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1.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank 2022 (10168):34 pp many ref ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2111882

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted survey and data systems globally and especially in low- and middle-income countries. Lockdowns necessitated remote data collection as demand for data on the impacts of the pandemic surged. Phone surveys started being implemented at a national scale in many places that previously had limited experience with them. As in-person data collection resumes, the experience gained provides the grounds to reflect on how phone surveys may be incorporated into survey and data systems in low- and middle-income countries. This includes agricultural and rural surveys supported by international survey programs such as the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture, the Food and Agriculture Organization's AGRISurvey, or the 50x2030 Initiative. Reviewing evidence and experiences from before and during the pandemic, the paper analyzes and provides guidance on the scope of and considerations for using phone surveys for agricultural data collection. It addresses the domains of sampling and representativeness, post-survey adjustments, questionnaire design, respondent selection and behavior, interviewer effects, as well as cost considerations, all with an emphasis on the particularities of agricultural and rural surveys. Ultimately, the integration of phone interviews with in-person data collection offers a promising opportunity to leverage the benefits of phone surveys while addressing their limitations, including the depth of content constraints and potential coverage biases, which are especially challenging for agricultural and rural populations in low- and middle-income countries.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11647, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2055366

ABSTRACT

The horticulture sector in northern Australia, covering north of Western Australia (WA), Northern Territory (NT), and north Queensland (QLD), contributes $1.6 billion/year to the Australian economy by supplying diverse food commodities to meet domestic and international demand. To date, the Australian Government has funded several studies on developing the north’s agriculture sector, but these primarily focused on land and water resources and omitted an integrated, on-ground feasibility analysis for including farmers’/growers’ perspectives. This study is the first of its kind in the north for offering a detailed integrated assessment, highlighting farmers’ perspectives on the current state of the north’s horticulture sector, and related challenges and opportunities. For this, we applied a bottom-up approach to inform future agriculture development in the region, involving a detailed literature review and conducting several focus group workshops with growers and experts from government organisations, growers’ associations, and regional development agencies. We identified several key local issues pertaining to crop production, availability of, and secure access to, land and water resources, and workforce and marketing arrangements (i.e., transport or processing facilities, export opportunities, biosecurity protocols, and the role of the retailers/supermarkets) that affect the economic viability and future expansion of the sector across the region. For example, the availability of the workforce (skilled and general) has been a challenge across the north since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Similarly, long-distance travel for farm produce due to a lack of processing and export facilities in the north restricts future farm developments. Any major investment should be aligned with growers’ interests. This research highlights the importance of understanding and incorporating local growers’ and researchers’ perspectives, applying a bottom-up approach, when planning policies and programs for future development, especially for the horticulture sector in northern Australia and other similar regions across the globe where policy makers’ perspectives may differ from farmers.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023690

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to apply the time-varying Granger causality test (TVGC) and the DY Spillover Index (Diebold and Yilmaz, 2012) to measure the Granger causality and dynamic risk spillover effects of the international crude oil futures market on China's agricultural commodity futures market from the perspectives of return and volatility spillovers. Empirical evidence relating to the TVGC test suggests the existence of unidirectional Granger causality between crude oil futures and agricultural product futures. This relationship shows a strong time-varying property, in particular for sudden or extreme events such as financial crises and natural disasters. On the other hand, the volatility spillover in crude oil and agricultural product futures markets responds asymmetrically and bidirectionally according to the result of the DY Spillover index, and the periodicity of total volatility spillover correlates closely with the occurrence of global economic events, which indicates that the spillover effect between crude oil and agricultural commodity futures markets will be exacerbated in turbulent financial and economic times. Such findings are expected to help in formulating policy recommendations, portfolio design, and risk-management decisions.


Subject(s)
Petroleum , Causality , China , Forecasting , Risk Management
4.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999575

ABSTRACT

Speed read Undernourishment up 30 per cent since AGRA began in 2006 Income from larger yields lost to higher cost of fertiliser, industrial seeds Programmes lack input from communities they are meant to help, reports find Large agricultural development programmes have done little to reduce hunger while pushing farmers into debt, food security experts say, as they warn that such schemes risk failure if they do not move away from industrial fertilisers and seeds. [...]researchers used country-level production, yield and land data to assess whether AGRA programmes had significantly raised agricultural productivity. Hunger vs yields From AGRA’s launch to 2018, the number of people suffering undernourishment increased by 30 per cent across the organisation’s 13 focus countries, the report’s data shows.

5.
SciDev.net ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998632

ABSTRACT

Mike Michener, USAID Bureau for Resilience and Food Security The interactive virtual event was held to explore ways of leveraging information technology to build resilient agricultural and food systems in low- and middle-income countries. According to a joint report by the Alliance for Affordable Internet and the World Wide Web Foundation in October last year, 32 low- and middle-income countries missed out on US$1trillion in GDP in the last decade as a result of women’s exclusion in the digital world. The challenge for everyone involved in agricultural development is to ensure that the benefits of the so-called “fourth agricultural revolution” is not limited by lack of access to resources, said Mike Michener, deputy assistant administrator at USAID’s Bureau for Resilience and Food Security, at a fire-side session during the close of the event.

6.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (135):29 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965129

ABSTRACT

This paper explores agricultural performance of Mozambique, its institutional weaknesses, and the underlying factors that underpin an unsatisfactory performance during many decades. We point to the role of systemic political instability and violence combined with challenges to state legitimacy. Regional divides and lack of market integration continue to influence in a critical and all-encompassing manner. Finally, the way in which the interests of the elite and the influence of donors have affected progress in the agriculture sector suggests the need for concerted reorientation in existing strategies, policies, and priorities. This is reinforced by future challenges, including the extractive industry;population growth and internal migration;national and international markets;climate change;and COVID-19. We highlight the need to place the future of agriculture in Mozambique within a long-term perspective, focusing on the adoption and stabilization of an institutional framework aimed at increasing agricultural productivity and preserving the environment.

7.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):531-547, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901387

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam imposed many drastic restrictions to curb the outbreak of this virus. Such restrictions interrupted the normal functioning of various economic sectors, including agriculture. This research examined disruptions to agricultural activities, income loss and perceived food insecurity among farm households during the pandemic, and then explored the relationships among these economic factors. Design/methodology/approach: Household data from Vietnam and Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) were used for empirical analysis. Findings: Descriptive analyses found that only a small proportion of farm households suffered from the COVID-19 disruptions to their agricultural activities, a large percentage experienced income loss, and a medium number were worried about their food insecurity. GSEM results also revealed that the COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities significantly increased the likelihood of worrying about food insecurity, mediated by income loss. Research limitations/implications: Due to data limitations, the authors could not use better indicators to define and measure the variables of interest (e.g. COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities, income loss and food insecurity). Another similar concern was that our models did not account for unobservables, causing some estimation biases. Originality/value: This research is among the first attempts that examined the direct and indirect (mediated by income loss) effects of the COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities on food insecurity.

8.
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agricolas ; 13(3):553-565, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871146

ABSTRACT

Food security and hunger, linked to rural poverty, in Mexico are among the greatest challenges since they include large sectors of the population, which are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this essay is to analyze the food security of family farming and rural poverty in Mexico. A systemic analytical framework was developed, which considered the food crisis, food security, agriculture and the agricultural development modality followed by Mexico. Family farming was addressed through the stratification developed by SAGARPA and FAO, as well as the conditions of marginalization and income poverty. According to the analysis, with the neoliberal model, Mexico specialized agricultural production towards export crops and agricultural growth, production that increased in recent years, achieving a surplus agri-food balance, which means food availability, but not food security for people in extremely rural poverty. It is concluded that there is a close relationship between rural poverty and food security, the latter linked to social inequality in income distribution, among other inequalities, which generates a circle of low income-poverty-food insecurity that occurs and reproduces socially in family farming. The strengthening of assets, agri-food production and income in family farming are fundamental for overcoming rural poverty and building a more equitable society.

9.
Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development ; 22(1):485-492, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1864044

ABSTRACT

Given the trends of the economic development, economic crisis, situation of food security, impact of the pandemic Covid-19, it is sensible to research the situation in the agricultural sector in the world and in Ukraine, identify areas for development and assess export potential. These trends indicate the appropriateness and relevance of the study. The aim of the research is to study the state of the agricultural sector of Ukraine and identify areas of development, prospects for development, assessment of export opportunities and export potential. The initial data for the research are obtained on the portal of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. In the process of research the methods of comparison, analysis, synthesis, generalization, SWOT-analysis are used. The results of the research indicate that Ukrainian enterprises of the agricultural sector are technically equipped, produce high quality products that fit international norms, but concerning the geography of trade of most rural companies, it should be noted a great number of unexplored markets. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of export potential will be facilitated by innovations in the agricultural sector, development of infrastructure in the country, attracting investment.

10.
Agrarian Perspectives XXX. Sources of competitiveness under pandemic and environmental shocks, Proceedings of the 30th International Scientific Conference, Prague, Czech Republic ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1823751

ABSTRACT

The aim of the paper is to analyse the dynamics of total factor productivity of agriculture (TFP) in Russia as a whole and in the regional context as the basis for increasing competitiveness of the industry in the context of a pandemic and environmental shocks. As a result of the calculations, it was revealed that the basic index of agricultural growth in Russia for the period from 2005 to 2019 was 1.62, TFP growth occurred with an increase in the output of agricultural products and a decrease in the volume of resources for its production. Against the background of TFP growth, the foreign trade competitiveness of the Russian agriculture increased. The export of agricultural products increased 5.5 times over this period, the country became a net exporter. In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, agricultural production increased by 1.5%, and exports grew by 20% in both volume and value. In the federal subjects of Russia, dynamics of output, resources growth vary markedly. Such dynamics lead to big regional differences in agricultural TFP dynamics. Based on the calculations performed for 2005-2019 (2005 is the base year), the authors reveal a significant unevenness of TFP dynamics in the regions of Russia. The first group with the highest TFP rates includes 17 regions from the Central (9 regions), Privolzhsky (3 regions), Northwest (2 regions), Southern (2 regions), North Caucasian (1 region) Federal Districts. In Kursk, Oryol, Belgorod and Lipetsk Oblast, TFP more than doubled over the period under review (2.69;2.57;2.37;2.35, respectively), in the remaining 13 regions of the first group the TFP growth is from 1.65 up to 1.99. The second group consists of regions with cumulative TFP growth values which are less than 1.61, but more than 1.00. It is the most numerous group. It includes 43 regions from all federal districts of the Russian Federation. In 18 regions, the value of TFP growth over the period ranges from 1.31 to 1.61. And in the remaining 25 regions, the values are very low: from 1.00 to 1.31. The third group contains 12 regions, five of which are in the Far Eastern Federal District. The growth of the total factor productivity in the regions that are currently lagging behind in this indicator will contribute to the growth of competitiveness of the Russian agriculture.

11.
Agricultural Sciences ; 13(02):105-116, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818486

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to assess the factors that influence the sustainability of agricultural development. The study was carried out in the municipality of Bobonaro for about four months, from July to October 2021. Slovin's method was used to determine the sample size, with a desired percentage of 10% of the total population. Thus, 154 producers were interviewed as respondents and key persons in the area of agriculture. The variables interviewed are the main factors of agricultural productivity and the factors that affect sustainable agricultural development. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the data showed that about 94.87% of the respondents' productive area is in operation, with an average of 1.84 ha per respondent and the abandoned area around 0.11 ha per respondent. The average value of rice production is 2.38 ton per ha and corn 1.07 ton per ha. About 87% of producers raised the main types of animals such as cattle, pigs, goats with an average density of 2 to 5 animals per establishment. About 61% of producers have access to the market at a normal price for agricultural products. The factors that hinder less successful agricultural development, such as: those of nature with the greatest impact are climate changes, which influence changes in cultivation sessions and in the characteristics of productive soils, availability of water for irrigation and animal feed. On the socioeconomic side, it includes the willingness or interest of young people who want to work as farmers, less investment and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. It is concluded that natural and socioeconomic impacts can reduce agricultural productivity, so that this will be a major challenge for the development of the agricultural sector in the future.

12.
Agronomy ; 12(4):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1818039

ABSTRACT

Agriculture is the foundation of every country's survival and development. This paper analyzes the interaction between the business environment, agricultural opening-up and high-quality agricultural economy from the perspective of China's provinces. According to the panel data of 31 provinces and municipalities in China from 2009 to 2019, the empirical analysis was carried out based on the panel vector autoregression (PVAR) model. The results show that there is a quantitative interaction between China's business environment, agricultural opening-up and high-quality agricultural development, and the long-term time effect is very obvious. Specifically, (1) the impact of the business environment and the high-quality development of agriculture on itself is decreasing year by year. The agriculture opening-up itself has a strong impact and has always maintained strong stability. (2) The high-quality development of the agricultural economy has little impact on the business environment and the opening of agriculture to the outside world, but it has a certain stable and continuous effect. It is particularly important that the agricultural opening-up has an increasingly strong effect on the business environment and the high-quality development of the agricultural economy as time progresses. Therefore, we must always adhere to the agriculture opening-up. The regional business environment and the agriculture opening-up can jointly promote the high-quality development of the agricultural economy. The research results can provide a basis and reference for the central and local governments to formulate relevant agricultural development policies and provide a reference for relevant agricultural economic entities and enterprises. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Agronomy is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Agro Science ; 20(4):1-69, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812551

ABSTRACT

Topics in this special issue include: yam production in some South East and North Central zones of Nigeria beyond COVID-19 for acceleration towards inclusive sustainable development;climate information needs and services for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Tunisia;effective biotechnologies for revolutionalizing the livestock industry and policy adjustments for enhanced agricultural production in Nigeria after COVID-19 pandemic;stemming rural-urban migration through agricultural development in Nigeria;application of biological and digital technologies in resolving the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on crop production;patterns for cost-sharing of agricultural technology transfer;the role of soil in saving human race from COVID-19 pandemic;and the role of commissioners of agriculture in Nigeria.

14.
Sustainability ; 13(6):3242, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1792519

ABSTRACT

Combating poverty through the development of agricultural production and providing rural people with new employment and income opportunities in agriculture has become one of the major concerns of both policymakers and scholars worldwide. In many developing countries, government policies have failed to achieve the desired poverty alleviation goals due to the lack of financial resources. Despite that, few comprehensive studies have so far unambiguously identified the effects of the exogenous factor of capital inflows on the level of poverty and agriculture development. In this paper, the authors attempt to shed light on the poverty–agriculture–capital trilemma pattern by revealing the impacts of different types of capital inflows on the parameters of poverty reduction and agriculture development. The panel unit root test and pool mean group estimation techniques were employed for observing the short-term and long-term linkages between dependent and explanatory variables across fourteen developing economies of Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe. It was revealed that poverty reduction could be positively affected by an increase in the values of agricultural exports, foreign direct investment, foreign development assistance, and remittances received from migrant workers. The level of agriculture could be improved by deeper integration of developing economies to global food supply chains as either suppliers or consumers of food and agricultural products.

15.
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies ; 58(1):1-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1788373

ABSTRACT

Domestic and international mobility restrictions helped to reduce the numbers of confirmed Covid-19 cases until the end of 2021. Indonesia entered 2022 with caution, however, as Omicron cases began to rise. Recent success in managing the pandemic has coincided with what might be the start of an economic recovery, in no small part driven by high commodity prices—mainly for coal and palm oil—improving the fiscal and trade balances. The new tax harmonisation law is intended to lower the fiscal deficit to less than 3% of GDP by 2023, and a carbon tax will be implemented in April 2022—starting with a cap-and-tax scheme for coal power plants, before more sectors are included. Agriculture has played a key role in helping Indonesia to weather the pandemic, with the sector’s growth supporting employment and food consumption during the crisis. A resurgence in the palm oil price, together with rising agricultural wages and a narrowing of the labour productivity gap, has helped the agriculture sector lead the recovery, but concerns remain over the sector’s environmental footprint. Against recent food and environmental policy commitments, a renewed focus on increasing on-farm yields is a critical area for policy. We conclude with some reflections on the national palm oil replanting program and how better benefits might be delivered for smallholders and the environment.

16.
AGRIS On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics ; 14(1):45-58, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1780237

ABSTRACT

Today the strategic vector of agricultural development is connected with the introduction of digital technologies. Digitalization leads not only to transformation of production processes in the industry but as well has much wider environmental, social and institutional context. This paper is aimed at finding out what digital transformations have the most strategic significance for social and economic development of agro-industrial regions of the south of Russia, as well as at revealing the factors fostering or constraining these processes. Digital transformation in the south Russian regions has just affected the first level - application of new information technologies for raising economic performance and simultaneous alleviating environmental problems. The perspectives of digitalization of the agriculture are connected with developing open collaborative systems with different types of business collaborations. The authors highlight the main problems of realizing digital transformations in the agriculture of the south regions solving of which can be provided by means of authorities' institutional decisions within regional strategies of digitalization. This research gives an idea of the potential of agricultural digitalization and its results can be used for forming theoretical and methodological grounds for strategic development of agriculture in agro-industrial regions in modern circumstances.

17.
Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings ; : 20-24, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1777168

ABSTRACT

In the context of global economic uncertainty, turbulence and crises, in times of global Covid pandemic, digital transformation is an opportunity to optimize and rebuild business. Businesses rely on traditional management based on the work of managers and employees. Every business uses software products, but digitalization is more extensive. In it, every process in the company leaves a digital imprint, leading to comparability, traceability, analytical. This process is in line with the European Commission's Digital Single Market Strategy. Livestock and agriculture are one of the traditional sectors that are vital for development of societies and independent national economies. Over the last 70 years, the world's population has grown rapidly. The latter was registered with the increase in food needs. This in turn affects the employment of workers in the industry. The availability of intelligent systems for automation of production in animal husbandry will optimize production processes, increase productivity and efficiency of the sector. The process of accelerated development of agriculture (livestock and agriculture) also leaves its ecological imprint, which cannot be ignored. This article focuses on the study of the possibilities for the introduction of intelligent systems in animal husbandry in the context of digitalization processes in the economy. The application of innovative methods and tools for intelligent and efficient animal husbandry with reduced human resources and reduced impact on the environment. The aim is to study the factors influencing digitalization and to monitor the economic effects on the industry. The study uses various analyses of official and secondary databases, reports, surveys, web-based searches.

18.
Working Paper - CIAT Publication|2020. (498):36 pp. many ref. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1776986

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis is affecting the bovine livestock sector in Colombia. First impacts and short-term mitigation measures are already visible in all links of the beef and dairy value chains. The full magnitude of the crisis is not yet visible but most impacts already are or will be negative and will affect the beef and dairy value chain's performance in the near future. However, positive trends are also visible and some will endure the crisis and help building a more resilient food system for the future. Consumer preferences will change towards more food safety, traceability, animal welfare and sustainability and the sector will need to understand this and push value chain formalization and consumer communication. The transformation of the primary sector towards more sustainability and efficiency is becoming urgent, not only to increase resilience during times of crisis (as in the actual COVID-19 situation), but also to face the aggravating effects of climate change and combat inequality. Digitalization and virtualization have become important means during the crisis in all links of the value chains, creating opportunities for sustainably increasing sector efficiency. Research can play a fundamental role in analyzing and understanding the impacts posed by the current crisis, providing technologies and recommendations for recovery, and developing solutions for building resilient food systems. This document serves as a guide to understand current developments, impacts and mitigation measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides an outlook on potential future impacts and suggestions for mitigation options that can help policy and decision-makers in preparing the sector better for future crises.

19.
Ekonomika Sel'skokhozyaistvennykh i Pererabatyvayushchikh Predpriyatii ; 2:36-43, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1772162

ABSTRACT

The article reflects the results of scientific research on the theory and practice of cooperation development in the conditions of competition and the course towards export-oriented, organic agriculture, activation of diversification processes, non-productive activities in rural areas. Evolutionary new forms of responsible cooperation, prerequisites and foundations for the formation of ecological and socially oriented clusters are shown. The relevance and novelty of the work lies in the study of theory and practice, prospects for cooperation in the context of the development of export-oriented, organic agriculture, the activation of diversification processes, technological and organizational innovations, the formation of environmental and socially oriented clusters in the conditions of the COVID crisis of 2019 - 2021. The purpose of the study is to identify the prospects and mechanisms for achieving the competitiveness of rural producers of organic products and increasing the socio-economic efficiency of their activities based on the development of forms of cooperation, diversification, organic agriculture, the formation of ecological, socially-oriented clusters in rural areas. Using the example of the Altai Territory, the advantages of cooperation for the organization and management of organic agriculture, the processes of unrelated diversification in the agro-industrial complex of the resort and recreation center, the creation of a resort and agricultural cluster, for the preservation and development of rural areas are shown.

20.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science ; 978(1):011001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730599

ABSTRACT

30 November 2021, Serang City, IndonesiaThe Indonesian government focuses on agricultural development to build up a sustainable farming system and food sustainable system based on production capability, biodiversity resources, and diversity of local institutions. We could reach that point by improving the competitive advantages of local products based on competition and comparative advantage of nature and human resources.The COVID-19 pandemic has come and affected human life in all sectors including agriculture. The pandemic greatly impacted our health given the very rapid spread of the virus and restricted us to be active as usual that led to declining productivity and the national economy. The emergence of this pandemic has also disrupted agriculture in our country. Although the agricultural sector performed resilience during the pandemic, it has more been impacted on increasing input prices disrupting supply chains and decreasing demand for certain agricultural products, especially tertiary products.Universities and research institutions are required to be able to adapt to face this post-pandemic phase to help the farmers and revive their economy. Various efforts must be made by us so that farmers can adapt as well as make a real contribution to society in dealing with the pandemic and increase the level of our sustainable agriculture and environment.List of Steering committees are available in the pdf.

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