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1.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; : 100968, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936236

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of losartan for COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVIDMED was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled platform RCT. Enrollees were randomized to standard care plus hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, losartan, or placebo. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir arms were discontinued early. We report losartan data vs. combined (lopinavir-ritonavir and placebo) and prespecified placebo-only controls. The primary endpoint was the mean COVID-19 Ordinal Severity Score (COSS) slope of change. Slow enrollment prompted early termination. Results: Fourteen patients were included in our final analysis (losartan [N = 9] vs. control [N = 5] [lopinavir/ritonavir [N = 2], placebo [N = 3]]). Most baseline parameters were balanced. Losartan treatment was not associated with a difference in mean COSS slope of change vs. combined (p = 0.4) or placebo-only control (p = 0.05) (trend favoring placebo). 60-day mortality and overall AE/SAE rates were insignificantly higher with losartan. Conclusion: In this small RCT in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, losartan did not improve outcome and was associated with adverse safety signals.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 31-38, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575095

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had unprecedented effects on health care utilization for acute cardiovascular diseases. Although hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a paucity of data on the trends and management of heart failure (HF) cases. Furthermore, concerns have been raised that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase susceptibility to COVID-19. This study aimed to elucidate changes in HF hospitalizations from the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan and investigated changes in the prescription of ACEIs and ARBs, and in-hospital mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an interrupted time series analysis of HF hospitalizations in Japan to verify the impacts of the COVID-19 state of emergency. Changes in the weekly volume of HF hospitalizations were taken as the primary outcome measure. Between 1 April 2018 and 4 July 2020, 109 429 HF cases required admission. After the state of emergency, an immediate decrease was observed in HF cases per week [-3.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.3% to -6.7%, P = 0.03]. There was no significant change in the prescription of ACEIs or ARBs after the state of emergency (4.2%; 95% CI: -0.3% to 8.9%, P = 0.07). The COVID-19 pandemic had no effect on in-hospital mortality among HF patients (5.3%; 95% CI: -4.9% to 16.6%, P = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a decline in HF hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, with no clear evidence of a negative effect on the prescription of ACEIs and ARBs or in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(9): 1664-1674, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354498

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, phase 4, Prospective Randomized Open, Blinded End-point (PROBE) study aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of telmisartan/rosuvastatin single-pill combination (SPC) therapy on lowering central blood pressure (BP) compared with telmisartan monotherapy in hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in Korea. Study was terminated earlier than planned due to COVID-19 pandemic, thus should be considered as a pilot study. Among 125 patients who met the inclusion criteria of hypertension and dyslipidemia (defined as 10-year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease risk score over 5%), 80 patients went through 4-week single-group run-in period with telmisartan 40-80 mg, then randomized to telmisartan 80 mg + rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg) SPC group or telmisartan 80 mg monotherapy group. The central/brachial BP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks later. Mean brachial SBP changed from 135.80 ± 14.22 mmHg to 130.69 ± 13.23 mmHg in telmisartan/rosuvastatin group and from 134.37 ± 12.50 mmHg to 133.75 ± 12.30 mmHg in telmisartan monotherapy group without significant difference (between-group difference p = .149). Mean central SBP were reduced significantly in the telmisartan/rosuvastatin group with change from 126.72 ± 14.44 mmHg to 121.56 ± 14.56 mmHg while telmisartan monotherapy group showed no significant change (between-group difference p = .028). BaPWV changed from 1672.57 ± 371.72 m/s to 1591.75 ± 272.16 m/s in telmisartan/rosuvastatin group and from 1542.85 ± 263.70 m/s to 1586.12 ± 297.45 m/s in telmisartan group with no significance (between-group difference p = .078). Change of AIx had no significant difference (between-group difference p = .314). Both groups showed excellent compliance rate of 96.9 ± 4.5% with no significant difference in adverse rate. Telmisartan/rosuvastatin SPC therapy was more effective in lowering central BP compared with the telmisartan monotherapy. The results of this study showed benefit of additive statin therapy in hypertensive patients combined with dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Ankle Brachial Index , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoates , Blood Pressure , Drug Combinations , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Rosuvastatin Calcium , SARS-CoV-2 , Telmisartan/pharmacology
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e021154, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331849

ABSTRACT

Background Considering the widespread risk of collider bias and confounding by indication in previous research, the associations between renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use and COVID-19 remain unknown. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that RAAS inhibitors influence the summation effect of COVID-19 and its progression to severe outcomes. Methods and Results This nationwide cohort study compared all residents of Sweden, without prior cardiovascular disease, in monotherapy (as of January 1, 2020) with a RAAS inhibitor to those using a calcium channel blocker or a thiazide diuretic. Comparative cohorts were balanced using machine-learning-derived propensity score methods. Of 165 355 people in the analysis (51% women), 367 were hospitalized or died with COVID-19 (246 using a RAAS inhibitor versus 121 using a calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic; Cox proportional hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.74-1.27). When each outcome was assessed separately, 335 people were hospitalized with COVID-19 (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.22), and 64 died with COVID-19 (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.68-2.19). The severity of COVID-19 outcomes did not differ between those using a RAAS inhibitor and those using a calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic (ordered logistic regression odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14). Conclusions Despite potential limitations, this study is among the best available evidence that RAAS inhibitor use in primary prevention does not increase the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes; presenting strong data from which scientists and policy makers alike can base, with greater confidence, their current position on the safety of using RAAS inhibitors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/classification , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 726-733, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The uncertainty about COVID-19 outcomes in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) users continues with contradictory findings. This study aimed to determine the effect of ACEI/ARB use in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done in two Saudi public specialty hospitals designated as COVID-19 referral facilities. We included 354 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between April and June 2020, of which 146 were ACEI/ARB users and 208 were non-ACEI/ARB users. Controlling for confounders, we conducted multivariate logistic regression and sensitivity analyses using propensity score matching (PSM) and Inverse propensity score weighting (IPSW) for high-risk patient subsets. RESULTS: Compared to non-ACEI/ARB users, ACEI/ARB users had an eight-fold higher risk of developing critical or severe COVID-19 (OR = 8.25, 95%CI = 3.32-20.53); a nearly 7-fold higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR = 6.76, 95%CI = 2.88-15.89) and a nearly 5-fold higher risk of requiring noninvasive ventilation (OR = 4.77,95%CI = 2.15-10.55). Patients with diabetes, hypertension, and/or renal disease had a five-fold higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease (OR = 5.40,95%CI = 2.0-14.54]. These results were confirmed in the PSM and IPSW analyses. CONCLUSION: In general, but especially among patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or renal disease, ACEI/ARB use is associated with a significantly higher risk of severe or critical COVID-19 disease, and ICU care.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(Suppl 1): i48-i59, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159272

ABSTRACT

In the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a hypothesis emerged suggesting that pharmacologic inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may increase COVID-19 severity. This hypothesis was based on the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a counterregulatory component of the RAS, as the binding site for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), allowing viral entry into host cells. Extrapolations from prior evidence led to speculation that upregulation of ACE2 by RAS blockade may increase the risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19. However, counterarguments pointed to evidence of potential protective effects of ACE2 and RAS blockade with regard to acute lung injury, as well as substantial risks from discontinuing these commonly used and important medications. Here we provide an overview of classic RAS physiology and the crucial role of ACE2 in systemic pathways affected by COVID-19. Additionally, we critically review the physiologic and epidemiologic evidence surrounding the interactions between RAS blockade and COVID-19. We review recently published trial evidence and propose important future directions to improve upon our understanding of these relationships.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(8): 3301-3309, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087974

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, also known as COVID-19, conflicting theories have circulated on the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) on incidence and clinical course of COVID-19, but data are scarce. The COvid MEdicaTion (COMET) study is an observational, multinational study that focused on the clinical course of COVID-19 (i.e. hospital mortality and intensive care unit [ICU] admission), and included COVID-19 patients who were registered at the emergency department or admitted to clinical wards of 63 participating hospitals. Pharmacists, clinical pharmacologists or treating physicians collected data on medication prescribed prior to admission. The association between the medication and composite clinical endpoint, including mortality and ICU admission, was analysed by multivariable logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 4870 patients were enrolled. ACEi were used by 847 (17.4%) patients and ARB by 761 (15.6%) patients. No significant association was seen with ACEi and the composite endpoint (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 1.12), mortality (OR 1.03; 95%CI 0.84 to 1.27) or ICU admission (OR 0.96; 95%CI 0.78 to 1.19) after adjustment for covariates. Similarly, no association was observed between ARB and the composite endpoint (OR 1.09; 95%CI 0.90 to 1.30), mortality (OR 1.12; OR 0.90 to 1.39) or ICU admission (OR 1.21; 95%CI 0.98 to 1.49). In conclusion, we found no evidence of a harmful or beneficial effect of ACEi or ARB use prior to hospital admission on ICU admission or hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is controversial for treating COVID-19 patients. We aimed to estimate pooled risks of mortality, disease severity, and hospitalization associated with ACEI/ARB use and stratify them by country and country clusters. METHODS: We conducted a search in various databases through 4 July 2020 and then applied random-effects models to estimate pooled risks (ORp) across stratifications by country cluster. Clusters were chosen to reflect outbreak times (China followed by Korea/Italy, others subsequently) and mobility restrictions (China and Denmark/France/Spain with stricter lockdowns than the UK/US). RESULTS: Overall analysis showed no increase in mortality; however, a statistical increase in mortality was seen in the US/UK cluster with ORp = 1.28 [95% CI = 1.04; 1.56] and a decrease in China with ORp = 0.65 [95% CI = 0.43; 0.96] and France with OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.14; 0.69]. Severity and hospitalization were not statistically significant in the analysis; however, several associations were seen in specific countries but not in country clusters. CONCLUSION: The country-cluster meta-analysis provided a reasonable explanation for COVID-19 mortality among ACEI/ARB users. The analysis did not explain differences in severity and suggested the involvement of other factors. Hospitalization findings among ACEI/ARB users may be considered informative as they may have been subjected to clinical decisions and hospital-bed availability.

9.
Intern Med J ; 50(12): 1483-1491, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among hypertensive patients, the association between treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and the clinical severity of COVID-19, remains uncertain. AIMS: To determine whether hypertensive patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at risk of worse outcomes if on treatment with ACEI or ARB compared to other anti-hypertensive medications. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted at a single academic medical centre (Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy) from 1 to 31 March 2020. We compared patients on treatment with an ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group) to patients receiving other anti-hypertensive medications (No-ACEI/ARB group). The end-points of the study were the all-cause in-hospital death and the combination of in-hospital death or need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: The sample included 166 COVID-19 patients; median age was 74 years and 109 (66%) were men. Overall, 111 (67%) patients were taking an ACEI or ARB. Twenty-nine (17%) patients died during the hospital stay, and 51 (31%) met the combined end-point. After adjustment for comorbidities, age and degree of severity at the presentation, ACEI or ARB treatment was an independent predictor neither of in-hospital death nor of the combination of in-hospital death/need for ICU. No differences were documented between treatment with ACEI compared to ARB. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypertensive patients hospitalised for COVID-19, treatment with ACEI or ARB is not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records/trends , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895382

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) penetrates respiratory epithelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 binding, raising concerns about the potentially harmful effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) on Human Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) evolution. This study aimed to provide insight into the impact of RASi on SARS-CoV-2 outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of hospitalized adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a university hospital in France. The observation period ended at hospital discharge. (3) Results: During the study period, 943 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our institution, of whom 772 were included in this analysis. Among them, 431 (55.8%) had previously known hypertension. The median age was 68 (56-79) years. Overall, 220 (28.5%) patients were placed under mechanical ventilation and 173 (22.4%) died. According to previous exposure to RASi, we defined two groups, namely, "RASi" (n = 282) and "RASi-free" (n = 490). Severe pneumonia (defined as leading to death and/or requiring intubation, high-flow nasal oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and/or oxygen flow at a rate of ≥5 L/min) and death occurred more frequently in RASi-treated patients (64% versus 53% and 29% versus 19%, respectively). However, in a propensity score-matched cohort derived from the overall population, neither death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.50), p = 0.76) nor severe pneumonia (HR 1.03 (95%CI 0.73-1.44), p = 0.85) were associated with RASi therapy. (4) Conclusion: Our study showed no correlation between previous RASi treatment and death or severe COVID-19 pneumonia after adjustment for confounders.

11.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 109-119, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836021

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with various symptoms and changes in hematological and biochemical variables. However, clinical features, which can differentiate COVID-19 from non-COVID-19, are not clear. We therefore examined the key clinical features of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. This study included 60 COVID-19 patients and 100 non-COVID-19 patients, diagnosed by PCR, and no significant differences in the age and sex were seen between the two groups. The frequencies of fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, taste dysfunction, underlying hyperlipidemia, and the prescription of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than those in non-COVID-19 patients. The counts of leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils and the levels of chloride and calcium in blood of COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those of non-COVID-19 patients. The frequencies of atypical lymphocytes and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and potassium were significantly higher in COVID-19 than those in non-COVID-19. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level in COVID-19 patients was significantly lower than that in non-COVID-19 patients, when we compared CRP levels among patients with elevated CRP. This study is the first to indicate that electrolyte levels and the frequency of atypical lymphocytes in COVID-19 are significantly different from those in non-COVID-19. Fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, and taste dysfunction were the key symptoms of COVID-19. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia and ARB may be risk factors of COVID-19. In conclusion, leucocytes, leucocyte fractions, CRP, LDH, and electrolytes are useful indicators for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electrolytes/blood , Lymphocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Taste Disorders/virology , Young Adult
12.
Front Med ; 14(5): 601-612, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632554

ABSTRACT

The possible effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on COVID-19 disease severity have generated considerable debate. We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China, who had definite clinical outcome (dead or discharged) by February 15, 2020. Patients on anti-hypertensive treatment with or without ACEI/ARB were compared on their clinical characteristics and outcomes. The medical records from 702 patients were screened. Among the 101 patients with a history of hypertension and taking at least one anti-hypertensive medication, 40 patients were receiving ACEI/ARB as part of their regimen, and 61 patients were on antihypertensive medication other than ACEI/ARB. We observed no statistically significant differences in percentages of in-hospital mortality (28% vs. 34%, P = 0.46), ICU admission (20% vs. 28%, P = 0.37) or invasive mechanical ventilation (18% vs. 26%, P = 0.31) between patients with or without ACEI/ARB treatment. Further multivariable adjustment of age and gender did not provide evidence for a significant association between ACEI/ARB treatment and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Our findings confirm the lack of an association between chronic receipt of renin-angiotensin system antagonists and severe outcomes of COVID-19. Patients should continue previous anti-hypertensive therapy until further evidence is available.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Circ Res ; 126(12): 1671-1681, 2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72368

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Use of ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range, 55-68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range 57-69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to 9 hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.19-0.92]; P=0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]; P=0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.70]; P=0.01) in patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
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