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1.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105414

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes malnutrition in infected patients. This study aimed to investigate the use of systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for malnutrition assessment among COVID-19 inpatients. Methods This is a single-center retrospective study on 108 hospitalized COVID-19 patients;14 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Data were collected from patients' profiles while NLR, PLR, GPS, and SII were calculated. Inflammatory indices' predictive power was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Hospitalization days, neutrophils count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum urea levels were significantly higher in ICU patients. None of SII, PLR, and NLR were significantly different between ICU and non-ICU groups. Also, albumin and GPS showed a higher sensitivity level (100.0), followed by PLR and SII (78.57 and 71.34, respectively). Regarding ROC curves, even though NLR, PLR, and SII provided the largest area under the curve (AUC) (0.687, 0.682, 0.645;respectively), they have shown a poor discrimination ability, while GPS and albumin were ineffective in predicting malnutrition in COVID-19 patients. Conclusion NLR, SII, and PLR showed poor predicting ability for malnutrition among COVID-19 inpatients. Additional consideration should be taken for using inflammatory parameters (SII, PLR, GPS, and NLR) to predict malnutrition in COVID-19 inpatients.

2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(10): 1745-1750, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100047

ABSTRACT

Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR) is one of the new tools to assess the severity of inflammation. It is used to determine clinical severity and prognosis in many diseases. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR) and prognosis in pregnant patients with more severe COVID-19 infection. Retrospective study. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in a retrospective manner by scanning the files of pregnant patients who had a positive polymerase chain reaction test result and were hospitalized in Adiyaman Training and Research Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and patients who were not admitted. CRP/albumin ratio (CAR) levels were compared between these two groups. The cut-off value was determined in the prediction of intensive-care admission and poor prognosis. Results: 117 patient files were reviewed. 13 patients were followed up with intensive care, whereas 104 patients completed their treatment in the service. The CAR levels of the patients admitted to intensive care were significantly higher (P < 0.01). In the estimation of intensive-care admission, the CAR level was determined to be 0.970 in the area under the curve with 100% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cut-off CAR level was calculated as 1.8. Conclusion: CAR is a valuable biomarker for predicting prognosis, as well as follow-ups of pregnant COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Albumins
3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071288

ABSTRACT

The prefusion spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds advanced glycation end product (AGE)-glycated human serum albumin (HSA) and a higher mass (hyperglycosylated/glycated) immunoglobulin (Ig) G3, as determined by matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). We set out to investigate if the total blood plasma of patients who had recovered from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a result of COVID-19, contained more glycated HSA and higher mass (glycosylated/glycated) IgG3 than those with only clinically mild or asymptomatic infections. A direct serum dilution, and disulphide bond reduction, method was developed and applied to plasma samples from SARS-CoV-2 seronegative (n = 30) and seropositive (n = 31) healthcare workers (HCWs) and 38 convalescent plasma samples from patients who had been admitted with acute respiratory distress (ARDS) associated with COVID-19. Patients recovering from COVID-19 ARDS had significantly higher mass AGE-glycated HSA and higher mass IgG3 levels. This would indicate that increased levels and/or ratios of hyper-glycosylation (probably terminal sialic acid) IgG3 and AGE glycated HSA may be predisposition markers for the development of COVID-19 ARDS as a result of SARS-CoV2 infection. Furthermore, rapid direct analysis of serum/plasma samples by MALDI-ToF for such humoral immune correlates of COVID-19 presents a feasible screening technology for the most at risk; regardless of age or known health conditions.

4.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(4):140-149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066825

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify helpful laboratory paprameters for the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: An observational retrospective study was conducted to analyze the biological profile of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Unit of Pulmonology at Setif hospital between January and December 2021. Patients were divided into two groups: the infection group and the control group with patients admitted for other pathologies. The infected group was further divided according to the course of the disease into non-severe and severe subgroups. Clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes of admitted patients were collected. Results: The infection group included 293 patients, of whom 237 were in the non-severe subgroup and 56 in the severe subgroup. The control group included 88 patients. The results showed higher white blood cells, neutrophils, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, transaminases, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and lower levels of lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts, serum sodium concentration, and albumin. According to ROC curves, urea, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, and albumin were effective diagnosis indices on admission while neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, glycemia, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were effective during follow-up. Conclusions: Some biological parameters such as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, glycemia, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase are useful for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

5.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:1818-1826, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome has led to a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Malnutrition either biochemically or anthropometrically is a well-known risk factor for COVID-19 and may be the vice versa AIM: The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in children infected with COVID-19 through evaluating the nutritional biomarkers such as serum electrolytes, serum albumin, and hemoglobin together with the anthropometric assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that was conducted at El-Matria Teaching Hospital for all children admitted with confirmed COVID-19 for 6 months from February 1, 2021 to the end of July, 2021. Nutritional biochemical evaluation included serum electrolytes particularly the potassium and other nutritional biomarkers such as serum albumin and hemoglobin. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation depended on body mass index, the height/length, weight for length, and weight for height. The prevalence of malnutrition esp. hypokalemia was the main outcome. RESULTS: Hypokalemia was present in 21.8% of the study participants. Other nutritional biomarkers were found as hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia were detected in 49.1%, 38.2%, 21.8%, and 34.5% of the study subjects, respectively. Anthropometric malnutrition was present in most of the enrolled children with COVID-19 in the study (65.5 % [n = 36]) through which overweight and obese children occupied a greater percentage. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition either biochemically or anthropometrically could be linked to COVID-19 in children. COVID-19 could have negative outcomes on the nutritional status such as electrolytes disturbances. Both malnutrition and COVID-19 are considered synergistic associations.

6.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066296

ABSTRACT

The link between being pregnant and overweight or obese and the infectivity and virulence of the SARS CoV-2 virus is likely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein glycosylation, which may work as a glycan shield. Methylglyoxal (MGO), an important advanced glycation end-product (AGE), and glycated albumin (GA) are the results of poor subclinical glucose metabolism and are indices of oxidative stress. Forty-one consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients comprising 25% pre-pregnancy overweight women and 25% obese women were recruited. The aim of our study was to compare the blood levels of MGO and GA in pregnant women with asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2 infection with low risk and uneventful pregnancies and to evaluate the relative perinatal outcomes. The MGO and GA values of the SARS-CoV-2 cases were statistically significantly higher than those of the negative control subjects. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients who suffered of moderate to severe COVID-19 syndrome had higher values of GA than those infected and presenting with mild symptoms or those with asymptomatic infection. Premature delivery and infants of a small size for their gestational age were overrepresented in this cohort, even in mild-asymptomatic patients for whom delivery was not indicated by the COVID-19 syndrome. Moreover, ethnic minorities were overrepresented among the severe cases. The AGE-RAGE oxidative stress axis on the placenta and multiple organs caused by MGO and GA levels, associated with the biological mechanisms of the glycation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could help to explain the infectivity and virulence of this virus in pregnant patients affected by being overweight or obese or having gestational diabetes, and the increased risk of premature delivery and/or low newborn weight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Glucose , Glycosylation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Obesity , Overweight , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Pyruvaldehyde , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care ; 32(Supplement 2):S33-S34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063952

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Prognosis of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), hitherto an invariably fatal disease, has purportedly improved with the introduction of the unlicensed nucleoside analog GS-441524 (GS). Method(s): A prospective observational study. Inclusion criteria comprised a complete medical record, characteristic clinical signs and laboratory changes, and a confirmatory RT-PCR test for the presence of feline coronavirus and FIP pathogenic strains in pleural/peritoneal/cerebrospinal fluid samples. Clinical signs, laboratory parameters, and adverse effects were recorded at diagnosis, during treatment, and at the end of a 12-week observation period. Remission was defined as completion of 12 weeks or more of treatment and resolution of clinical signs. Result(s): Overall, 175 medical files were reviewed but only 38 cases met the inclusion criteria. Samples of used vials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified GS-441524 as the active component. Twenty-one cats (55%) were considered in full remission, 7 (18 %) cats are currently treated, and 4 cats are in the 12-week observation period. Two cats experienced a relapse, 1 and 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Six (15%) cats died. Anemia (65%), jaundice (50%), thrombocytopenia (50%), and an albumin globulin ratio under 0.6 (81%) were common findings. Clinical manifestation included effusive (n = 30), noneffusive (n = 3), and neurological (n = 6) forms. Adverse effects included injection site reactions (52% of cats) and pain (95% of cats), and temporary creatinine increase (64%). Conclusion(s): Short-term efficacy against FIP disease, using an unlicensed nucleotide analog, was observed herein. The unknown purity or biological activity of these unlicensed compounds is a major limitation of this treatment.

8.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(Supplement 2):80-81, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062720

ABSTRACT

Background: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup provides a weak conditional recommendation in support of hemodialysis (HD) for select patients with severe phenytoin poisoning. Despite this recommendation, the HD clearance of phenytoin is poorly studied. We present a patient who developed phenytoin toxicity that was treated with hemodialysis and report on the efficacy of phenytoin removal during HD. Case report: An 87-year-old man with epilepsy who was maintained on a stable dose of 300mg phenytoin extended-release daily was admitted to the hospital for treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and congestive heart failure. On hospital day 14, the patient had a gradual onset of depressed mental status with hypothermia (nadir 35 degrees Celsius). At this time, he had a rising total blood phenytoin concentration (peak 49.3 mcg/mL [therapeutic 10-20mcg/mL] with an albumin of 3.8 g/dL [normal 3.4-5.4 g/dL]). The patient's other medications included furosemide, aspirin, atorvastatin, digoxin, doxycycline, metoprolol tartrate, and warfarin;he was also receiving albumin and crystalloid for hypovolemia (albumin nadir on hospital day 14: 2.5 g/dL). Free phenytoin concentrations were not available. Alternate etiologies of hypothermia (endocrine, infectious) were excluded. The Poison Control Center was consulted and recommended HD because of the concern for prolonged coma, as per EXTRIP guidelines. The patient received three sessions of HD over a period of 6 days at 2.5-3 h per session using an F160 Optiflux membrane filter (Fresenius Medical Care, Waltham, MA, USA), with a blood flow rate of 350mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 700mL/min. After the first session of HD (2.5 h) on hospital day 21, his hypothermia resolved and his phenytoin concentration fell from 39.2mcg/mL to 34.2 mcg/mL with only mild improvement in his mental status. After 6 days (hospital day 27), his phenytoin concentration decreased to 19.5 mcg/mL and his mental status normalized. Effluent from the first HD session had phenytoin concentrations below the limit of detection (0.50mcg/mL). Thus, no greater than 52mg of phenytoin was removed during a 2.5-h session of hemodialysis. Discussion(s): The reason for the sudden increase in blood phenytoin concentrations in this patient is unclear in the absence of drug-drug interactions or dosing changes to the phenytoin. Although uncommonly reported, patients with phenytoin toxicity can experience hypothermia. In this case, the patient's hypothermia resolved during HD, although it is unclear if this was related to changes in phenytoin concentration or (more likely) direct extracorporeal warming via the HD machine. If the patient's phenytoin clearance from the first session were extrapolated to subsequent sessions an estimated maximum of 166.4mg of phenytoin would be removed in 8 total hours of HD, which is far less than previously reported phenytoin clearances on the order of grams. This difference may be related to the use of high cutoff dialysis membranes in prior studies, which are not routinely used. Conclusion(s): Although HD rapidly resolved this patient's hypothermia, a minimal amount of phenytoin was recovered in the patient's dialysate. Prior studies suggesting consequential clearance and efficacy of phenytoin removal by extracorporeal treatment may not apply to routine HD methods. Further studies on the utility of extracorporeal treatment for phenytoin toxicity are needed.

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A2157, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060902

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Manifestations of Infections SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 03:15 pm - 04:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Post-acute COVID-19 inflammatory syndrome is defined as persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms of original infection (1). These can manifest in various ways, but pulmonary, cardiac, and renal complications are the most common (1), with IL-6 thought to be an important mediator (2). We report what we believe to be the first case of Idiopathic Multicentric Castleman's Disease (iMCD) as a manifestation of post-acute COVID-19 inflammatory syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year old male with history of hypertension and childhood asthma (not on current therapy), and recently resolved COVID-19 from 4 weeks prior, is admitted to the hospital with progressive shortness of breath, cough, fevers and significant fatigue. Prior COVID-19 symptoms included fevers, cough, and shortness of breath, which improved after 2 weeks without treatment. Symptoms returned 2 weeks later and worsened. On admission, he was tachycardic to 108 with temp of 37.8C, and otherwise stable vitals. Pertinent labs included WBC 17 (neutrophil predominant), Hgb 11.6, Cr 2.52, Na 126 and albumin 2.7 (normal baselines). SARS-CoV2 PCR was negative. CT chest with PE protocol showed no PE but moderate bilateral pleural effusions and extensive mediastinal lymphadenopathy. 1.2L clear fluid (transudative with lymphocyte predominance) was removed via thoracentesis. Microbiology, flow cytometry and cytology were unremarkable. Renal and mediastinal lymph node biopsies were taken. Lymph node sampling was non-diagnostic x2, but renal biopsy showed acute microangiopathy without thrombi, concerning for acute glomerulonephritis. Serologic vasculitis and CTD workup were entirely negative. He was treated with a course of prednisone and improved, however as outpatient, had recurrence of all these issues. Repeat thoracentesis x3 was unrevealing. He was again admitted and had an excisional inguinal node biopsy, showing findings consistent with hyaline vascular Castleman Disease. Further heme/onc evaluation and discussion showed diagnosis meeting criteria for iMCD. DISCUSSION: Multicentric Castleman's Disease is most often associated with HHV-8 infection in the setting of HIV. If HHV-8 is negative, the disease is termed idiopathic (iMCD). In these cases, disease is mediated predominantly by IL-6, but the direct cause is unknown, though existing theories include non-specific viral infections, malignancy and autoimmune diseases (3). Our patient had no evidence of malignancy or autoimmune phenomena. Thus COVID-19 illness was the most plausible explanation, especially given known IL-6 activity in COVID-19 inflammatory syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: Post-acute COVID-19 inflammatory syndromes are extensive and can affect any organ system. iMCD is another possible manifestation, and must be diagnosed with excisional lymph node biopsy. High index of suspicion should be maintained to make this diagnosis. Reference #1: Nalbandian, Ani et al. "Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome." Nature medicine vol. 27,4 (2021): 601-615. Reference #2: Phetsouphanh, Chansavath et al. "Immunological dysfunction persists for 8 months following initial mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection.” Nature immunology vol. 23,2 (2022): 210-216. Reference #3: Dispenzieri, Angela, and David C Fajgenbaum. "Overview of Castleman disease." Blood vol. 135,16 (2020): 1353-1364. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kyle Halligan No relevant relationships by Chris Yan

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1124, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060776

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Biological Markers in Patients with COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: In December 2019, a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a global pandemic. The literature has been slowly growing in the subgroup of pregnant women but the metabolic derangements of pregnancy and SARS-CoV-2 have not been well described. METHODS: In this case series, we review 9 patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections admitted to the medical ICU at a single institution between 2020-2022, during the delta variant wave. RESULTS: Of the nine critically ill patients, the mean age was 32 ± 6.4 years with fetal age on admission of 27 ±2.81 weeks and 29 ±2.91 weeks at delivery. Average CRP of 114 ± 25 mg/L. In eight of 9 patients (89%), there was an anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA) on admission. The average albumin-corrected anion gap was 18±1.93. 75% of patients had mild ketonuria based on urinalysis. However, 50% had documented symptoms of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. While betahydroxybutyrate was checked in 2 patients, neither were abnormal. One had lactic acidosis, but none required vasopressors at time of identification. No renal failure or diabetes was noted and only two had abnormal glucose tolerance tests. At delivery, average PEEP was 10± 4 cmH2O with an average respiratory rate of 28 ± 4 breaths per minute. All patients with AGMA delivered early resulting in preterm delivery. 75% of the fetuses showed signs of distress at the time of delivery, which was the primary indication for delivery in 37.5% of deliveries. 37.5% of deliveries were due to significant maternal hypoxia. The only patient without AGMA did not deliver early. CONCLUSIONS: After excluding renal failure, toxin ingestion, and lactic acidosis, only ketosis can weakly explain the AGMA. There have been several studies that highlighted the association between COVID and ketone production. In pregnancy, placental production of glucagon and human placental lactogen and subsequent insulin resistance increases susceptibility to ketosis. A recent study posited that COVID could cause placental abnormalities. Therefore, pregnant women may be more susceptible to significant ketosis because of COVID infection. In one of our cases, the combination of hypoxia and acidosis could not be managed safely by the ventilator and resulted in early delivery. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ketosis and an elevated anion gap could be a marker for more severe outcomes in pregnant patients with COVID. This case series highlights the challenges of managing the metabolic demands of critically ill pregnant patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Calli Bertschy no disclosure on file for Joey Carlin;No relevant relationships by Jessica Ehrig No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande no disclosure on file for Jordan Gray;No relevant relationships by Abirami Subramanian

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A865-A866, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060714

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Studies on COVID-19 Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are commonly reactivated in critically ill patients with severe infections. This study aimed to evaluate the proportion of reactivation of EBV and CMV and its impact on length of stay, need for ventilation, and Ichikado CT scores in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted comprising adult patients admitted to our hospital with COVID-19 infection from June 2021 to September 2021. Patients were divided into groups: virus-free, EBV-only, CMV-only, and EBV and CMV detected. Primary outcomes were length of stay, need for ventilation, and Ichikado CT score. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, Games-Howell, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. RESULTS: 189 patients were included with a median age of 51 years [41 – 66], 80 (42.3%) were female and 109 (57.7%) were male. CD4(+) counts were lower in all viral reactivation groups. EBV-only (157 cell/µl [93 – 279.2] ), CMV-only (82.5 cell/µl [65.5 – 323.7] ), both viruses (62.5 cell/µl [47.5 – 135.5]) and virus-free (221 cell/µl [117 – 318]), (H(3) = 12.029, p = < 0.01). A significant increase in the Ichikado CT score was seen in the viral reactivation groups. EBV 186.5 [43.6], CMV 177.5 [41.6], both-viruses group 204 [50.3] vs. virus-free 161 [45.8],( H(3) = 15.770, p = < 0.01). There was an increase in days of hospitalization when comparing the virus-free and the viral reactivation groups. EBV (9 days [5.5-15.5]), CMV (17 days [3-33]), both viruses (23 days [8-31]) vs. virus-free (5 days [3.5-9]), (H(3) = 15.487, p = < 0.01). Regarding the need for assisted ventilation, there was no difference between groups. 7 (9.1%) patients in the virus-free group, 29 (29.9%) patients in the EBV group, 2 (33.3%) patients in the CMV group, and 2 (22.2%) patients in the both-viruses group needed mechanical ventilation (X2 (3, N=189) = 11.699, p= 0.08). Additionally, a statistically significant decrease in albumin levels on admission was found in the EBV-only patients compared to the virus-free group, (3.4 g/dL [0.44] vs 3.75 g/dL [0.46], F(3,185) = 5.483, p = < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Viral reactivation is associated with lower CD4(+) count, an increase in length of stay, and higher Ichikado CT scores. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: EVB and CMV reactivation is associated with low CD4(+) counts and longer hospital stay. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by David Akinwale No relevant relationships by Angelica Almaguer No relevant relationships by Sushen Bhalla No relevant relationships by Ailine Canete Cruz No relevant relationships by Ndiya Emeaba Speaker/Speaker's relationship with johnson and johnson Please note: approx year 2000 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Honoraria clinical research relationship with gilead Please note: since 1990 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research clinical research relationship with ansun Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support clinical research relationship with regeneron Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Jesus Salvador Gonzalez Lopez No relevant relationships by Najia Hussaini No relevant relationships by Claudia Ramirez No relevant relationships by Salim Surani No relevant relationships by Daryelle Varon No relevant relationships by Joseph Varon No relevant relationships by Mohamed Ziad

12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(7):1808, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058002

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level in predicting intensive care and mortality in patients affected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital (Sakarya, Turkey) between April and August of 2020. We enrolled patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 via real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and admitted to the intensive care (Severe COVID-19;S-COVID) or non intensive care (Moderate COVID-19;M-COVID). We then analyzed the relationship of the ADMA level with various parameters between S-COVID and M-COVID groups. Results: This study included 87 patients, comprising 43 females and 44 males, with a mean age of 61 and 71.50 years, respectively. The male/female distribution was 22/25 (46.8%/53.2%) in the M-COVID group and 22/18 (55%/45%) in the S-COVID group. The hospitalization time, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte-to-albumin ratio, international normalization ratio, D-dimer, troponin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, lactate, ADMA, and mortality rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05). In contrast, lymphocyte, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, calcium, and albumin values were lower (p < 0.05) in the S-COVID group than in the M-COVID group. While the mortality rate was 55% in S-COVID patients, no mortality was detected in M-COVID patients (p < 0.05). Moreover, ADMA level was 6618 ± 3000 (6400) in S-COVID patients and 5365 ± 3571 (3130) in M-COVID patients, indicating a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). Conclusion: The asymmetric dimethylarginine level increases in severe outcomes;hence, it can potentially predict severity in patients with COVID-19.

13.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28334, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Various biomarkers are used when evaluating the hospitalization needs of patients diagnosed with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a biomarker that causes blood levels to increase as a result of hypoxia and acidosis. We think that an increase in IMA in the blood may be caused by hypoxia stemming from lung damage. This study aimed to compare the mean/median of the blood IMA value in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 infection with a control group. METHODS: The case group included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia detected by lung imaging and a positive COVID test. Demographic information of the case group, the severity of pneumonia, and their PCR test results were recorded in the data set. FINDINGS: A total of 150 people, 90 of whom were in the case group and 60 of whom were in the control group, participated in the study. No statistically significant differences were found between the blood IMA levels of the case group and the control group. When the blood IMA levels of the case group were compared according to pneumonia severity, no statistically significant differences were found between the mild-moderate and severe pneumonia groups. CONCLUSION: Blood IMA levels are not a diagnostic biomarker for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and are not helpful in predicting the severity of pneumonia.

14.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(5): 675, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055487

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a severe public health threat worldwide, affecting the function of multiple organs in affected individuals, in addition to respiratory function. Several strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been circulating worldwide since it first arose, with some of these having the ability to escape from natural or vaccine-mediated immunity. The Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI), which is derived from the peripheral lymphocyte count and serum albumin, has been reported to be significantly associated with a poor survival rate and post-operative complications in patients with various diseases and in some studies on patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of OPNI as a prognostic indicator in patients with COVID-19 during the periods of alpha, delta and omicron variant predominance. Adult patients who visited or were hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, covering the second, third (alpha variant), fourth (delta variant) and fifth (omicron variant) pandemic waves. According to the results obtained, OPNI exhibited a statistically significant difference among patients with mild/moderate, severe and critical disease, with the lowest values observed in patients with critical disease in all the pandemic waves examined. Moreover, OPNI was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID-19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including as confounders an age >65 years, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities in all periods examined.

15.
Critical Care and Shock ; 25(4):179-188, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046919

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a severe impact on patients with comorbidities. Most of them are likely to develop multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Serum albumin level is a reliable predictor of severe outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum albumin levels and the risk of de-veloping MODS in COVID-19 patients. Design: A prospective analytical observational study. Setting: A single tertiary referral hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. Patients and participants: We collected 153 patients from May-June 2021 who were confirmed positive for COVID-19 based on the real-time re-verse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test aged 19-84 years. Seven patients were excluded due to incomplete data. There-fore, 146 patients were eligible participants. Interventions: Patients underwent the laboratory test during admission. An eight ml of venous blood plasma specimen was taken. The specimen was examined at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Diagnostic Center in our hospital using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Measurement and results: Of 146 COVID-19 patients ages ranged from 19-84 years old. Al-most 83% of patients have developed MODS, and 31.5% of them were non survived. Serum albumin of COVID-19 patients with MODS and non-survivor were lower than those who had good outcomes (2.95±0.39;2.82±0.40 vs 3.07±0.40;3.19±0.47 g/dl). We found a significant difference between serum albumin levels and the incidence of MODS and mortality (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, low serum albumin <3.5 g/dl had a 15 times higher risk of de-veloping MODS in COVID-19 patients (p=0.011). Conclusion: Early hospitalization serum albumin level is an excellent marker for predicting the development of MODS in COVID-19 pa-tients. This first step might help physicians choose an appropriate treatment in the future. © 2022, The Indonesian Foundation of Critical Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

16.
Nephro-Urology Monthly ; 14(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044161

ABSTRACT

Background: Various risk factors have been proposed for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);nonetheless, the prognostic role of serum electrolytes has not been widely studied. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the potential prognostic role of electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The medical records of all COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency department from May to August 2020 were evaluated. Demographic data and clinical findings upon admission were collected. Disease severity, lung involvement severity on imaging, inflammatory serum biomarkers, admission to the intensive care unit, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium (corrected by serum albumin level), and phosphorus were documented. Results: Most patients (60%) were male, and the mean age of the total population was 58.87 ± 1.82 years. Severe COVID-19 was detected in most cases (94.9%) who were significantly older (P = 0.037), had hypertension (P = 0.032), ischemic heart disease (P = 0.033), and higher serum urea (P = 0.001) and serum potassium (P < 0.001). Patients with poor prognosis based on computed tomography (CT) scores had significantly higher serum urea (P = 0.002) and magnesium (P = 0.035) than patients with good prognosis, while serum calcium was significantly higher in the latter group (P = 0.007). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between COVID-19 severity and serum potassium (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Abnormal serum electrolytes are correlated with COVID-19 severity. Moreover, serum potassium level is a predictor of severe disease.

17.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043499

ABSTRACT

Although the FDA has given emergency use authorization (EUA) for some antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, no direct antiviral drugs have been identified for the treatment of critically ill patients, the most important treatment is suppression of the hyperinflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of corticosteroids in hospitalized severe or critical patients positive for COVID-19. This is a retrospective single-center descriptive study. Patients classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections with acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital were enrolled from January 11th to March 30th, 2020. Ninety patients were classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections. The patients were treated with methylprednisolone with a low-to-moderate dosage and short duration. The days from the symptom onset to methylprednisolone were about 8 days. Eighteen patients were treated with invasive ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) care. All the patients in the severe group and ten in the critical group recovered and were discharged. Three critical cases with invasive ventilation died. Although cases were much more severe in the corticosteroid-treated group, the mortality was not significantly increased. Early use of low-to-moderate dosage and short duration of corticosteroid may be the more accurate immune-modulatory treatment and brings more benefits to severe patients with COVID-19.

18.
Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043576

ABSTRACT

Capillary leak syndrome is an under-diagnosed condition leading to serious hypoalbuminemia with diffuse edema, pulmonary edema, severe hypotension, and possibly death. Sepsis leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a major risk factor; however, capillary hyper-permeability is the core underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Endothelial dysfunction plays a major role in cardiometabolic disease through insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, and, eventually, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. We review the literature concerning the aforementioned mechanisms as well-established risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes. We especially focus on data regarding the underlying endothelial effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including direct damage and increased vascular leakage through a hyper-inflammatory cascade and diminished nitric oxide bioavailability. Interestingly, an increased incidence of hypoalbuminemia has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19, especially those with underlying cardiometabolic disease. Importantly, low albumin levels present a strong, positive association with poor disease outcomes. Therefore, in this review article, we highlight the important role of cardiovascular risk factors on endothelium integrity and the possible link of endothelial damage in the hypoalbuminemia-associated adverse prognosis of COVID-19 patients.

19.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043054

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID -19 pandemic continues to affect millions worldwide, while the critical form of the disease requires ICU hospitalization to manage not only respiratory failure but multiple organ dysfunctions as well. Objectives: Our retrospective observational study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in mean values of indexes pointing to organ dysfunction on ICU admission day, like BUN over Creatinine ratio, BUN over Albumin ratio, and PaCO2 over HCO3 ratio among patients with confirmed critical COVID -19 infection who died and patients who survived ICU. Methods: During late 2020 to 2021, 69 patients indicated with the diagnosis of critical COVID -19 disease admitted to ICU. The patients were separated into two groups. Group A involved all patients who survived ICU and group B all patients who died in ICU. We looked for statistically significant differences between the medians values of two groups according to BUN/Cr, BUN/Alb, PaCO2/HCO3 ratios on the ICU admission day, performing unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney Test according to equal S.D.s assumption. Results: (Table) Conclusions: According to our data, there was a strong statistically significant difference detected between the two groups according to BUN/Alb and PaCO2/HCO3, while the BUN/Cr ratio had no statistically significant difference. Our data suggest that prerenal disorder took place early and was already present on ICU admission day, although not statistically greater in group B. However, a renal disorder associated with albumin levels was greater in group B, and acute type II respiratory failure was by far greater in patients that died in the ICU, pointing that oxygenation disorder was not the only impact of COVID -19 infection on the ICU admission day.

20.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):55-56, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043016

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Comparatively little is known about drug requirements in patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 pneumonitis. We analysed drug usage for patients admitted during the first wave of the pandemic, comparing these with a retrospective cohort admitted with Influenza pneumonia. Methods: Forty-nine ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis were identified through ICNARC, ten were excluded as duration of stay < 7 days or not needing ventilation. Further three were excluded due to missing data and one due to ECMO escalation. Results: The median age was 61 years;length of stay 22 days and 68% survived ICU. Table 1 describes the use of Infusions and enteral medications. Discussion: Propofol was used in most (43% patient-hours in ICU/median duration = 234 hours). All patients received opiate infusions (mainly morphine or alfentanil in similar proportions) and 91% received muscle relaxants, for prolonged periods. Over half received Midazolam (median 106 hours) as an adjunct or substitute to Propofol as patients were difficult to sedate, required longer ventilation, paralysis and concerns with Propofol associated hypertriglyceridemia. Over two-third received alpha agonist infusions (median 68.5 hours) as adjunctive sedation or delirium management. Three quarters of patients received a furosemide infusion (median 90 hours), the evidence extrapolated from studies such as FACTT.1 Around three quarters received Human Albumin (median 100 grams over 3 days). Nearly a quarter received nebulized Prostacyclin for refractory hypoxia, often associated with saturation of HME filters and ventilatory difficulties.2 Over half of patients received Carbocisteine (median 13 days). Clonidine and Risperidone to manage delirium were used in a third (median 10.5 and 11 days respectively), as was Acetazolamide to restore pH and aid weaning. Over a third were prescribed enteral opiates and nearly a quarter received benzodiazepines to manage withdrawal symptoms. Just under a half of patients received Melatonin. Antibiotic usage was high with a median of 3 Antibiotics used (median duration 15 days/61% of patient days). Diagnosing superadded infection such as VAP was challenging3 and we did not routinely monitor serum Procalcitonin levels. We also compared prescribing habits with 12 influenza patients (11 survivors) identified using similar inclusion criteria and found patients with COVID-19 were older (61 versus 51 years ) with longer ICU stays (median 22 versus 20 days). They were also more likely to receive enteral Carbocisteine, Clonidine, Acetazolamide, Morphine and Diazepam. Conclusion: We were able to generate valuable data on prescribing in ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis during the first wave. Through this, we are able to use drug usage as a surrogate for issues such as delirium, drug withdrawal, antibiotic prescribing and nursing workload in general.

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