of Madrid born before January 1, 1945 who were alive as of December 31, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from primary care electronic medical records (PC-Madrid), data on hospital admissions from the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD, Minimum Data Set), and data on mortality from the Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF, National Death Index). Data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death were collected from March 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 587,603 subjects were included in the cohort. Of them, 41,603 (7.1%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 22,362 (53.7% of the infected individuals) were hospitalized and 11,251 (27%) died. Male sex and age were the factors most closely associated with mortality, though many comorbidities also had an influence. The associations were stronger in the analysis of the total population than in the analysis of infected or hospitalized patients. Mortality among hospitalized patients was lower during the second wave (33.4%) than during the first wave (41.2%) of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Age, sex, and numerous comorbidities are associated with risk of death due to COVID-19. Mortality in hospitalized patients declined notably after the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics
5.
Turk Geriatri Dergisi ; JOUR:386-395, 25(3).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091593

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aims to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, its influencing factors, and the relationship between loneliness, physical activity and depressive symptoms among individuals aged 65 years and above during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material(s) and Method(s): This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1093 older adults in Turkey. A Descriptive Data Form, the Loneliness Scale for the Elderly, the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly were used to collect data. In this study, the presence of depressive symptoms was the dependent variable;sociodemographic and individual characteristics, habits, history of chronic illness and COVID-19, perception of loneliness and physical activity level were independent variables. Result(s): The prevalence of depressive symptoms among older adults was 66.8%. Depressive symptoms were 3.96 times higher among women, 8.06 times higher in urban areas, 2.56 times higher among those who had equal income and expenses, and 2.78 times higher among older adults who had less income than expenses. Depressive symptoms were further 1.98 times higher among those who had chronic diseases and 25.54 times higher among those diagnosed with COVID-19. Additionally, depressive symptoms increased by 23.24 times among those who did not have a hobby, and 1.53 times for each one-point increase in the level of loneliness. No relationship was found between physical activity levels and depressive symptoms. Conclusion(s): The results show that two out of three older adults were depressed. Characteristics such as having had COVID-19, loneliness, and hobbies, were significant influencing factors of depressive symptoms among older adults. There is a need to adopt feasible and protective policies that cater to the needs and control the risk factors of older adults during the pandemic. Copyright © 2022, Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

6.
Turk Geriatri Dergisi ; JOUR:377-385, 25(3).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091592

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As of June 27, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 540 million infections and 6.3 million deaths. We aimed to investigate the effect of the vaccine on the clinical course of elderly patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and to determine the prognosis of the patients according to their vaccination status. Material(s) and Method(s): The study included 157 patients over the age of 65. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of patients who were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac, and the second group consisted of patients who were not vaccinated. Demographic data of the patients, prehospital clinical frailty scales, Charlson Comorbidity Indexes, APACHE II scores, laboratory values, and patient prognoses were recorded. Result(s): Of the 157 patients, 93 (59.2%) were female, and the median age was 76 years (65-99). 96 (61.1%) patients were vaccinated and 61 (38.9%) patients were unvaccinated. Patients were grouped as survivors (n=26) and deceased. We found that APACHE II, prehospital clinical frailty scales, and Charlson Comorbidity Indexes scores were higher in patients who died. There was a significant difference between blood lymphocyte and ferritin levels and survival. The 28-day survival rate was higher and intensive care unit overall survival time were longer in the vaccinated group. Conclusion(s): We observed that the vaccinated patients had higher survival times and lower mortality rates than those who were not vaccinated. We think that it is important to vaccinate elderly patients and that additional doses may be needed. Copyright © 2022, Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of ISAKOS ; JOUR:563, 6(6).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088868

ABSTRACT

To review 30 day mortality rate, mortality related to covid infected neck of femur fracture patients, if we are following NICE guidelines for management of neck of femur fracture patients during the pandemic Data Covid-19 has had a profound impact on the NHS. *In addition, Hip fractures still form a significant proportion of admissions during the national lockdown period in 2020. *Since 2007 the NHFD has reported a progressive improvement in 30 day mortality after hip fracture and this trend continues with just 6.1% dying in 2018, against 6.9% in 2017. (1) Covid-19 has increased the mortality especially in elderly population who commonly present with fragility hip fractures. (2) Various early studies show increased mortality in paientswith hip fracture with concurrent covid-19 infection. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guidance (CG124) states that patients should have definitive surgery on the day of, or the day after diagnosis, along with other criteria, aiming to reduce mortality and morbidity. Objectives To review the 30 day mortality rate (30 days from fracture diagnosis) in patients with NOFs and PPs during the pandemic. *To determine mortality in NOF patients with concurrent covid-19 infection. *To assess if we are following the NICE guidelines of time to surgery for NOF patients during the covidpandemic. Study Design & Methods Retrospective study of all patients with NOFs and peri-prosthetic hip and knee fractures admitted during the period of 01/03/2019 to 24/05/2019 and 01/ 03/2020 to 24/05/2020. *Data collection using eTrauma, ICE and PACS. Results Admissions-(1) There were 86 NOFs in 2019 and 8 PPs in 2019 (94 patients). (2) There were 95 NOFs in 2020 and 9 PPs in 2020 (104 patients). *Deaths-(1) There were 3 NOF and 1PP deaths in 2019 (4.25%). (2) There were 18NOF deaths and 0 PP deathsin 2020 (17.3%). *Covid status-(1) Among the 95 NOFs in 2020, 15 were covid positive, of which 7 died. (2) Among the 9 PPs in 2020, there were 2 were covid positive, of which none died. (38.8% of deaths in 2020 were covid positive) *Time to surgery for all patients (in 2019 and 2020) was <24 hours. Conclusions Mortality rate in 2019 was 4.25% which increased to 17.3% in 2020 which is opposite to the recent yearly decreasing NHFD trend (6.8% prior to pandemic) but similar to NW study (32.8%). *Of the 2020 deaths, 38.8% were covid-19 positive which is similar torecent UK study of 16,749 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 reports a mortality rate of 31%. (9) *Time to surgery was <24 hours in both 2019 and 2020 showing that we are following NICE guideline.

8.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ; JOUR:116, 64(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088163

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective(s): Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, Outpatient Physical, Occupational and Speech therapies at a large urban pediatric hospital averaged 300 to 500 appointments a week. Many appointments were via telehealth;a shift in practice model as most therapy appointments were on-site prior to the pandemic. To ensure quality of care and adapt telehealth to maximize patient/caregiver satisfaction, a quality improvement project was performed, seeking staff feedback regarding telehealth experiences to assist in modifying service delivery models. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Study Participants & Setting: 47 of 57 therapists (36.17% PT, 25.53% OT, 38.30% SLP) responded to the survey during September 2021. Therapists completed the survey once during a 30-day time period if they provided services via telehealth. Therapists had a range of experiences providing pediatric therapy services (21.28% with 0-3 years to 25.53% with 19+ years). Patients served ranged 2 months to 74 years with diagnoses including autism and cerebral palsy. Materials/Methods: Survey responses are summarized descriptively with the most frequent responses reported using percentages. The electronic survey in Qualtrics consisted of 40 questions with multiple response options including multiple choice, free text, and rank order. The question topics included: telehealth training, contributors to success and/ or lack of success (including patient engagement, defined as behavior, motivation, ability to follow directions/structure;and caregiver engagement defined as motivation, capacity to perform therapy, ability to understand instructions from therapist), home exercise program compliance, and plan of care modifications. Result(s): 580 telehealth visits occurred during the survey time. 83.78% of therapists reported patient or caregiver engagement as the biggest contributor to a successful telehealth session and 57.89% reported the same as biggest limiting factor. There was no staff consensus on a certain patient age or diagnosis having the most or least success with telehealth. 47.50% of respondents reported the ability to see the patient in their natural environment as what they liked most about telehealth. 69.23% of therapists reported the inability to use hands on skills with the patient as what they liked least about telehealth. 92.5% of therapists reported their preferred mode of service delivery in the future would be a hybrid model of in-person and telehealth. Conclusions/Significance: Parent and patient engagement were identified as having the most impact on success or nonsuccess of a telehealth session. Providers noted telehealth pros like: seeing the patient in their natural environment, and cons like not using hands on skills during treatment. We postulate that the future of pediatric rehab will be a hybrid model of care: utilizing both hands on skills during onsite visits and telehealth intervention in the patient's natural environment to extend caregiver involvement and functionality of home programs to improve the lives of the diverse patient population we serve.

9.
Drug Safety ; JOUR:1237, 45(10).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085659

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently, due to the massive administration of SARSCoV- 2 vaccines to a large population, a series of adverse events have been observed after its commercialization [1]. Post-marketing, sporadic case reports and series of Herpes Zoster reactivation were reported [2,3]. These cases constitute a potential signal. Objective(s): In this study, we aim to present a series of patients with Herpes-Zoster (HZ) reactivation following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Method(s): This is a retrospective study of HZ cases, reported to the National Centre of pharmacovigilance (CNPV) following SARSCoV- 2 vaccination from March 2021 to May 2022. Result(s): We included 20 patients;19 patients presented shingle and one patient had varicella. The sex ratio (M/F) was 0.8. The median age was 68.5 years. Nine patients were aged 70 years or older. The administered vaccine was an mRNA vaccine in 15/20 cases. The mean onset delay was 4.5 days. There was no concomitant use of immunosuppressants. All patients have recovered within a few days and no severe cases were reported. Two patients received the second dose, without recurrence of the symptomatology in one case. In the second case, there was an aggravation of the symptomatology and occurrence of facial paralysis;noting that the initial symptomatology was not entirely disappeared when the patient received the second dose. Conclusion(s): Our study does not establish causality but draws attention to a chronological association between the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and HZ reactivation, which have to be investigated.

10.
Drug Safety ; JOUR:1205, 45(10).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085635

ABSTRACT

Introduction: After the primary infection, the reactivation of both Herpes Simplex viruses (HSV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) is mainly triggered by a secondary immunodeficiency state, either agerelated or iatrogenic, or due to concomitant diseases (e.g., HIV, cancer), especially in the elderly population [1-3]. Indeed, Herpes reactivation has not been commonly associated with immunization and only few cases are described in literature [4]. To date, HSV/VZV reactivation is listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) of only one COVID-19 mRNA vaccine [5]. However, even if limited, evidence on a potential correlation between vaccines expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein and Herpes reactivation is increasing [6]. In Italy, elderly patients represent a population of particular interest for this specific adverse event (AE) since they are currently involved in the 4th booster campaign (which may not be the last one). Objective(s): To investigate the occurrence of Herpes reactivation following COVID-19 vaccination of elderly patients (>= 65 years old) who are going to be frequently vaccinated with this type of vaccines. Method(s): We present Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) concerning COVID-19 vaccination and Herpes reactivation that were collected at our Pharmacovigilance Unit (Milan, Italy) from January 2021. Result(s): So far, 21 ICSRs have been collected, 16 (76%) from ordinary citizens, mainly men (62%) and non-serious. Median age was 74 years (min-max: 65-89). Further analyses are ongoing. Conclusion(s): Cases of interest were of non-serious nature and the estimated incidence of pharmacovigilance reports concerning Herpes reactivation was non-significant compared to the total number of Italian citizens who usually suffer from these conditions and to those who have been vaccinated. The vaccination remains strongly recommended. However, it is crucial that clinicians continue to monitor and report all suspected AEs in order to better characterize the safety profile of vaccines.

11.
Drug Safety ; JOUR:1189, 45(10).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085630

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The European Medicines Agency, following positive evaluation regarding the safety, quality, and efficacy of anti-COVID- 19 vaccines, granted conditional marketing authorization (CMA) for these drugs on the condition that the developers would continuously provide additional data on their safety and efficacy even after marketing authorization in order to confirm the risk-benefit ratio. Following the start of the vaccination campaign in December 2020, special attention was paid to the occurrence of possible adverse reactions (ADRs). The pharmacist staff of Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital, in order to monitor the safety of the new vaccine and to promptly report suspected vaccine ADRs, prepared a short questionnaire to be administered to the employees of the hospital at the time of administration of the second dose of vaccine. Objective(s): Monitoring vaccine safety & promptly reporting side effects. Method(s): The survey was conducted between January and April 2021. All employees were administered mRNA vaccine and, at the time of the administration of the second dose, were asked to answer the above questionnaire specifying the following information: biographical data, gender, date of administration of the two doses of vaccine, occurrence of any ADRs resulting from the first dose of vaccine, type of resolution, presence of concomitant diseases and related medication intake in the days before/following the vaccination. Result(s): The questionnaire was administered to 1,656 health care workers and all of them answered the questions comprehensively. Among them, 51.6 percent experienced adverse reactions after administration of the first dose of vaccine, and the predominantly noted symptoms included systemic diseases and conditions related to the site of administration, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, nervous system disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. The frequency of reporting was higher among the young than the elderly population (58% vs. 38.67%). ADRs occurred approximately 1,7 times more frequently among women than men. Conclusion(s): The intense pharmacovigilance activity carried out by the Hospital Pharmacist was a pivotal moment during the pandemic emergency, as it allowed the safety profile of anti-COVID-19 vaccines to be readily confirmed with real-life data. Infact, it was found that the main symptoms detected were in line with what was reported in the safety data from the pre-registration studies [1], from which it was also found that the frequency of ADRs was higher among the young than the elderly, a finding that was also confirmed by our study. So, the questionnaire survey was able to substantiate the safety of vaccines, confirming that the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks.

12.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology ; JOUR:S916, 45(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085352

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the utilization and role of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) during the COVID pandemic in a single tertiary center. Material(s) and Method(s): From March 2020 to November 2021, 105 patients with symptomatic BPH, were referred for evaluation for PAE as a result of cancellation of their scheduled surgery (transurethral resection or open prostatectomy) due to the COVID pandemic. The usual selection criteria for PAE were applied. Patients with indwelling bladder catheter (IBC) and severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were given priority over patients with moderate LUTS. For PAE, vascular access was gained via the femoral (4 French sheath) or left radial artery and PA was catheterized with a microcatheter (<=2.0 French). Embolization was performed with microspheres (100-300 and/or 300-500 microns, Embosphere, Merit Medical). Definition of clinical success was based on reduction of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of at least 25% from the baseline, or successful removal of IBC. Result(s): 65 patients (mean age: 71.5 years, mean prostatic volume: 90.6ml) eventually underwent PAE during the study period (IBC/severe LUTS: 31/34;unilateral/bilateral PAE: 14/51;radial/femoral access: 12/53 patients). All patients were discharged 3-10 hours post PAE. Clinical success rates were 98.5%, 90.2%, 80.2% and 80.2% at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post PAE, respectively. Mean IPSS improvement was 52.8%. Complications (only minor: 12/65 patients) were managed on outpatient basis. Conclusion(s): During the COVID pandemic, PAE proved to be an effective countermeasure to prostatic surgery cancellations.

13.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology ; JOUR:S865, 45(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085350

ABSTRACT

Clinical history/pre-treatment imaging Male, 75 years old, multimorbidity, hospitalized for respiratory failure related to SARS-COV2. A CECT demonstrated a splenic artery aneurism of 7.5 cm. Treatment options/results Given the severe conditions of the patient (ASA-4), an IR treatment was decided instead of a surgical approach. Possible treatments we considered in the pre-procedural planning were the insertion of an endovascular covered stent, splenic artery embolization using a vascular Amplatzer plug or coil embolization using a "sandwich technique". Discussion We selectively catheterized the splenic artery and confirmed the aneurysmal dilatation, without evidence of contrast medium extravasation. The complex vascular anatomy allowed us to reach the site of the aneurysm only with a microcatheter, excluding the possibility of using an Amplatzer plug. The considerable size of the aneurysm prevented us from positioning an endovascular stent, forcing us to use coils and surgical glue. We catheterized the efferent branch of the aneurysm sac and embolization was carried out using a 'sandwich technique' with detachable microcoils (8x30 mm;9x30 mm and three 12x30 mm) and surgical glue emulsified with ultra-fluid oil. Postprocedural DSA demonstrated complete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac with occlusion of the splenic artery upstream. Take-home points In patients with multimorbidity, an IR treatment often offers a safer option. A careful study of the pre-procedural images is essential to plan the most suitable approach for each case.

14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103308, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085887

ABSTRACT

WHO recognized Dementia as public health priority and developed iSupport, a knowledge and skills training program for carers of people living with Dementia. This Mixed-Method study assessed the effectiveness of web-based training sessions among carers at old age homes in and around Puducherry, India, using WHO-iSupport for dementia hardcopy manual as a training tool. We registered the clinical trial protocol with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI), CTRI/2020/11/029154. We determined the change in 35 carer's knowledge and attitude following the training sessions using pre and post-test questionnaires quantitatively. Further, we explored their learning experience by conducting eight descriptive one-to-one telephonic interviews. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted this study online. i.e., obtained virtual consents, pre and post-test using Google forms, and training sessions through a webbased platform. We divided carers into groups where each carer attended two training sessions, and each session lasted for 2 h. Training sessions improved the carer's knowledge from a pre-test score of Median (IQR) 12 (9, 15) to a post-test score of 17 (16, 20) and attitude score from 30 (27.3, 34.8) to 33.5 (30.3, 39) in post-test. They perceived that the training sessions were helpful as they gained knowledge on dementia care, and their attitude has changed optimistically towards people living with Dementia. These findings suggest that web-based training has an effect and indicates the need for training among carers in various old age homes for betterment in providing care.

15.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2084032

ABSTRACT

Prolonged childcare center closures due to COVID-19 restrictions have changed children's health-related behaviors that may result in an increased risk in childhood obesity. Grounded in the social ecological model, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in body mass index (BMI), physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and screen time among preschool aged children enrolled in the Merced County Office of Education Head Start program before and after COVID-19 related Head Start center closures. A quantitative, longitudinal study design using secondary data from ChildPlus was used. The paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to measure the differences in BMI and health-related behaviors before and after COVID-19 related Head Start center closures. A p-value of < 0.05 was used to show statistical significance. Results of the study showed significant differences in BMI (t(264) = 4.533, p = .000), consumption of SSBs (Z = 2.046, p = .041), and amount of screen time (Z = 2.833, p = .005) of participants before and after COVID-19 related Head Start center closures. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of physical activity (Z = 1.042, p = .297). The results of this study will add to positive social change and enhance understanding of the potential impact of COVID-19 related childcare center closures on childhood obesity and health-related behaviors that will guide public health, early education, and other professionals in the development and implementation of effective physical activity and dietary interventions during future pandemics and prolonged childcare center closures that will mitigate adverse effects on the health and wellbeing of young children from vulnerable communities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
West Indian Medical Journal ; JOUR:23, 70(Supplement 1).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2083656

ABSTRACT

Objective: Suriname is among the Caribbean countries with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality rate. This study focused on socio-demographic characteristics and duration of hospitalization related to COVID-19 mortality in Suriname. Method(s): All people in Suriname who died of COVID- 19 (n = 1112) between March 13, 2020 and November 11, 2021, were included. Data were collected from medical records and included demographic variables and duration of hospitalization. Bivariate logistic regressions, chi-square tests, ANOVA models and a multinomial logistic regression were performed to determine differences in demographic variables and the survival time between epidemic waves. Result(s): The case fatality rate over the total study period was 22 per 1000. There was a significant difference in the number of deaths per wave (p < 0.001). The survival times during the four different waves were also significantly different (p < 0.001). Patients were more likely to have a longer survival time during the first (OR 1.66;[0.98-2.82]) and third wave (OR 2.37;[1.71-3.28]) compared to the fourth wave. There was a significant difference in mortality between ethnicities for the four waves (p = 0.010). When compared to the 'mixed and other' group, Creoles (OR 2.7;[1.33-5.29]) and Tribal Peoples (OR 2.8;[1.12-7.02]) were more likely to die during the 4th wave compared to the 3rd wave. Conclusion(s): Tailored interventions are especially needed for males, the Creole, Tribal and Indigenous Peoples, the elderly (65+). Future studies need to include other sociodemographic factors, co-morbidities, as well as vaccinationstatus to more comprehensively identify vulnerable groups.

17.
Embase; 28.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There were increased SARS-CoV2 hospitalizations and deaths noted during Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surge in the UK despite decreased cases, and the reasons are unclear. METHODS In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed reported SARS-CoV2 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. We also analyzed variables that affect the outcomes (including ethnicity, deprivation score, vaccination disparities, and pre-existing conditions). We also analyzed the vaccine effectiveness among those >=18 years of age (from August 16, 2021 to March 27, 2022). RESULTS Of the total cases (n= 22,072,550), hospitalizations (n=848,911), and deaths (n=175,070) due to COVID-19 in the UK;51.3% of cases (n=11,315,793), 28.8% of hospitalizations (n=244,708), and 16.4% of deaths (n=28,659) occurred during the Omicron variant surge as of May 1, 2022. During the latter part of the Omicron variant surge (February 28 - May 1, 2022 period), we observed a significant increase in the proportion of cases (23.7% vs 40.3%;RR1.70 [1.70-1.71];p<0.001) and hospitalizations (39.3% vs 50.3%;RR1.28 [1.27-1.30];p<0.001) among >=50 years of age, and deaths (67.89% vs 80.07%;RR1.18 [1.16-1.20];p<0.001) among >=75 years of age compared to the earlier period (December 6, 2021-February 27, 2022) during the Omicron variant surge. Using the available data from vaccine surveillance reports, we compared the Omicron variant surge (December 27, 2021-March 20, 2022) with the Delta variant surge (August 16-December 5, 2021). Our comparative analysis shows a significant decline in case fatality rate (all ages [0.21% vs 0.39%;RR 0.54 (0.52-0.55);p<0.001], over 18 years of age [0.25% vs 0.58%;RR 0.44 (0.43-0.45);p<0.001], and over 50 years of age [0.72% vs 1.57%;RR 0.46 (0.45-0.47);P<0.001]) and the risk of hospitalizations (all ages [0.62% vs 0.99%;RR 0.63 (0.62-0.64);p<0.001], over 18 years of age [0.67% vs 1.38%;RR 0.484 (0.476-0.492);p<0.001], and over 50 years of age [1.45% vs 2.81%;RR 0.52 (0.51-0.53);p<0.001]). Both the unvaccinated (0.41% vs 0.77%;RR 0.54 (0.51-0.57);p<0.001) and vaccinated (0.25% vs 0.59%;RR 0.43 (0.42-0.44);p<0.001) populations of over 18 years of age showed a significant decline in the case fatality rate during the Omicron variant surge when compared to the Delta variant surge. In summary, a significant decline in the risk of hospitalizations was observed both among the unvaccinated (1.27% vs 2.92%;RR 0.44 (0.42-0.45);p<0.001) and vaccinated (0.65% vs 1.19%;RR 0.54 (0.53-0.55);p<0.001) populations of over 18 years of age during the same period. We observed negative vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the third dose since December 20, 2021, with a significantly increased proportion of SARS-CoV2 cases hospitalizations, and deaths among the vaccinated;and a decreased proportion of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths among the unvaccinated. The pre-existing conditions were present in 95.6% of all COVID-19 deaths. We also observed various ethnicity, deprivation score, and vaccination rate disparities that can adversely affect hospitalizations and deaths among the compared groups based on vaccination status. CONCLUSIONS There is no discernable optimal vaccine effectiveness among >=18 years of age and vaccinated third dose population since the beginning (December 20, 2021) of the Omicron variant surge. Other data including pre-existing conditions, ethnicity, deprivation score, and vaccination rate disparities need to be adjusted by developing validated models for evaluating VE against hospitalizations and deaths. Both the vaccinated and unvaccinated populations showed favorable outcomes with a significant decline in case fatality rate and risk of hospitalizations during the Omicron variant surge. The suboptimal vaccine effectiveness with an increased proportion of cases among the vaccinated population was associated with a significantly increased proportion of hospitalizations and deaths during the Omicron variant surge. This underscores the need to prevent infections, especially in the elderly vaccinated population irrespective of vaccination status by employing uniform screening protocols and protective measures. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

18.
Embase; 28.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346602

ABSTRACT

Chronic infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) may contribute to poor vaccine efficacy in older adults. We assessed effects of CMV serostatus on antibody quantity and quality, as well as cellular memory recall responses, after 2 and 3 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine doses, in older adults in assisted living facilities. CMV serostatus did not affect anti-Spike and anti-RBD IgG antibody levels, nor neutralization capacity against wildtype or beta variants of SARS-CoV-2 several months after vaccination. CMV seropositivity altered T cell expression of senescence-associated markers and increased TEMRA cell numbers, as has been previously reported;however, this did not impact Spike-specific CD4+ T cell memory recall responses. CMV seropositive individuals did not have a higher incidence of COVID-19, though prior infection influenced humoral immunity. Therefore, CMV seropositivity may alter T cell composition but does not impede the durability of humoral protection or cellular memory responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in older adults. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

19.
Hong Kong Medical Journal ; 28(5):392-395, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2080967

ABSTRACT

Frailty and sarcopenia have emerged as important syndromes in geriatrics. Their impact is far reaching and are associated with many poor outcomes in older adults. Assessment of frailty and sarcopenia should form part of the assessment in older adults at all encounters between healthcare staff and older adults, coupled with comprehensive geriatric assessment. Early interventions are warranted based on existing consensus guideline recommendations. Recently, strict lockdown measures to protect at-risk groups during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic may have led to worsening of frailty and sarcopenia among older adults, owing to social isolation, reduced access to care, and physical inactivity. Assessment and prevention of frailty and sarcopenia are of particular importance during pandemics. Further study is warranted to find the best strategies for managing frailty and sarcopenia. Copyright © 2022, Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Press. All rights reserved.

20.
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia ; 16(4):504-505, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2080677
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