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Cell Rep Med ; 4(3): 100954, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269176


Human norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Young children and the elderly bear the greatest burden of disease, representing more than 200,000 deaths annually. Infection prevalence peaks at younger than 2 years and is driven by novel GII.4 variants that emerge and spread globally. Using a surrogate neutralization assay, we characterize the evolution of the serological neutralizing antibody (nAb) landscape in young children as they transition between sequential GII.4 pandemic variants. Following upsurge of the replacement variant, antigenic cartography illustrates remodeling of the nAb landscape to the new variant accompanied by improved nAb titer. However, nAb relative avidity remains focused on the preceding variant. These data support immune imprinting as a mechanism of immune evasion and GII.4 virus persistence across a population. Understanding the complexities of immunity to rapidly evolving and co-circulating viral variants, like those of norovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), and dengue viruses, will fundamentally inform vaccine design for emerging pathogens.

COVID-19 , Norovirus , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Norovirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118002


The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

Immunity ; 55(9): 1725-1731.e4, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036138


Large-scale vaccination campaigns have prevented countless hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that escape from immunity challenges the effectiveness of current vaccines. Given this continuing evolution, an important question is when and how to update SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to antigenically match circulating variants, similarly to seasonal influenza viruses where antigenic drift necessitates periodic vaccine updates. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift by assessing neutralizing activity against variants of concern (VOCs) in a set of sera from patients infected with viral sequence-confirmed VOCs. Infections with D614G or Alpha strains induced the broadest immunity, whereas individuals infected with other VOCs had more strain-specific responses. Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 were substantially resistant to neutralization by sera elicited by all other variants. Antigenic cartography revealed that Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 were antigenically most distinct from D614G, associated with immune escape, and possibly will require vaccine updates to ensure vaccine effectiveness.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics