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1.
Trends in Phytochemical Research ; 6(3):187-213, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091561

ABSTRACT

Medicinal herbs, including the Asteraceae family (AF), have different antimicrobial and therapeutic effects. Therefore, they can be used as health factors in the food and medicinal industries. In this systematic review, the essential information was collected from the relevant databases, e.g., PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar based on medicinal herbs, AF, essential oil, antimicrobial, antioxidant, therapeutic effect, and COVID-19 keywords. AF can be used as safe preservatives and food additives with a specific amount of consumption in the food industry thanks to their good flavor, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect. Due to their therapeutic effects, they can improve the health role of food. AF herbs contain important bioactive compounds, but not all of them can be used as medicine and food supplements since yarrow, chamomile, and artichoke exhibit toxic effects in high dosage, therefore, the consumption of these herbs should be considered to not endanger the health of the consumer. © 2022, Trends Phytochem. All rights reserved.

2.
Environmental Science: Nano ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083149

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we exploited the antiviral and antibacterial properties of Ag NPs stabilised by quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose (Ag-HEC) against SARS-CoV-2 and Escherichia coli through an eco-friendly process at room temperature in three different environments: 1) water, where Ag was dispersed as a nanosol, 2) textiles, where Ag was applied as a coating, and 3) hydrogel where Ag is embedded. The antiviral performance of Ag-HEC nanosols was quantified through the selectivity index (SI), defined as the ratio between 50% cytotoxic and inhibitory concentration, in order to evaluate the ability to be active in a concentration range below the cytotoxicity value. The collected results pointed out an actual enhanced risk/benefit profile of Ag-HEC NPs with respect to chloroquine, with an SI of 22.2 and 8.4, respectively. Antibacterial and antiviral activities of Ag-HEC NPs immobilized on textiles or mucosa-like hydrogels were also assessed and their efficacy in potential application as protective clothing or nasal molecular masks was verified. This work demonstrated that a modern, safe and sustainable design allows traditional colloidal silver-based technologies to be efficiently exploited for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial solutions against bacterial and viral infections.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081858

ABSTRACT

Infectious microbial diseases are a major public health hazard, calling for more innovative antimicrobials. Herein, polylactic acid (PLA) oligomers have been explored and reported as a bio-safe and eco-friendly functional antimicrobial agent against pathogens, such as viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and SARS-CoV-2), bacteria (E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, MRSA), and fungi (C. albicans). The PLA oligomers were prepared by direct catalyst-free condensation polymerization of l-lactic acid monomers and characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The antiviral results demonstrate that PLA oligomers possess robust (inhibiting rate > 99%) and rapid (<20 min) antiviral activity against two pandemic ssRNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV) and coronavirus (CoV). Furthermore, the PLA oligomers exhibit high antibacterial activities against both Gram negative (G-) and Gram positive (G+) bacteria. The PLA oligomers also perform efficiently in killing a large amount of C. albicans as high as 105 cfu/mL down to zero at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. Thus, the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity endowed the PLA oligomers with a promising biocidal option, except antibiotics in a wide range of applications, such as medical textiles, food preservation, water disinfection, and personal hygiene, in light of their unique biodegradability and biocompatibility.

4.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 120(3):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2073713

ABSTRACT

Background : Viral respiratory infections increase the risk of secondary bacterial infections owing to their need for hospitalisation, prolonged stay, the practice of Empiric Antimicrobial Prescription. This leads to worrisome Antimicrobial Resistance and such infections have a worse outcome. Materials and Methods :This is a cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted with COVID-19 at GEMS and Hospital from April, 2021 to June, 2021. The bacteriological profile and susceptibility pattern of the isolates obtained while investigating secondary infections in COVID-19 patients were studied. Results : 132 positive growth samples were collected from ICU and various Wards. Maximum positive growth was found in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) 36 (27.2%), followed by Surgery ward 27 (20.5%) and Medicine Ward 27 (20.5%). Escherichia coli was most commonly isolated 59 (44.7%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 28 (21.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 17 (12.8%). Out of 90 Gram-negative isolates, 25 (27.8%) were found to be Multi-drug Resistants and out of 11 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 5 (45.5%) were MRSA. Conclusion : This study concludes that poor infection control and irrational antibiotic prescription practices play a major role in the development of secondary infections in these patients. Standard practices need to be followed and there should be an implementation of infection prevention control measures and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASP) must reappraise the current situation.

5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:562-571, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072525

ABSTRACT

Background: Poor people's knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are the most imperative factors behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance(AMR).(37.2%) of low and middle income people had a little information about antibiotics with clear deficiency of reliable research and surveillance programs about AMR .Therefore our study targeted the state of knowledge, attitude and use of antibiotics within the Iraqi community and exploring the patient's factors associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted on patients presented to microbiological lab of Al- ALSadar Medical City and Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital / Najaf governate/Iraq. The participants included patients presented with different kinds of infections and requested for culture /sensitivity test for organisms isolated from different sources. The total sample size were 475 patients. The data collected by validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Our study registered at Clinical Trials.gov with the registration number (NCT05100407). Results: In general, the participants had below average knowledge percentage (42%) Also, the percentage of total practice score was lower than average 42%. On the other hand, they had neutral attitude score (56%).There was a positive correlation between knowledge ,attitude and practice .Also there were many patient's characteristics had significant effect on overall knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about antibiotics: female patients and urban population were significantly more knowledgeable about antibiotics compared to male and rural population .Also patients who had a healthcare worker among in the family, those who were infected with COVID-19 or have received flu/COVID-19 vaccines were significantly more knowledgeable about antibiotics .Whereas, patients with better antibiotic knowledge, were less frequently admitted to hospital, less used of antibiotic therapy, less used of immunosuppressant drugs and less needed for medical devises employment. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the participants had poor knowledge, malpractice and neutral attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance. Also, the attitude and practice were directly related to participant knowledge and to several patient's factors.

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 112, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1717964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The endotracheal tube (ETT) is an essential medical device to secure the airway patency in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation or general anesthesia. However, long-term intubation eventually leads to complete occlusion, ETTs potentiate biofilm-related infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. ETTs are mainly composed of medical polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which adheres to microorganisms to form biofilms. Thus, a simple and efficient method was developed to fabricate CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin nanocomposite coating to achieve dual antibacterial and antifouling effects. RESULTS: The PAAm-Gelatin (PAAm = polyacrylamide) molecular chain gel has an interpenetrating network with a good hydrophilicity and formed strong covalent bonds with PVC-ETTs, wherein silver nanoparticles were used as antibacterial agents. The CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin coating showed great resistance and antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its antifouling ability was tested using cell, protein, and platelet adhesion assays. Additionally, both properties were comprehensively evaluated using an artificial broncho-lung model in vitro and a porcine mechanical ventilation model in vivo. These remarkable results were further confirmed that the CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin coating exhibited an excellent antibacterial capacity, an excellent stain resistance, and a good biocompatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin nanocomposite coating effectively prevents the occlusion and biofilm-related infection of PVC-ETTs by enhancing the antibacterial and antifouling properties, and so has great potential for future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Biofouling , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocomposites , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Biofouling/prevention & control , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Silver/pharmacology , Swine
7.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(4):463-490, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066828

ABSTRACT

Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (CLR) is the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Pharmacological studies show that CLR can be used to treat cervical cancer, lung cancer, lupus nephritis, and other conditions. In this paper, we review botany, traditional application, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and pharmacokinetics of CLR. The literature from 1981 to date was entirely collected from online databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), Wiley, Springer, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The data were also obtained from ancient books, theses and dissertations, and Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. There are a total of 275 compounds that have been isolated from CLR, including phenolic compounds, volatile oils, and others. The therapeutic effect of turmeric has been expanded from breaking blood and activating qi in the traditional sense to antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antibacterial, hypolipidemic effects, and other benefits. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of action related to relieving disease remain ill defined, which requires more in-depth research and verification at a clinical level.

8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066330

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to obtain functional viscose textiles based on chitosan coatings with improved antibacterial properties and washing durability. For that reason, before functionalization with chitosan/zinc nanoparticles (NCH+Zn), the viscose fabric was modified by nonthermal gas plasma of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to introduce into its structure functional groups suitable for attachment of NCH+Zn. NCH+Zn were characterized by measurements of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential and AFM. DBD-plasma-modified and NCH+Zn-functionalized fabrics were characterized by zeta potential measurements, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, the calcium acetate method (determination of content of carboxyl and aldehyde groups), SEM, breaking-strength measurements, elemental analysis, and ICP-OES. Their antibacterial activity was determined under dynamic contact conditions. In addition to SEM, the NCH+Zn distributions on viscose fabrics were also indirectly characterized by measuring their absorbent capacities before and after functionalization with NCH+Zn. Washing durability was monitored through changes in the zeta potential, chitosan and zinc content, and antibacterial activity after 1, 3, and 5 washing cycles. The obtained results showed that DBD plasma modification contributed to the simultaneous improvement of NCH+Zn sorption and antibacterial properties of the viscose fabric functionalized with NCH+Zn, and its washing durability, making it suitable for the production of high-value-added medical textiles.

9.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066284

ABSTRACT

Three unique 5,6-seco-hexahydrodibenzopyrans (seco-HHDBP) machaeridiols A-C, reported previously from Machaerium Pers., have displayed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis (VRE). In order to enrich the pipeline of natural product-derived antimicrobial compounds, a series of novel machaeridiol-based analogs (1-17) were prepared by coupling stemofuran, pinosylvin, and resveratrol legends with monoterpene units R-(-)-α-phellandrene, (-)-p-mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol, and geraniol, and their inhibitory activities were profiled against MRSA ATCC 1708, VRE ATCC 700221, and cancer signaling pathways. Compounds 5 and 11 showed strong in vitro activities with MIC values of 2.5 µg/mL and 1.25 µg/mL against MRSA, respectively, and 2.50 µg/mL against VRE, while geranyl analog 14 was found to be moderately active (MIC 5 µg/mL). The reduction of the double bonds of the monoterpene unit of compound 5 resulted in 17, which had the same antibacterial potency (MIC 1.25 µg/mL and 2.50 µg/mL) as its parent, 5. Furthermore, a combination study between seco-HHDBP 17 and HHDBP machaeriol C displayed a synergistic effect with a fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) value of 0.5 against MRSA, showing a four-fold decrease in the MIC values of both 17 and machaeriol C, while no such effect was observed between vancomycin and 17. Compounds 11 and 17 were further tested in vivo against nosocomial MRSA at a single intranasal dose of 30 mg/kg in a murine model, and both compounds were not efficacious under these conditions. Finally, compounds 1-17 were profiled against a panel of luciferase genes that assessed the activity of complex cancer-related signaling pathways (i.e., transcription factors) using T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells. Among the compounds tested, the geranyl-substituted analog 14 exhibited strong inhibition against several signaling pathways, notably Smad, Myc, and Notch, with IC50 values of 2.17 µM, 1.86 µM, and 2.15 µM, respectively. In contrast, the anti-MRSA actives 5 and 17 were found to be inactive (IC50 > 20 µM) across the panel of these cancer-signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Biological Products , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Neoplasms , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Luciferases , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Vancomycin/pharmacology
10.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066283

ABSTRACT

Honey inhibits bacterial growth due to the high sugar concentration, hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in it. In this study, the antibacterial activity of stingless and sting honey against foodborne pathogenic bacteria isolated from spoiled milk samples was examined. The isolated bacterial strains were confirmed as Bacillus cereus and Listeriamonocytogenes through morphological, biochemical, and 16 s RNA analysis. Physiochemical characterizations of the honey samples revealed that both of the honey samples had an acidic pH, low water content, moderate reducing sugar content, and higher proline content. Through the disc diffusion method, the antibacterial activities of the samples were assayed and better results were observed for the 50 mg/disc honey. Both stingless and sting honey showed the most positive efficacy against Bacillus cereus. Therefore, an in silico study was conducted against this bacterium with some common compounds of honey. From several retrieved constituents of stingless and sting honey, 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl 3(2H)-furan-3-one (furan) and 4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro of both samples and beta.-D-glucopyranose from the stingless revealed high ligand-protein binding efficiencies for the target protein (6d5z, hemolysin II). The root-mean-square deviation, solvent-accessible surface area, the radius of gyration, root-mean-square fluctuations, and hydrogen bonds were used to ensure the binding stability of the docked complexes in the atomistic simulation and confirmed their stability. The combined effort of wet and dry lab-based work support, to some extent, that the antimicrobial properties of honey have great potential for application in medicine as well as in the food industries.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Honey , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Bacillus cereus , Furans , Hemolysin Proteins , Honey/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Ligands , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Proline , Pyrans , RNA , Solvents/analysis , Sugars , Water
11.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065292

ABSTRACT

Background: Developing new antibacterial and antiviral drugs are considered a significant issue due to the emergence and spread of resistant strains of microorganisms. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically increased the need for new broad-spectrum anti-infective agents. Objective(s): This experimental study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and phagocytic properties of silver-interferon preparation. The combination of properties of complex drugs makes them promising for treating drug-resistant infections and bacterial complications of viral diseases. Method(s): The antibacterial effect of the silver-interferon platform was investigated by agar diffusion and serial dilution methods. The drug's effect on the functional activity of phagocytes was studied on human neutrophils in a Staphylococcus aureus uptake test. Result(s): Investigations have shown that the silver-interferon complex possesses a bactericidal mechanism of action against tested bacterial strains, including Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Streptococcus pneumonia was the most susceptible bacterial target for the tested complex, with a growth inhibition zone of 12+/-0.6 mm and a minimal bactericidal concentration of 0.08 mg/ml. A slight stimulating action of the drug in relation to the activity of phagocytes was revealed. Conclusion(s): Silver-interferon has proved as a prospective anti-infective drug with a wide range of activities. Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

12.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344428

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the treatment outcomes for COVID-19 during the early stages of the pandemic at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Material(s) and Method(s): In this retrospective observational study, we investigated 130,216 patients with COVID-19 treated in two Mexican states during 2020. A competing risk analysis was performed using death and recovery as possible outcomes, followed by a cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, machine learning models were built to predict the outcomes at fixed times. Result(s): Higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease comorbidities were found, which is consistent with Mexico's epidemiological profile. Mortality occurred around 15-20 days from the start of symptoms. Patients undertaking cephalosporin in combination with neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) had the worst survival rates, while patients undertaking adamantane, fluoroquinolone, or penicillin had the best survival rates. Conclusion(s): Our findings recommend against using specific treatment combinations, and should help improve the country's clinical guidelines. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

13.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 10(6):108663, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061500

ABSTRACT

MXenes have gained significant importance in many applications in the fields of energy, environment and healthcare. The versatile features of MXenes enable them as a wonder material for their wide category of applications. Tunable surface chemistry and nano-dimensional layered features of MXenes are accounted for their improved multifunctional properties among the other two-dimensional materials. Of various applications, MXenes show the relevant properties toward antimicrobial disinfection of bacteria, fungi and viruses including the SARS responsible for COVID-19. Therefore, the development, characterizations and mechanism of MXenes-based materials are important to bring these advanced materials for their real-time antimicrobial applications. In this context, this review presents a glimpse of MXenes in terms of their synthesis processes, characterizations, antimicrobial properties, and elucidate their mechanism of actions toward antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Finally, it concludes with a future perspective of MXenes towards their biomedical applications.

14.
Environmental Health Engineering and Management ; 9(3):201-211, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057084

ABSTRACT

Background: In recent years, the world has faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by a significant increase in the use of antibiotics to control the COVID-19 and other secondary infections. The nonbiodegradable characteristics of antibiotics and their residues in the environment leads to increased microbial and drug resistance. Therefore, due to the high importance of antibiotics, two antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin G, were studied in Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Methods: Sampling was performed for two months during 13 sampling periods and antibiotics were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC/UV) instrument. Results: Ampicillin and penicillin G were identified in all samples taken from the both WWTPs. The average concentration of penicillin G in WWTP E and S at the influent, effluent and its removal efficiency were 1050.54 ± 761.43 µg/L, 52.89 ± 49.27 µg/L, 89.80 ± 19.42%, 2055.12 ± 1788.08 µg/L, 143.01 ± 162.59 µg/L and 82.76 ± 21.85%, respectively. Also, the average concentration of ampicillin in WWTP E and S in the influent (796.44 ± 809.6 and 447.1 ± 322.39 µg/L), effluent (48.94 ± 24.25 and 90.31 ± 75.91 µg/L), and its removal efficiency (86.22 ± 19.84% and 66.85 ± 24.88%) were determined. Conclusion: In two studied WWTPs, the concentration of antibiotics was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with previous studies. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between the concentration of antibiotics in WWTPs (P < 0.05). Also, the statistical results indicated that the correlation is not significant between removal efficiency of antibiotics and removal efficiency of wastewater main parameters. © 2022 The Author(s).

15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050251

ABSTRACT

Despite decades of research on the reduction of surface fouling from biomolecules or micro-organisms, the ultimate antibiofouling surface remains undiscovered. The recent covid-19 pandemic strengthened the crucial need for such treatments. Among the numerous approaches that are able to provide surfaces with antibiofouling properties, chemical, biological, and topographical strategies have been implemented for instance in the marine, medical, or food industries. However, many of these methods have a biocidal effect and, with antibioresistance and biocide resistance a growing threat on humanity, strategies based on reducing adsorption of biomolecules and micro-organism are necessary for long-term solutions. Bioinspired strategies, combining both surface chemistry and topography, are currently at the heart of the best innovative and sustainable solutions. The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuration, together with engineered chemical or biological functionalization is believed to contribute to the development of antibiofouling surfaces. This review aims to present approaches combining hydrophobic or hydrophilic chemistries with a specific topography to avoid biofouling in various industrial environments and healthcare facilities.

16.
Microorganisms ; 10(9)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043867

ABSTRACT

In the light of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and growing numbers of bacteria with resistance to antibiotics, the development of antimicrobial coatings is rising worldwide. Inorganic coatings are attractive because of low environmental leakage and wear resistance. Examples for coatings are hot metal dipping or physical vapor deposition of nanometer coatings. Here, magnetron sputtering of various transition metals, such as gold, ruthenium and tantalum, was investigated. Metal films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). We investigated the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from household appliances on different sputter-coated metal surfaces. The fine-grained nanometric structure of these metal coatings was between 14 nm (tantalum) and 26 nm (gold) and the roughness was in a range of 164 pm (ruthenium) to 246 pm (gold). Antibacterial efficacy of metal surfaces followed the order: gold > tantalum > ruthenium. Interestingly, gold had the strongest inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, as analyzed by LIVE/DEAD and CFU assay. High-magnification SEM images showed dead bacteria characterized by shrinkage induced by metal coatings. We conclude that sputtering might be a new application for the development of antimicrobial surfaces on household appliances and or surgical instruments.

17.
Surf Interfaces ; 34: 102349, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042150

ABSTRACT

Following the global corona virus pandemic and environmental contamination caused by chemical plastic packaging, awareness of the need for environmentally friendly biofilms and antibacterial coatings is increasing. In this study, a biodegradable hybrid film, comprising of green-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with a chitosan (CS) matrix, was fabricated using a simple casting procedure. The ZnO NPs were synthesized using wild Mentha pulegium extract, and the synthesized NPs and films were characterized using different approaches. The structural, morphological, mechanical, antibacterial, and optical properties, as well as the hydrophilicity, of the prepared samples were investigated using various techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed the presence of phenolic compounds in the M. pulegium extract. In addition, a strong coordination connection between Zn2+ and the chitosan matrix was confirmed, which resulted in a good dispersion of ZnO in the chitosan film. The surface of the composite films was transparent, smooth, and uniform, and the flexible bio-based hybrid films exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics, strong visible emission in the 480 nm region, and UV-blocking properties. The ZnO/CS films displayed a potential to extend the shelf life of fruits by up to eight days when stored at 23°C, and also acted as an acceptable barrier against oxygen and water. The biodegradable ZnO/CS film is expected to keep fruit fresher than general chemical plastic films and be used for the packaging of active ingredients.

18.
Vestnik Rossiyskoy voyenno meditsinskoy akademii ; 4:105-112, 2021.
Article in Russian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040520

ABSTRACT

Features of variation of peripheral blood leukocyte formula parameters in 86 patients with coronavirus pneumonia with leukocytosis with a background of glucocorticoid treatment were investigated. All patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was 22 individuals who showed clinical signs of the bacterial infection (purulent sputum cough in combination with neutrophilic leukocytosis at hospital the admission). The 2nd group was made up of 64 patients with the glucocorticoids developed against the background of treatment with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone 20 mg/day or prednisolone 150 mg/day, intravenously for 3 days) leukocytosis >10 x109/l without signs of a bacterial infection. It was found that in patients of the 1st group compared to the 2nd group, levels of the white blood cells and neutrophils were significantly (p < 0.001) exceeded the reference values in the absence of a significant change in the number of monocytes. In patients of the 2nd group after a three-day intravenous application of the glucocorticoids on the 4th day of hospitalization, a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in the number of neutrophils and monocytes was established. When comparing the quantitative parameters of the leukocyte formula between the 2nd group on the 4th day of the hospitalization and the 1st group at admission, there were no differences in the level of leukocytes and neutrophils. Number of monocytes in group 2 (1.11 (0.90;1.34) x 109/l), on the contrary, statistically significantly (p < 0.001) exceeded their level in the 1st group (0.59 (0.50;0.77) x 109/l). Thus, an indicator of the number of monocytes in the peripheral blood could be a promising differential diagnostic criterion for the genesis of the leukocytosis in patients with the COVID-19. This parameter may be one of the factors influencing the decision to prescribe the antibacterial therapy.

19.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 17(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040306

ABSTRACT

Background: The pattern of bacterial infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients differ worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the patterns of bacterial infections and the antibiotic resistance profile by VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France) in the culture of blood samples from hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

20.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry ; 95(4):486-498, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038257

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is an increasing concern all over the world due to its adverse effects on human health. It claims thousands of lives every year. Hence, the demand for the ventilator, respirator, facemask, body protection, and hospital air filtration has been surging dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nanofiber membranes with optimal characteristics, such as a high specific surface area and porous microstructure with interconnected pores, can efficiently capture the fine particles (such as bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.). Recently, various types of polymers have been fabricated as electrospun fibrous membranes to be used as an anti-bacterial or anti-viral air filtration media. This review presents a brief overview of air filtration history and its main mechanisms and then the latest research about air filtration with antibacterial and antiviral properties will be reviewed.

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