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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1):1772, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2038707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventilation rates are a key determinant of the transmission rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other airborne infections. Targeting infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions at locations where ventilation rates are low and occupancy high could be a highly effective intervention strategy. Despite this, few data are available on ventilation rates and occupancy in congregate locations in high tuberculosis burden settings. METHODS: We collected carbon dioxide concentration and occupancy data in congregate locations and public transport on 88 occasions, in Cape Town, South Africa. For each location, we estimated ventilation rates and the relative rate of infection, accounting for ventilation rates and occupancy. RESULTS: We show that the estimated potential transmission rate in congregate settings and public transport varies greatly between different settings. Overall, in the community we studied, estimated infection risk was higher in minibus taxis and trains than in salons, bars, and shops. Despite good levels of ventilation, infection risk could be high in the clinic due to high occupancy levels. CONCLUSION: Public transport in particular may be promising targets for infection prevention and control interventions in this setting, both to reduce Mtb transmission, but also to reduce the transmission of other airborne pathogens such as measles and SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Patient Saf Surg ; 16(1): 26, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Airborne transmission diseases can transfer long and short distances via sneezing, coughing, and breathing. These airborne repertory particles can convert to aerosol particles and travel with airflow. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many surgeries have been delayed, increasing the demand for establishing a clean environment for both patient and surgical team in the operating room. METHODS: This study aims to investigate the hypothesis of implementing a protective curtain to reduce the transmission of infectious contamination in the surgical microenvironment of an operating room. In this regard, the spread of an airborne transmission disease from the patient was evaluated, consequently, the exposure level of the surgical team. In the first part of this study, a mock surgical experiment was established in the operating room of an academic medical center in Norway. In the second part, the computational fluid dynamic technique was performed to investigate the spread of airborne infectious diseases. Furthermore, the field measurement was used to validate the numerical model and guarantee the accuracy of the applied numerical models. RESULTS: The results showed that the airborne infectious agents reached the breathing zone of the surgeons. However, using a protective curtain to separate the microenvironment between the head and lower body of the patient resulted in a 75% reduction in the spread of the virus to the breathing zone of the surgeons. The experimental results showed a surface temperature of 40 ˚C, which was about a 20 ˚C increase in temperature, at the wound area using a high intensity of the LED surgical lamps. Consequently, this temperature increase can raise the patient's thermal injury risk. CONCLUSION: The novel method of using a protective curtain can increase the safety of the surgical team during the surgery with a COVID-19 patient in the operating room.

3.
Journal of Aerosol Science ; : 106070, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031410

ABSTRACT

Activities such as singing or playing a wind instrument release respiratory particles into the air that may contain pathogens and thus pose a risk for infection transmission. Here we report measurements of the size distribution, number, and volume concentration of exhaled particles from 31 healthy musicians playing 20 types of wind instruments using aerosol size spectrometry complemented with in-line holography in a strictly controlled cleanroom environment. We find that playing wind instruments carries a lower risk of airborne disease transmission than speaking or singing. We attribute this to the fact that the resonators of wind instruments act as filters for particles >10µm in diameter, which were found in high abundance right after a brass mouthpiece but very rarely at the instrument bell end. We have also measured the size-dependent filtering properties of different types of filters that can be used as instrument masks. Based on these measurements, we calculated the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different near- and far-field scenarios with and without masking and/or distancing. We conclude that in all cases where there is a possibility that the musician is infectious, the only safe measure to prevent airborne transmission of the disease is the use of well-fitting and well-filtering masks for the instrument and the susceptible person.

4.
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science ; : 110777, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031281

ABSTRACT

Recently, a fluidic facemask concept was proposed to mitigate the transmission of virus-laden aerosol and droplet infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). This paper describes an experimental investigation of the first practical fluidic facemask prototype, or “Air-Screen”. It employs a small, high-aspect-ratio, crossflow fan mounted on the visor of a filter-covered cap to produce a rectangular air jet, or screen, in front of the wearer’s face. The entire assembly weighs less than 200 grams. Qualitative flow visualization experiments using a mannequin clearly illustrated the Air-Screen’s ability to effectively block airborne droplets (∼100 µm) from the wearer’s face. Quantitative experiments to simulate droplets produced during sneezing or a wet cough (∼102 µm) were propelled (via a transmitter) at an average velocity of 50 m/s at 1 m from the mannequin or a target. The Air-Screen blocked 62% of all droplets with a diameter of less than 150 µm. With an Air-Screen active on the transmitter, 99% of all droplets were blocked. When both mannequin and transmitter Air-Screens were active, 99.8% of all droplets were blocked. A mathematical model, based on a weakly-advected jet in a crossflow, was employed to gain greater insight into the experimental results. This investigation highlighted the remarkable blocking effect of the Air-Screen and serves as a basis for a more detailed and comprehensive experimental evaluation.

6.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, CONIT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029215

ABSTRACT

Face masks provide effective, easy-to-use, yet inexpensive safety in opposition to airborne pathogens and infectious agents, COVID existing masks are entire leaden of nature, and honestly work namely atmosphere filters for the nasal bargain and/or mouth. This assignment affords a modern 'active mask', among as the wearing machine is outfitted including smart sensors longevity in imitation of screen fitness parameters regarding ethnic and in accordance with notice the presence about somebody diseases signs and symptoms into real day yet drink excellent action in imitation of extenuating the threat. The proposed strategy is based on a 3-d printed clever masks dictation as senses the Bio parameters then make wise selections in imitation of limiting their concentrations. In the cutting-edge implementation, an onboard administrator determines then fetches the ppg sign and calculates guts rate, spo2 or the fire, and relative dampness is monitored with the use of a DHT sensor or the associative strip Monitoring is made by using PIR and Ultrasonic sensor or signals within the unusual cases. The sensor data amassed are saved in thingspeak. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
2022 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing, COM-IT-CON 2022 ; : 137-140, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029202

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic and is continuing to be a fast-spreading virus all over the world. It transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk becomes highest when people are nearby, but they can be over longer distances, while indoors. It is necessary to isolate such infected persons in public places with large gatherings. In addition to screening them, individual protection measures can also be taken.Two primary requirements that fulfil the entry to the public are by scanning of temperature to prevent person suspected and also to ensure one has masked face properly to permit entry. At the moment, all places use this system. But they are manual and depend on the person inspecting temperature and mask. There are few automated processes, but they do not have automatic entry control. Thus, there are risks of false entry of people inside the public place.In this paper, an integrated approach in mask detection and temperature scanning, indicated visually by LED and LCD Display, and further control entry with the operation of boom barrier has been presented. The information is also recorded to identify each entry. Open CV is used to detect masks and obtain better accuracy. An infrared temperature sensor and a proper guide to scan the temperature are used. Each step of the process is implemented on one Raspberry PI-based board. The system is suitably packaged and demonstrated. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
7th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference, TFEC 2022 ; 2022-May:477-481, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027065

ABSTRACT

The overall purpose of this study is to investigate expiratory events such as coughs and sneezes in the ejection scale framework, i.e. within a short time span immediately after the expiration process. We conducted large eddy simulations (LES) and compared the results with a recent theoretical model put forth by Balachandar et al. [2]. The theoretical model [2] has been formulated to estimate the evolution of expiratory events such as coughs and sneezes. Some of the key features of the model include estimates for the time evolution of the puff centroid, its size, as well as the number and size of droplets suspended within. The theoretical model includes closure parameters that have been obtained from LES [6, 7]. The simulations cover a wide range of parameters, such as the ejection volume of the puff, its momentum, the ejection angle (whether horizontal, inclined, or vertical), and the ambient humidity. One of the important findings is that while certain aspects such as the front-most location and the lateral extent of the puff, show large variability from one realization to the other, global parameters, such as the centroid location, total volume, and buoyancy show are much less sensitive to turbulent fluctuations. The results also indicate that humid ambient conditions favor stronger gravitational settling of the ejected virus-laden droplets, thus decreasing the risk of infection from the dominant airborne route. Furthermore, the simulations highlight a mechanism for transporting a relatively large amount of droplets over distances upward of 2 meters in a time span on the order of one second. This mechanism, which is also observed in experiments, consists of fast moving detached vortex rings that propagate in a seemingly random direction. We further quantify the size and viral content of the detached portions. © 2022 Begell House Inc.. All rights reserved.

9.
Osmaniye Korkut Ata Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu Dergisi / Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ; 5(2):1041-1052, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026789

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) is a new type of coronavirus known as an infectious upper respiratory tract infection disease. The coronavirus, which poses a great threat to human health worldwide, emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The most important reason for coronavirus epidemics to become a pandemic that the disease was easily transmitted by droplets in close proximity with infected people. The disease spread rapidly all over the world within a few months and it was declared a worldwide epidemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. It poses a risk for severe diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease in the advanced age group. Considering the mortality rates to date, great efforts have been made both worldwide and in our country to manufacture successful drugs and vaccines against Covid-19 infection. The main purpose of this review is to assist in an immune response and preventive work for Covid-19, thanks to the available information about the coronavirus epidemic that deeply affects humanity and the diseases it causes.

10.
Medical Journal of Babylon ; 19(2):115-122, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024819

ABSTRACT

Biological contaminants refer to environmental contamination and food source with living microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, viruses, and fungi, in addition to mites, house dust, and pollen. Temperature, relative humidity, movement of air, and sources of nutrients have influenced the presence and spread of biological contaminants. Numerous living microorganisms can grow independently on each other, such as bacteria and fungi. Viruses (a small obligate parasite) depend on other living organisms for their development and for performing vital functions. Indoor air can contaminate with biological contaminants by a different status, including living, dead, or debris of the dead microorganisms which were transported through ventilation systems, when the microorganism components dissolve in water. They become aerosolized when the contaminants are physically disturbed, like in renovation or construction, and when the contaminants discharge harmful gases into the indoor environment. Most studies conducted in recent years agree that air pollution rates are increasing, bringing more risks to human health, as pollution is related to the risk of heart and lung disease and its effect on children, especially infants and newborns. Also, environmental pollution may have become the most dangerous disaster faced by humans, because it means environment retrogradation in which humans lives as a result of an imbalance within the compatibility of the constituent elements and loses its ability to carry out its natural role in self-removal of contaminants by the natural factors noticeable within air, land, and water. In some cases, many common infections can spread through airborne contaminated microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles virus (MV), influenza virus, Morbillivirus, chickenpox virus, norovirus, enterovirus, less commonly coronavirus, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). When an infected person coughs, talks, sneezes, has throat secretions, and releases nasal into the air, the airborne infection can spread. Bacteria or viruses spread out noticeably in the air or ground and transport to other persons or surfaces. This review provides the conception of biological contaminants and their properties, nature of the indoor environment, and adverse health effects associated with biological contaminants. © 2022 Medical Journal of Babylon. All rights reserved.

11.
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia ; 66(8):599-601, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2024706

ABSTRACT

The intent is to reduce the risk of airborne transmission of infection to a susceptible patient. Introduction Understanding the mechanism of transmission of the virus causing coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is the key to designing preventative measures and breaking the chain of transmission. Although well-structured staff training programmes, suitable cognitive aids and appropriate PPE with strict hand hygiene are an integral part of infection prevention at the individual level, airborne precautions and respiratory isolation are imperative in managing COVID-19 patients or any other airborne infections safely in the future. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Indian Journal of Anaesthesia is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017776

ABSTRACT

Airborne SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a COVID-19 ward before activation of portable HEPA-air filtration, but not during the week of filter operation; SARS-CoV-2 was again detected when the filter was off. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 was infrequently detected in a COVID-19 ICU. Filtration significantly reduced other microbial bioaerosols in both settings.

13.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1056(1):012001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017609

ABSTRACT

Our world is resisting the new pandemic “severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2) causing the disease known as COVID-19. To date, more than two hundred and three million cases were confirmed out of who more than four million died. Sharing data that will help the community to intervene with measures that will decrease the spread of the virus and protect the population is an obligation. This will help the world cope with this pandemic. This research aims to highlight the different criteria that will determine that the building of a health facility is ready to control the infection of this virus and similar airborne viruses. The research developed an evaluation tool that can be used by hospital administration to assess the hospital building readiness to prevent and control airborne infection from the viewpoint of architecture if it is an existing one or alternatively it can assess the design in case of a new hospital building, determining required roles and responsibilities.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology implicates airborne transmission; aerosol infectiousness and impacts of masks and variants on aerosol shedding are not well understood. METHODS: We recruited COVID-19 cases to give blood, saliva, mid-turbinate and fomite (phone) swabs, and 30-minute breath samples while vocalizing into a Gesundheit-II, with and without masks at up to two visits two days apart. We quantified and sequenced viral RNA, cultured virus, and assayed sera for anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibodies. RESULTS: We enrolled 49 seronegative cases (mean days post onset 3.8 ±2.1), May 2020 through April 2021. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 45% of fine (≤5 µm), 31% of coarse (>5 µm) aerosols, and 65% of fomite samples overall and in all samples from four alpha-variant cases. Masks reduced viral RNA by 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3 to 72%) in fine and by 77% (95% CI, 51 to 89%) in coarse aerosols; cloth and surgical masks were not significantly different. The alpha variant was associated with a 43-fold (95% CI, 6.6 to 280-fold) increase in fine aerosol viral RNA, compared with earlier viruses, that remained a significant 18-fold (95% CI, 3.4 to 92-fold) increase adjusting for viral RNA in saliva, swabs, and other potential confounders. Two fine aerosol samples, collected while participants wore masks, were culture-positive. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 is evolving toward more efficient aerosol generation and loose-fitting masks provide significant but only modest source control. Therefore, until vaccination rates are very high, continued layered controls and tight-fitting masks and respirators will be necessary.

15.
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009234

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically brought the pitfalls of airborne pathogens to the attention of the scientific community. Not only viruses, but also bacteria and fungi may exploit air transmission to colonize and infect potential hosts and be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations. The efforts to decipher the mechanisms of pathogenicity of airborne microbes have brought to light the delicate equilibrium that governs the homeostasis of mucosal membranes. The microorganisms already thriving in the permissive environment of the respiratory tract represent a critical component of this equilibrium and a potent barrier to infection by means of direct competition with airborne pathogens or indirectly via modulation of the immune response. Moving down the respiratory tract, physicochemical and biological constrains promote site-specific expansion of microbes that engage in cross-talk with the local immune system to maintain homeostasis and promote protection. In this review, we critically assess the site-specific microbial communities that an airborne pathogen encounters in its hypothetical travel along the respiratory tract and discuss the changes in the composition and function of the microbiome in airborne diseases by taking fungal and SARS-CoV-2 infections as examples. Finally, we discuss how the technological and bioinformatics advancements may turn microbiome analysis into a valuable tool in the hands of clinicians to predict the risk of disease onset, the clinical course and the response to treatment of the individual patients in the direction of personalized medicine implementation.

16.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 77:27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006919

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Our objective is to report the outcomes of delivery in pregnant women with Covid-19. Methods: Retrospective review of data from standardized clinical reports of 187 pregnant women confirmed with Covid-19 confirmed infection delivered in Keningau Hospital between April 2020 to April 2022. Results: A total of 664 pregnant mothers were diagnosed to have Covid-19 infection and 187 (28.99%) were enrolled to the study as they delivered during the stipulated duration of review. 43 (23%) delivered vaginally and 144 (77%) delivered via ceaserean section. All women who delivered vaginally presented in advanced labour and almost 30% of the cases were delivered through instrumental delivery. All Covid-19 infected mothers were discharged well except one who succumbed to death due to complications of Covid-19 stage 5 but baby was well and alive. One neonate delivered by caesarian section was diagnosed to be Covid-19 positive. There was also one case delivered as breech assisted delivery, later succumbs to death due to lethal congenital abnormality (Covid negative). No staff were infected from handling Covid cases in this cohort. Conclusions: Pregnant women infected with Covid-19 had more interventions to ensure no cross contamination from mother to baby and to minimize exposure of medical staff involved. It is known that vaginal delivery cause more risk of airborne transmission towards newborn and medical staff involved while caesarian section offer more controlled environment but an increased risks of surgical and anaesthesia complications to the mother.

17.
International journal of pharmaceutical compounding ; 26(5):432-435, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006864

ABSTRACT

Airborne infectious diseases have been a major worldwide concern for many years. The sudden and fast spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 in a pandemic form, has intensified the necessity of constant environmental disinfection. Among the possible technologies that can be used for air disinfection is the ultraviolet germicidal irradiation through the use of ultraviolet C light. The main mechanism involved in ultraviolet C light inactivation of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, yeasts, and others is mainly due to its capacity to promote dimerization of pyrimidine, disturbing the microorganism's DNA (and RNA) replication and transcription, therefore leading to cell death. The aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of a new ultraviolet C light disinfection system to deactivate viruses such as coronavirus in different environmental conditions. The device was effective in the neutralization of airborne particles containing coronavirus genus samples, presenting >99.99% of inactivation rate in an aerosolization test, simulating the real conditions in which this virus is most transmitted in different environments.

18.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25258, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dilution ventilation by enhancing fresh air intake has been prescribed to reduce airborne infection spread during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is all the more important in assembly spaces like auditoriums. Premier technology institutes have large campuses with large auditoriums for academic and cultural events in India. These institutes serve as role models for society, where gatherings are essential, but there is also the possibility of transmission of all airborne respiratory infections, including tuberculosis, into the community. The fresh air taken in should also be filtered for pollution to prevent other lung issues. AIMS: Fresh air intake and filtration have been studied in order to understand whether the outside air supplied indoors is filtered for PM2.5, which is a major ambient polluter in India. Settings and design/methods: In this study, the Right to Information Act of 2005 has been used to obtain first-hand information from the institutes with respect to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in their auditoriums. Twelve of the 19 institutes fall in cities with non-attainment of ambient air quality standards. RESULTS: Eleven out of all those had recently integrated fresh air supply, and six replied in the negative. Only one out of all of them had appropriate filters. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need for a possible trade-off between the use of air conditioners for thermal comfort + assumed protection against PM2.5, which is the switching off of air conditioners and manually opening up windows and using fans for ventilation. Indian HVAC design for gathering spaces, especially educational institutes, needs to factor in fresh air for dilution ventilation as well as PM2.5 filtration.

19.
Sound and Vibration ; 56(3):255-274, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2006717

ABSTRACT

The arrangement of natural and physical features on the earth's surface are a few among the countless items that govern the airborne acoustic transmission at boundary layers. In particular, if the acoustic waves are attributes of live concerts at open-air theatres, without losing the sheen and quality, the audience should certainly receive the unbroken depth of the performance. Hence, at all times, it is advisable to analyse the auditory receptiveness, particularly in all intended recreational spaces. The current pandemic circumstances and the mandated COVID-19 prevention protocols encourage gatherings in naturally ventilated outdoor regions than confined indoors. This work predicts and quantifies the acoustic experience at the naturally carved amphitheatre at SAINTGITS, an autonomous institution at the down South-West of the Indian Subcontinent. The entire recreational space at SAINTGITS AMPHI was separately modelled as a Base case and Advanced case, and were analysed using the acoustic modelling module of EASE Focus, a renowned simulation freeware, which is in strict adherence with the International standards. The variation in loudness received at the nearest and farthest ends of the amphitheatre was between 67 to 80 dB. Though the Zero frequency SPL (Z-weighting) exhibited the loudness in the range of 81 to 85 dB and could maintain a safer auditory level for any human ear, it was confined to a hemispherical region near the sound source. A vertical beam angle of -4.0 degrees was found to be effective throughout. The procedures and analyses will certainly help the future organizers and stakeholders to effectively plan the resources to reap rich acoustic experience at terrain-centric locales. The surface topography and contours were plotted with another set of freeware, the CADMAPPER and the QUIKGRID, to compare terrain gradient with the known data. Furthermore, this interdisciplinary research exhibits the extensive simulation capability of both EASE Focus and QUIKGRID and demonstrates the modelling versatility and deliverable potential of these freeware to benefit the budding architects and researchers.

20.
Indoor Air ; 32(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005270

ABSTRACT

As virus-laden aerosols can accumulate and remain suspended for hours in insufficiently ventilated enclosed spaces, indoor environments can heavily contribute to the spreading of airborne infections. In the COVID-19 pandemics, the role possibly played by cable cars has attracted media attention following several outbreaks in ski resort. To assess the real risk of infection, we experimentally characterize the natural ventilation in cable cars and develop a general stochastic model of infection in an arbitrary indoor space that accounts for the epidemiological situation, the virological parameters, and the indoor characteristics (ventilation rate and occupant number density). As a results of the high air exchange rate (we measured up to 180 air changes per hour) and the relatively short duration of the journey, the infection probability in cable cars traveling with open windows is remarkably lower than in other enclosed spaces such as aircraft cabins, train cars, offices, classrooms, and dining rooms. Accounting for the typical duration of the stay, the probability of infection during a cable-car ride is lower by two to three orders of magnitude than in the other examples considered (the highest risk being estimated in case of a private gathering in a poorly ventilated room). For most practical purposes, the infection probability can be approximated by the inhaled viral dose, which provides an upper bound and allows a simple comparison between different indoor situations once the air exchange rate and the occupant number density are known. Our approach and findings are applicable to any indoor space in which the viral transmission is predominately airborne and the air is well mixed.

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