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Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 25(5): 554-561, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1897274


Objectives: SARS-CoV-2, emerging as a major threat to public health, has to be controlled through vaccination. Naloxone (NLX), an opioid receptor antagonist, demonstrated its adjuvant activity for microbial vaccines. In this study, inactivated SARS-CoV-2 was developed in the Alum/NLX adjuvant to increase the potency of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized on days 0 and 14 with inactivated SARS-CoV-2-Alum, -Alum + NLX 3 mg/kg, -Alum + NLX 10 mg/kg, and -Freund adjuvant, as well as PBS. IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines and Granzyme-B release were assessed with ELISA. In addition, specific total IgG, IgG1/IgG2a isotypes, and ratio as well as anti-RBD IgG responses were assessed with an optimized ELISA. Results: SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX10 group showed a significant increase in the IFN-γ cytokine response versus SARS-CoV-2-Alum, SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX3, and PBS groups. The SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX3 group exhibited a significant decrease in IL-4 cytokine versus SARS-CoV-2-Alum. The mice immunized with SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX10 showed a significant increase in CTL activity versus SARS-CoV-2-Alum and PBS. In addition, mice immunized with SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX3, SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX10 and SARS-CoV-2-Freund demonstrated an increase in IgG response, as compared with SARS-CoV-2-Alum and PBS group. Furthermore, all formulations of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could induce both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes. But, the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio in SARS-CoV-2-Freund and SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX10 revealed an increase as compared with that of the SARS-CoV-2-Alum group. Anti-RBD IgG response in the SARS-CoV-2-Alum-NLX10 group showed a significant increase as compared with the Alum-based vaccine. Conclusion: Formulation of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus in NLX/alum adjuvant improved the potency of humoral and, especially, cellular responses.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488809


A recently reported parallel preclinical study between a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine and an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine adjuvanted with alum showed pulmonary immunopathology typical of eosinophil accumulation in a mouse pneumonia model for the latter, which implied a potential role of cellular immunity in the difference in the protection rate between these two forms of vaccines. For those who have been vaccinated with alum-adjuvanted subunit or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, whether the Th2 responses that have been established and the absence of induced cellular immunity could be changed is an open question. Using two heterologous boosts with Th1-oriented CpG ODN-adjuvanted S1-based SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines for mice that were primed with two doses of Th2-oriented alum-adjuvanted S1-based SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines, we demonstrated that established Th2 orientation could not be reversed to Th1 orientation and that no cellular immunity was induced, which should have been induced if the boosting vaccines were used as the prime vaccines. These results remind us that if widely administered alum-adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 vaccines cannot overcome the challenge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that if cellular immunity is important for the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the future, the choice of more powerful heterologous boosting vaccine forms that can induce cellular immunity should be considered very carefully before application.

Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 258-260, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279609


The world is currently engaged in a race of vaccination versus infection in an effort to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Some countries have already achieved high vaccination rates, offering a glimpse into the so-called "post-vaccination" world. We describe here a striking comparison between the similar-sized and neighboring countries of Bahrain and Qatar. While both countries have achieved impressive vaccination rates, cases increased to unprecedented levels in one country while decreasing steadily in the other. Although this could be attributed to a number of factors, we argue here that the heavy reliance on alum-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines may have contributed to these discrepant outcomes. We then expand the analysis to compare the outcomes of the top 10 vaccinated countries based on their reliance on inactivated virus vaccines. The results remarkably align with the initial findings seen in Bahrain and Qatar. Countries that did not use inactivated virus vaccines achieved steady declines in daily COVID-19 deaths, while other countries did not. This work highlights the urgent need to further study the effectiveness of alum-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines for COVID-19 before expanding their use.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated