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1.
Children Infections ; 21(3):18-21, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205160

ABSTRACT

Objective: to study the clinical and epidemiological features of the course of a new coronavirus infection in children of different ages undergoing outpatient treatment. The study participants were 812 children with COVID-19 aged from 1 month to 17 years, who were on outpatient treatment in the children's polyclinic of the city of Kirov from July to December 2021. The average age of patients with COVID-19 was 5.9 +/- 1.1 years. Among the sick young children there were 28%, adolescents - 16%. In 76% of cases, contact with patients with a new coronavirus infection was detected, mainly in the family, as well as in educational institutions. In 70% of cases, an early request for medical help was registered - in the first three days of illness. In most cases (89%), a mild severity of the disease was established with the development of subfebrile fever and pharyngitis. Rhinitis phenomena were recorded in 20% of cases. 7% of children complained of a dry cough. Lung tissue lesion (RG1) was detected in 5% of patients, gastrointestinal tract - 5%. In adolescents, the phenomena of rhinitis, pharyngitis, dry cough were less common than in other age groups. Recombinant interferon alpha-2b and umifenovir were used for etiotropic therapy. All children recovered within 7-10 days from the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2022 GEOTAR Media. All rights reserved.

2.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(2):23-32, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044283

ABSTRACT

Objective. To clarify the features of the defect in the function of NK cells, T lymphocytes, the interferon system in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. Patients and methods. Tests of the peripheral blood of 50 COVID-19 patients aged 61(57–71) and having the moderate and severe disease were performed. The following parameters were measured: the quantity of CD3+CD19–, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK – (CD3–CD16+CD56+), and TNK – CD3+CD16+CD56+ with expression density considered membrane receptors (MFI) (FC 500 Beckman Coulter, USA), the levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α cytokines (IFA). Results. Combined immunodeficiency associated with quantitative and functional defects in NK, T lymphocytes and their subsets was revealed in moderate and severe COVID-19. An imbalance of cytokines has been established: blockade of the production of IFN-α and IFN-γ against the background of a significant increase in IL-6 and TNF-α, which negatively affects both the number and functionality of the participants in the immune response and is associated with a severe course and poor prognosis of COVID-19. Conclusion. The data obtained demonstrate the need to develop new strategies and tactics for the treatment of COVID-19, including replacement systemic therapy with recombinant IFN-α2b in combination with antioxidants (Viferon®) in adequate therapeutic doses, aimed at restoring the normal functioning of T lymphocytes, NK and the interferon system.

3.
Voprosy Ginekologii, Akusherstva i Perinatologii ; 21(3):28-35, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033519

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the effectiveness of different preventive measures for novel coronavirus infection in pregnant women. Patients and Methods. This study included 125 pregnant women hospitalized with moderate to severe laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between September and November 2021 (the fourth pandemic wave), and 175 pregnant women who were not infected with COVID-19 during the same period. All women in these two groups were comparable for gestational age (II–III trimesters, 24–39 weeks), age (20–40 years), social status, parity, body mass index, and had no known COVID-19 risk factors. Results. Our findings revealed that vaccination 3-5 months before pregnancy (OR = 4.12;95% CI 1.28–13.27;χ2 = 0.022), inconsistent use and/or non-timely replacement of face masks (OR = 5.71;95% CI 2.83–11.51) were associated with the increased risk of COVID-19 in the second and third trimesters of gestation. It was showed that systematic (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) intranasal administration of recombinant interferon alpha-2b (IFN-α;Grippferon) as compared with a single application after exposure to COVID-19 reduced the disease incidence rate and there was no evident risk of illness (OR = 0.08;95% CI 0.05–0.14;19.2% vs 74,3%, p < 0.001). This can be explained by the fact that women were mostly infected in unpredictable conditions (e.g., 29.2% of pregnant women were infected from family members, 23.9% had unknown source of exposure). The use of umifenovir, not currently authorised for the medication-assisted prevention of COVID-19 in pregnant women, and rectal administration of IFN-α suppositories did not reduce the disease incidence rate. Rectal use of IFN-α suppositories by pregnant women off-label increased the incidence (32.0 vs 15.4%, p = 0.001) and risk of developing novel coronavirus infection (OR = 2.58;95% CI 1.48–4.50). Conclusion. There is a need to improve awareness among pregnant women about the mandatory and timely vaccination against COVID-19 during pregnancy and the importance of strict adherence to wearing face masks. Increased efforts should be made to monitor and inform pregnant women about the use of only authorised medication-assisted preventive measures of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as intranasal administration of recombinant IFN α-2b (Grippferon). During the epidemic rise in COVID-19 cases, the systematic intranasal administration of recombinant interferon-based medication Grippferon (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) is recommended for pregnant women.

4.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(1):43-51, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863503

ABSTRACT

Investigation of molecular mechanisms associated with interferon (IFN) production and receptor function of neutrophil granulocytes (NGs) in COVID-19 is highly relevant because it can be promising in the search for new therapeutic strategies targeting NGs and their reactivity to restore and strengthen the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Objective. To assess the effects of recombinant IFN-α2b on the phenotype of CD16+IFNα/βR1–CD119+, CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119–, and CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119+ NGs from peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 in an in vitro experiment. Patients and methods. We analyzed blood samples from 31 patients with a mean age of 61 years (range: 57;71 years) with moderate COVID-19. We assessed the number of CD16+IFNα/βR1–CD119+, CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119–, and CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119+ NGs, receptor density (FC 500, ‘Beckman Coulter,’ USA), phagocytic activity of NGs before and after incubation with recombinant IFN-α2b. We also measured serum levels of several cytokines, including IFNα, IFNγ, IL-6, IL-8 (ELISA, ‘Vektor-Best’ LLC). The control group comprised 22 adult healthy individuals with a mean age of 58 years (range: 57;70 years). Results. Patients with moderate COVID-19 demonstrated low serum levels of IFNα and IFNγ along with elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-8. We observed transformation of 3 phenotypes among NG subpopulations: CD16+IFNα/βR1–CD119+, CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119-, and CD16+IFNα/βR1+CD119+. We observed positive remodulating effects of recombinant IFN-α2b on the number and phenotype of NG subpopulations and their phagocytic activity in our in vitro experiment. Conclusion. Recombinant IFN-α2b demonstrated positive effects in in vitro experiments;therefore, it can be considered in the future as a potential therapeutic tool for moderate COVID-19. Restoration of type I IFN might be an effective treatment option for COVID-19, because it can promote faster virus elimination, restore normal functioning of the IFN system, and have positive regulatory effects on the phenotype of NG subpopulations.

5.
British Journal of Haematology ; 197(SUPPL 1):200, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1861255

ABSTRACT

There is now sufficient evidence to show conclusively that, together with various comorbidities, the presence of a malignancy, especially of haematopoietic nature, significantly worsens the course and prognosis of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 caused by SARSCoV-2. It has been shown that of great importance for the outcome of COVID-19 is the variant of the disease, the type of antitumour treatment and its stage (primary diagnosis, remission, relapse). The national and international literature presents generalised data, which combine large cohorts of patients with tumour and COVID-19, without detailing individual immunomorphological variants and peculiarities of the course of the viral infection. An analysis of the course of COVID-19 in patients with a previous immunodeficiency state caused by another viral infection, in particular viral hepatitis C and associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seems to us a particularly relevant and understudied problem. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and impact of COVID-19 on the course and outcome in patients with hepatitis C-associated marginal zone lymphoma (HCV+MZL) and patients with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Materials and methods: A total of 27 patients with HCV+MZL and 32 patients with MZL were included in the study. The HCV+MZL group of 27 patients (group 1) received interferon and ribavirin therapy for an average of 24 months (12-36 months). The MZL group of patients (group 2) 32 received immunochemotherapy. Clinical characteristics of patients in groups 1 and 2 differed significantly: median age was 43 and 58 years ( p = 0.005), 74% and 52%, respectively, had advanced stage III-IV disease ( p = 0.01). The incidence of splenic form was 54% in group 1 and 27% in group 2 ( p = 0.005). Results: In HCV+MZL patients treated with interferon (group 1), COVID-19 infection was diagnosed in two cases during the pandemic and in one patient was found to have a high titre of antibodies to COVID-19 (3 of 27 -11% total). The age of the patients was 47 and 76 years. Both patients developed COVID-19 infection on the background of relapsed HCV+MZL, which required administration of rituximab. One patient, due to the severity of the respiratory syndrome and the extent of lung tissue damage, was hospitalized and died on day 7 against the background of increasing respiratory failure. All MZL group 2 patients had completed immunochemotherapy by the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, COVID-19 infection was diagnosed in 21 patients, and two patients had a high titre of antibodies to COVID-19 at routine examination (23 of 32 patients = 72%). The age ranged from 33 to 76 years (median age 61 years). Fifteen patients (47%) were hospitalized for 10 to 23 days (median 14 days) because of severity of respiratory syndrome, extent of lung tissue involvement and comorbidities. Of 23 patients with COVID-19 seven patients died against the background of increasing respiratory failure (22%). Thus the incidence of infection with COVID-19 was 11% and 72% respectively ( p > 0.001), with a moderate and severe course of infection in 4% and 47% ( p > 0.005), the mortality rate of COVID-19 was 4% and 22% respectively ( p = 0.01). Conclusion: Patients with marginal zone lymphoma have a high risk of morbidity and a severe course of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. In a pandemic setting, interferon alpha therapy is the safest and preferred treatment option in this patient population..

6.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(2):1051-1059, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798621

ABSTRACT

Background/Aim: There is no proven specific or effective treatment for COVID-19 infection;therefore, many drugs are used empirically to establish control of the infection. Viral infection creates an immunologic environment and facilitate drug sensitization. With the advent of new vaccines, the future holds promise for optimism in establishing control of the pandemic. However, even vaccines are not devoid of side effects. In part II of these review series, we aimed to review the published data on mucocutaneous reactions induced by medications used for COVID-19 infection and vaccines used for COVID-19 prophylaxis. Materials and methods: Literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for the relevant studies, starting from the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic until October 2021. Research on animals, studies utilizing in vitro techniques and publications irrelevant to the study’s framework were excluded. Results: The mucocutaneous side effects liable to medications (antimalarials, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, ribavirin/interferon, oseltamivir/favipiravir, darunavir, imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra baricitinib, and other Janus kinase inhibitors, immunoglobulin therapy, colchicine, anti-TNF-α biologics, low molecular weight heparins, camostat mesylate) and vaccines used for COVID-19 infection are reviewed herein. Conclusion: There is a great amount of accumulated data regarding the mucocutaneous side effects of drugs and vaccines used for COVID-19 infection. In the pandemic era, it is a major goal to diagnose drug or vaccine-related mucocutaneous eruptions and distinguish them from pathognomonic, specific, or SARS-CoV-2 virus-related cutaneous eruptions. Timely diagnosis of a mucocutaneous drug/ vaccine reaction will allow for identification of the culprit and appropriate management and protect the patient from forthcoming severe drug/ vaccine reactions. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to update their knowledge regularly on mucocutaneous side effects of COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines.

7.
Journal of Nephropathology ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1553864

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a way to create new cellular structures, clear cells invaded by microbes, and block accumulating proteins that can cause disease. Moreover, it can destroy all cellular organs and pathogens, including fungi, parasites, bacteria, and viruses, either randomly or selectively. Many research groups are examining a strategy to combat COVID-19. In particular, research is underway to identify drugs that can target autophagy in COVID-19 virus infection. Several known drugs are currently under clinical evaluation for the autophagy process, given that regulating autophagy is a way to combat COVID-19. This study introduces drugs that target the autophagy pathway.

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