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1.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927721

ABSTRACT

Introduction: First synthesized in 1869, Hydroxyurea is known for its efficacy in treating myeloproliferative disorders, cervical cancer, and sickle cell disease. Usually well-tolerated, Hydroxyurea has numerous documented adverse effects, including bone marrow suppression, fevers, gastrointestinal upset, anorexia, and maculopapular rash. In addition, one rare side effect is interstitial pneumonitis, a potentially devastating complication if overlooked. We present one such case of Hydroxyurea-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Case Description: A 65-year-old man with a six-month diagnosis of Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia (CGL) on Hydroxyurea developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure saturating 80% on room air with HR 102, RR 24, and increasing oxygen requirements (10 Lpm) after being admitted with complaints of worsening dyspnea, fatigue, and productive cough with yellow/green sputum. Physical examination was notable for cachexia, ill appearance, generalized weakness, hoarse voice, tachycardia, tachypnea, diffusely diminished breath sounds, and scattered rales on auscultation of lung fields. Initial imaging was notable for bilateral airspace disease and pulmonary opacities on chest radiography and bilateral pneumonia (concerning for COVID-19 pneumonia), mediastinal adenopathy, and splenomegaly on chest computed tomography. Initial laboratory results were notable for leukocytosis 62.5 th/uL, lactic acidosis 2.5 mmol/L, procalcitonin level 4.95 ng/mL, and negative COVID-19 PCR test. Prompt initiation of Vancomycin/Cefepime therapy ensued upon collection of blood cultures in light of possible sepsis. Flagyl, Valacyclovir, and Posaconazole were added to antimicrobial coverage, along with steroid therapy, due to minimal clinical improvement. Tachycardia with significant oxygen requirements alternating between BiPAP and heated high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 ranging from 70-85% persisted. Daily imaging also showed worsening airspace disease. Negative viral, bacterial, and fungal cultures led to subsequent discontinuation of Hydroxyurea therapy due to suspicion of medicationinduced pneumonitis. Three days after cessation of Hydroxyurea, the patient's oxygen requirements began to decrease and imaging revealed interval resolution of pneumonitic changes in the absence of antimicrobial therapy. The patient was later transitioned to Ruxolitinib for his underlying CGL prior to his discharge home without the need for home oxygen therapy. Discussion: Thought to be caused by hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary toxicity from Hydroxyurea can easily be misdiagnosed. Unfortunately, while much is known about the pancytopenic, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous side effects of Hydroxyurea, few cases in the literature highlight the potentially fatal interstitial pneumopathy caused by Hydroxyurea, first reported in 1999. Thus, this case serves as an additional contribution to the minutiae of literature detailing Hydroxyurea's adverse pulmonary side effect profile. (Figure Presented).

2.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(16): 1355-1368, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) can be a good approach to treatment of infections, a lack of data regarding antibiotic stability in portable elastomeric infusion devices restricts its safe, appropriate, and effective use. The objective of this work was to complete a systematic peer-reviewed analysis of published articles about antibiotic stability in elastomeric infusion devices that provide evidence supporting their use in OPAT. SUMMARY: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted in January 2021 to identify published articles about antibiotic stability in portable elastomeric infusion devices. The databases used were PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and a Cochrane database. A total of 1,615 original studies and conference communications were found. After title, abstract, and full-text review, 33 articles met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained included information about the stability of 30 different antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first review to summarize the available published data on the stability of antibiotics in portable elastomeric infusion devices. The results highlight the poor stability of some antibiotics in solution and the variability of the laboratory conditions in the included studies. CONCLUSION: This systematic review can serve as a useful resource for healthcare professionals involved in providing OPAT using portable elastomeric infusion devices. However, further stability studies should be performed, especially high-quality studies simulating real-life time and temperature conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Infusion Pumps , Elastomers , Humans , Infusions, Parenteral , Outpatients
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809915

ABSTRACT

Bacterial co-infections may aggravate COVID-19 disease, and therefore being cognizant of other pathogens is imperative. We studied the types, frequency, antibiogram, case fatality rates (CFR), and clinical profiles of co-infecting-pathogens in 301 COVID-19 patients. Co-infection was 36% (n = 109), while CFR was 31.2% compared to 9.9% in non-co-infected patients (z-value = 3.1). Four bacterial species dominated, namely, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (37%, n = 48), extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (26%, n = 34), multidrug-resistant Eschericia. coli (18.6%, n = 24), and extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.5%, n = 11), in addition to other bacterial species (9.3%, n = 12). Increased co-infection of K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii was associated with increased death rates of 29% (n = 14) and 32% (n = 11), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was equally frequent in respiratory and urinary tract infections (UTI), while E. coli mostly caused UTI (67%), and A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa dominated respiratory infections (38% and 45%, respectively). Co-infections correlated with advance in age: seniors ≥ 50 years (71%), young adults 21-49 years (25.6%), and children 0-20 years (3%). These findings have significant clinical implications in the successful COVID-19 therapies, particularly in geriatric management. Future studies would reveal insights into the potential selective mechanism(s) of Gram-negative bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792636

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for COVID-19-related severe respiratory failure. As a matter of fact, ICU admission and invasive ventilation increased the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which is associated with high mortality rate and a considerable burden on length of ICU stay and healthcare costs. The objective of this review was to evaluate data about VAP in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU that developed VAP, including their etiology (limiting to bacteria), clinical characteristics, and outcomes. The analysis was limited to the most recent waves of the epidemic. The main conclusions of this review are the following: (i) P. aeruginosa, Enterobacterales, and S. aureus are more frequently involved as etiology of VAP; (ii) obesity is an important risk factor for the development of VAP; and (iii) data are still scarce and increasing efforts should be put in place to optimize the clinical management and preventative strategies for this complex and life-threatening disease.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S173-S174, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746737

ABSTRACT

Background. Communication among health care professionals during antimicrobial prescribing is critical to ensure appropriate use. This is of concern in Guatemala where physicians seldom consider guidance from other professionals during antimicrobial prescribing activities. Methods. We carried out a cross sectional questionnaire and open ended interviews with physicians from five hospitals in Guatemala to describe perceptions of communication between health care providers, and acceptance of antimicrobial guidance during prescribing. Results. From January to April 2021 an electronic questionnaire was sent to enrolled physicians of which 74% completed participation (n=107/145). Fifty-five percent participated in open ended interviews (n=79/145). Respondents perceived high levels of communication between physicians and ID specialists (94% of respondents);52%, and 54% perceived high levels of physician-pharmacist, and physician-nurse communication respectively. Significant differences in the perception of physician-pharmacist communication were detected when comparing responses between hospitals, and between respondent sex (chi2, p< 0.05). Barriers to communication between professionals included lack of local guidelines or protocols, patient overload, COVID-19 pandemic, lack of mentorship, and little room to discuss antimicrobial therapy with higher-ranking physicians. Eighty percent and 45% of physicians were open to receiving antibiotic optimization recommendations from other physicians, and pharmacists respectively. Notable barriers to accepting recommendations from pharmacists included lack of regular communication, lack of clinical experience, and concern about evidence based recommendations. Conclusion. Effective communication is perceived between physicians during antimicrobial prescribing activities. Marginal levels of communication and acceptance of prescribing recommendations have been detected between physicians and pharmacists. In this milieu, there is an opportunity to strengthen multidisciplinary teams to optimize antimicrobial use.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S182, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746733

ABSTRACT

Background. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) interventions in the emergency department (ED) has been associated with improved patient outcomes. One potentially promising AS strategy is the implementation of an ED-specific, evidence-based antimicrobial order set. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of implementing an ED-specific order set (EDOS) on the appropriateness of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Methods. We conducted a pre-post quasi experimental study on 160 adult patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed common infections at our quaternary healthcare facility. The EDOS was implemented in December 2020, providing evidence-based recommendations for the management of common infectious diseases. Data was collected between September 2019 and March 2020 for the pre-EDOS implementation group and between January 2021 and April 2021 for the post-EDOS implementation group. Pregnant women and patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were excluded. Data were analyzed using two-sample T-test and mixed effects logistic regression. The primary study outcome was the appropriateness of antimicrobials selected, and the secondary outcomes were clinical and microbiologic cure, length of hospital stay, Clostridioides difficile infection, and the number of changes in antimicrobial therapy on transition to inpatient setting. Results. A total of 100 ED patients pre-EDOS implementation and 60 patients post-EDOS implementation were compared. At baseline, patients in the post-EDOS group were older (59.83±20.30 years vs. 50.17±19.97 years, P=0.0037). A higher number of patients in the post-EDOS group had a history of multiple comorbidities (76.67% vs. 54%, P=0.0039). There was a higher rate of appropriate antimicrobial use in the post-EDOS group as compared to the pre-EDOS group (88.3% vs. 50%, P< 0.001). Longer hospital stays were observed in the post-EDOS group (P=0.0005). Clinical cure was similar between the two groups (96.6% vs. 94%, P=0.4568). Conclusion. In our study, we observed higher rates of appropriate antimicrobial selection after implementation of an EDOS. Use of an EDOS may represent a valuable AS intervention to guide appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in the ED, and larger studies are needed to confirm those findings.

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S192, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746726

ABSTRACT

Background. Current guidelines recommend empiric antibiotics be used only for severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or in cases where there is high clinical suspicion for bacterial co-infection. Level of adherence to guideline-recommended prescribing is unknown and high rates of antimicrobial prescribing may lead to increased development of resistance. Methods. We reviewed antimicrobial prescribing patterns for patients with COVID-19 managed at The Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 2020. Adherence to World Health Organization (WHO) guideline-based prescribing was assessed by manual review of case notes. Monthly hospital-wide antibacterial consumption April-Dec 2020 (post-pandemic period) was compared to Jan 2019-Mar 2020 (pre-pandemic period), measured as days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patientdays. Rates of multi-drug resistant organisms (MRO) (including MRSA, VRE, CPE, ESBL) were compared between months in 2019 and 2020 after pandemic onset (April 2020) and expressed as isolates per 1000 patient-days. Results. 147 patients were managed for COVID-19 in 2020 at our centre. 101 patients required hospital admission and 58 (39%) were classified as either severe or critical in severity. 80 (54%) patients received empiric antimicrobial treatment, including 78/101 (77%) of hospital inpatients and 24/26 (92%) of ICU-admitted patients. 59 (73%) of antimicrobial prescriptions were adherent to WHO guidelines. Monthly antibacterial consumption was significantly lower post-pandemic than in the pre-pandemic period (mean 853 vs 902 DOT/1000 patient-days, P=0.0065). Antimicrobial use patterns varied, with significant decreases in commonly used antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin but no change in vancomycin or meropenem (Figure 1). There was a mean decrease of 0.77 MRO isolates/1000 patient-days (P=0.026) when each month in 2020 was compared with the corresponding month in 2019 (Figure 2). Antibacterial consumption in 2019 and 2020 by month, expressed as days of therapy/1000 patient-days. Rates of isolated multi-drug resistant organisms in 2019 and 2020 by month, expressed as isolates/1000 patient-days. Conclusion. A high proportion of admitted patients with COVID-19 received empiric antibiotics. In spite of this, we observed a significant reduction in total antimicrobial consumption and reduced rates of MRO isolation in the post-pandemic period.

8.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S260, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746686

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 pneumonia can be indistinguishable from other infectious respiratory etiologies, so providers are challenged with deciding whether empiric antibiotics should be prescribed to hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of respiratory bacterial co-infections (RBCI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods. Retrospective study evaluating COVID-19 inpatients from Feb 1, 2020 to Sept 30, 2020 at a tertiary academic medical center. Patients with RBCI were matched with three COVID-19 inpatients lacking RBCI admitted within 7 days of each other. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of and identify variables associated with RBCI in COVID-19 inpatients. Secondary outcomes included length of stay and mortality. Data collected included demographics;inflammatory markers;bacterial culture/antigen results;antibiotic exposure;and COVID-19 severity. Wilcoxon rank sum, Chi Square tests, or Fisher's exact tests were utilized as appropriate. A multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model was conducted to identify covariates associated with RBCI. Results. Seven hundred thirty-five patients were hospitalized with COVID-19 during the study period. Of these, 82 (11.2%) had RBCI. Fifty-seven of these patients met inclusion criteria and were matched to three patients lacking RBCI (N = 228 patients). Patients with RBCI were more likely to receive antibiotics [57 (100%) vs. 130 (76%), p < 0.0001] and for a longer cumulative duration [19 (13-33) vs. 8 (4-13) days, p < 0.0001] compared to patients lacking RBCI. The MLR model revealed risk factors of RBCI to be admission from SNF/LTAC/NH (AOR 6.8, 95% CI 2.6-18.2), severe COVID-19 (AOR 3.03, 95% CI 0.78-11.9), and leukocytosis (AOR 3.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.16). Conclusion. Although RBCI is rare in COVID-19 inpatients, antibiotic use is common. COVID-19 inpatients may be more likely to have RBCI if they are admitted from a SNF/LTAC/NH, have severe COVID-19, or present with leukocytosis. Early and prompt recognition of RBCI predictors in COVID-19 inpatients may facilitate timely antimicrobial therapy while improving antimicrobial stewardship among patients at low risk for co-infection.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S260, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746685

ABSTRACT

Background. Rescue ECMO has been used worldwide in patients (pts) with ARDS caused by COVID-19. Bacterial super-infections affect 3.5-14.3% of hospitalized pts with COVID-19. Pts requiring ECMO may be at an increased risk of infection due to their severity of illness, gut translocation and ECMO impact on host immunity. Methods. This was a retrospective review of pts requiring ECMO for COVID-19 from April 2020-2021 at a single center. Strict definitions of infections (including ventilator-associated PNA, VAP) were in accordance with CDC criteria. Results. 43 ECMO pts with 1065 ECMO days were evaluated. Median age was 53 yrs (range: 21-62) and median BMI was 36.2 (range: 19.4-75.8). 70% were men and 65% were white. 37 patients (86%) experienced a total of 40 infectious episodes with a median onset from ECMO cannulation to first infection of 10.5d (range: 4-50). Median SOFA and SAPSII scores at time of infection were 12 (6-20) and 63 (30-90), respectively. PNA was the most common infection (78%, with 19% of cases complicated by bacteremia and 3% by empyema) (Fig. 1). The most common organisms isolated were Enterobacterales (37%), S. aureus (25%) and P. aeruginosa (16%) (Fig. 2). Only 2% of all organisms were multi-drug resistant. 3 pts had fungal infections (1 candidemia, 2 aspergillus PNA). Duration of ECMO was significantly longer for infected pts (26d, range: 5-92d) vs (11d, range: 3-24d), p=.01. 95% of infected pts had received steroids vs. 67% of uninfected pts, p=0.09. Treatment success at 1 week was 50%, and 24% and 40% of pts had recurrent infections and persistent/recurrent organisms in clinical cultures, respectively. S. aureus (54%) and Enterobacterales (26%) were associated with persistent or recurrent clinical cultures, requiring prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Mortality rate at 30 days was 65% and was significantly higher for pts with infection than those without (67% vs 33%, p=.02). Conclusion. Super-infection (most commonly PNA) occurred in almost all COVID-19 pts requiring ECMO for >4 days, and was a significant risk factor for death. Recurrent infections among survivors were common, especially when caused by Enterbacterales or S. aureus. Super-infection and mortality rates of ARDS pts on ECMO for COVID-19 were worse than for ARDS pts on ECMO for influenza at our center.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S402, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746406

ABSTRACT

Background. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically affected the provision of healthcare in the U.S. with sharp declines in routine and elective healthcare services. Outpatient clinic visits declined nearly 60% in the early pandemic. We investigated how COVID-19 impacted the provision of OPAT at various Infectious Disease (ID) POICs nationwide. Methods. Patient (pt) records were evaluated from Jan 2019 - July 2019 and compared to Jan 2020 - July 2020. Data collected included new OPAT pts, demographics, infection type, location prior to OPAT and therapy characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test with p< 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Fourteen POICs reported data with a total of 2410 new OPAT pts in 2019 and 1807 in 2020, representing a decrease of 25%. Table 1 shows the comparison of OPAT characteristics between 2019 and 2020. Mean age and gender were similar, but there was a significantly higher percentage of pts ≥65 years treated in 2020 (43% vs. 36%, p< 0.001). Infection type and location prior to OPAT were consistent between 2019 and 2020. Primary antimicrobial use was comparable with the exception of cefepime, which showed a greater use in 2020 (14% vs. 11%, p=0.006). OPAT management differed significantly from 2019 to 2020 with fewer pts completing therapy as prescribed in 2020 (85.9% vs. 88.3%, p=0.021), driven largely by more early discontinuations and switches to oral therapy. Other reasons for those not completing therapy were also significant and due primarily to transfer of care to other settings, most commonly the home (1.9% vs. 2.9%, p=0.029). Overall length of therapy was comparable. Table 1. Comparison of OPAT in 2019 (Pre-COVID) and 2020 (Post-COVID) Conclusion. OPAT provided through ID POICs experienced a substantial decrease in pts treated during the first half of 2020 compared to 2019. This was expected with the decline in healthcare services, especially elective procedures. Most pt and treatment characteristics were comparable between years, but interestingly, more elderly received OPAT during the pandemic and fewer completed therapy as planned. Further analysis of these differences can help determine effects of the pandemic on overall health outcomes in the OPAT population.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S403, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746405

ABSTRACT

Background. At our facility a collaborative team of nurse and pharmacist manage patients receiving outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). This project aims to characterize this collaboration and assess the effectiveness by reviewing interventions made by the nurse and pharmacist, and assessing patient outcomes such as OPAT or infection related hospital admissions or ED visits, infection clearance, and mortality. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients started on OPAT between 1/1/19 and 12/31/20. This time period was split into three: Period 1 where the clinic only included the PharmD and they saw patients for in-person appointments, Period 2 where the clinic included both the OPAT RN and PharmD and the PharmD performed in-person appointments, and Period 3 where the clinic included both but due to COVID the in-person PharmD appointments were on hold. OPAT or infection related hospital admissions, ED visits, infection clearance, and death were compared for each period. Results. A total of 388 patients were included in the review. There were 158 (40.7%) and 148 (38.1%) OPAT-related phone calls from the PharmD and RN, respectively. The two most common reasons for both PharmD and RN phone calls were a medication stop order/confirmation, and weekly lab obtainment. The third most common reason for the PharmD was dose change, and for the RN it was patient education. During Periods 1 and 2 the PharmD had in-person appointments with 28.9% of patients. The overall OPAT/infection related hospital admission and ED visit rates were 7.7% and 5.4%, respectively. Periods 2 and 3, which utilized the combined efforts of RN and PharmD, had consistently lower hospital admissions related to OPAT/infection (46-50% vs 62% Period 1), and ED visits due to OPAT/infection (33-36% vs 47% for Period 1). Clearance of infection was high for all 3 periods (89-95%), and mean mortality was low (2.1%). Conclusion. Collaborative management allowed for the nurse and pharmacist to function as substitutes for each other without losing the specific focus of their specialties, with the RN performing more patient education, and the PharmD performing more medication dosing. The collaboration had positive effects on OPAT patient outcomes.

12.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S731, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746305

ABSTRACT

Background. We report on a 56 year-old male with prolonged COVID-19 pneumonia who initially improved with dexamethasone and intubation but quickly decompensated. Clinical and radiologic features were consistent with VAP. Tracheal aspirate cultures grew carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae;meropenem (MEM) MIC was >8 ug/ml (resistant) while ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) MIC was 2/4 ug/ml (susceptible). Lateral flow antigen assay detected a KPC enzyme. The patient was treated with CZA with steady improvement in respiratory function over the next two weeks. He then experienced an episode of tachycardia, prompting repeat culture. At this point the patient had been extubated: sputum culture grew KPC+ E. cloacae that now showed CZA-resistance (MIC >8/4 ug/ml) and paradoxical decrease in MEM MIC (4 ug/ml);meropenem-vaborbactam (< 2/8 ug/ml) was susceptible. Methods. The pre- & post-CZA therapy E. cloacae isolates underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina 150bp paired end protocol;sequences were quality trimmed and compared. Results. A point mutation in the plasmid blaKPC3 gene was identified in the post-CZA therapy isolate, an R163S mutation in the omega loop of the enzyme. ompC and ompF porin genes were analyzed to rule-out decreased influx as a mechanism for CZA-resistance: the pre- and post-CZA isolates had identical porin sequences. Conclusion. This case highlights emerging mutations within KPC carbapenemases that lead to resistance to 'last-line' antimicrobials like CZA. The presumptive mechanism is increased KPC active site promiscuity due to increased omega loop flexibility, allowing increased ceftazidime binding and hydrolysis, and decreased avibactam binding and beta lactamase inhibition. Paradoxically, MEM susceptibility improves after such omega loop mutations, likely due to decreased active site binding affinity, a 'seesaw' effect between MEM and CZA. While authors have reported MEM MICs falling into the 'susceptible' category after an omega loop variant, these bacteria invariably develop secondary mutations leading to MEM treatment failure. Fortunately, given our patient's improved respiratory status, the post-CZA E. cloacae isolate was felt to reflect colonization and the patient was discharged home without antimicrobial therapy.

13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731897

ABSTRACT

This review aims to summarize current progress in the management of critically ill, using biomarkers as guidance for antimicrobial treatment with a focus on antimicrobial stewardship. Accumulated evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies in adults for the biomarker-guided antimicrobial treatment of critically ill (mainly sepsis and COVID-19 patients) has been extensively searched and is provided. Procalcitonin (PCT) is the best studied biomarker; in the majority of randomized clinical trials an algorithm of discontinuation of antibiotics with decreasing PCT over serial measurements has been proven safe and effective to reduce length of antimicrobial treatment, antibiotic-associated adverse events and long-term infectious complications like infections by multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridioides difficile. Other biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein and presepsin, are already being tested as guidance for shorter antimicrobial treatment, but more research is needed. Current evidence suggests that biomarkers, mainly procalcitonin, should be implemented in antimicrobial stewardship programs even in the COVID-19 era, when, although bacterial coinfection rate is low, antimicrobial overconsumption remains high.

14.
Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S290-S291, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1708959

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infectious peritonitis (IP) is one of the main complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Abdominal pain is often the revealing symptom of this complication which can also be clinically silent and diagnosed after the discovery of a cloudy aspect of the effluent dialysis fluid. Other etiologies may mimic the symptoms of IP in PD. Methods: We report the case of a PD patient who presented with abdominal pain and turbid peritoneal fluid with a biological inflammatory syndrome, and the final diagnosis was peritoneal carcinomatosis complicating colon cancer. Results: A 71-year-old female patient with a history of hypertension and vascular end-stage kidney disease. She started two years earlier (2019) on peritoneal dialysis. During these two years, she had undergone only one episode of infectious peritonitis. She presented in January 2021 with deep asthenia. There were no abnormalities in the clinical examination. Laboratory tests were normal except for normocytic normochromic anemia (8g/dl). SARS-CoV-2 infection was suspected given the epidemiological context but we performed a test (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and it was negative. Three months later she presented with abdominal pain and asthenia. The clinical examination found the right-side abdomen sensitive to touch. Dialysis fluid was turbid and the cytobacteriological examination showed hypercellularity with 90% of neutrophils with a negative culture. She also had hyperleukocytosis (12770 e/mm3) with neutrophil predominance, microcytic anemia (6.2d/dl), a high c reactive protein (CRP) level (133.3 mg/l), and procalcitonin level was 1.49 ng/ml. She was put on an empiric antimicrobial therapy. Abdominal pain remained intense after 48 hours with an altered general condition, which motivated the request for computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen. The CT scan showed an irregular process tissue of the right colic angle with invasion of segment VI of the liver and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusions: The indication of imaging exams should be broadened so as not to miss out on serious diagnoses that mimic IP No conflict of interest

15.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20179, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572925

ABSTRACT

Objectives To describe the implementation process, safety, and efficacy outcomes, as well as cost-effectiveness, of the first outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) program to utilize disposable elastomeric pumps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the entire Gulf region. Methods This OPAT program was initiated in May 2018 and was administered through a multidisciplinary team that included the home medicine department, pharmacy department, nursing department, and the infectious diseases service. The device used was the Intermate® (Baxter, Deerfield, Illinois) elastomeric pump. After consultation with an infectious diseases physician, eligible patients were discharged home to complete the remainder of their antimicrobial treatment, which was self-administered via the elastomeric devices. Results From May 2018 to December 2019, 47 patients received 55 courses of OPAT via the new program. A total of 2,869 pumps were used during that period to provide 927 days of antimicrobial therapy in the home setting. Most patients completed the program successfully with no reported significant OPAT-related complications such as catheter-related infections. Four patients were re-admitted for relapse of infections and one patient was re-admitted for colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. No mortality was reported for any patient during OPAT treatment and 30 days after program completion. Conclusions The implementation of this novel OPAT program was safe, effective, and offered significant cost-savings to our institution. The entire process was very dynamic and was centered around proper patient selection and education as well as excellent communication between patients and the entire multidisciplinary team involved in the program. We hope that these results will encourage other institutions in the region to implement similar OPAT programs to alleviate the existing bed crisis due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Meditsinskiy Sovet ; 2021(16):118-128, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566912

ABSTRACT

Introduction. According to available data, the frequency of prescribing antibacterial drugs to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is many times higher than the level of bacterial infection recorded in them. This trend may make an extremely negative contribution to the problem of antibiotic resistance in the future, which makes it important to monitor and study the consumption of antibiotics in this category of patients. Aim of the study. To estimate the change in the consumption of antibacterial drugs in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a multidisciplinary hospital compared with the consumption in the pre-pandemic period, and to conduct a subsequent analysis of the detected changes. Materials and methods. This retrospective study, reviewed the medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Moscow city hospital No. 4 in the period from April 27 to December 31, 2020, as well as medical records of patients hospitalized in the same medical institution for the same period of 2019. Results of the use of antibacterial drugs were obtained. They were evaluated using the ATC/DDD methodology and then subjected to further analysis. Results. Total consumption increased from 31, 576 DDD/100 bed-days to 220, 609 DDD/100 bed-days among the patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The level of consumption of macrolides increased most significantly - from 0.024 DDD/100 bed-days to 147.898 DDD/100 bed-days. The level of consumption of penicillins increased from 2, 346 DDD/100 bed-days to 15, 892 DDD/100 beddays, cephalosporins - from 11.78 DDD/100 bed-days to 19, 107 DDD/100 bed-days, fluoroquinolones - from 10, 276 DDD/100 beddays to 25, 535 DDD/100 bed-days.Conclusion. The consumption of antibiotics has increased dramatically on the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the data of the frequency of bacterial complications in patients with COVID-19 (no more than 8%), a more rational approach to antibacterial therapy in this group of patients is needed to reduce the potential deterioration of the problem of antibiotic resistance. © 2021, Remedium Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

17.
Rheumatology Advances in Practice ; 4(SUPPL 1):i18, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554350

ABSTRACT

Case report-IntroductionThis is a case of Pakistani female with limited systemic sclerosis and associated mild interstitial lung disease. The lung disease was complicated by SARS-COV-2 related pneumonitis in April 2020 and that led to treatment challenges.She was previously seen in multiple private hospitals and labelled as Rheumatoid arthritis. She was being treated with long term steroids and Methotrexate. After her initial presentation to our Rheumatology services, her diagnosis was correctly revised to Systemic Sclerosis with phenotype of CREST. Her treatment was adjusted to Vasodilators and Mycophenolate due to skin and Lung involvement.Case report-Case descriptionThis is a case of 40-year-old Pakistani female who had been having multiple joint pains since 2010. She also experienced severe Raynaud's.She presented to our Rheumatology clinic in December 2018. Her symptoms included recurrent digital ulcers, tight and tough skin at fingers and Raynaud's worse during winter months. Her examination confirmed peripheral cyanosis with multiple digital ulcers with superimposed infection, marked sclerodactyly and calcinosis. She was started on Vasodilator therapy including calcium channel blocker and PDE5 inhibitor due to severity of ulceration. Infection was managed with prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy. Her immunology showed positive anti nRNP/Sm. Anti-centromere and anti Scl 70 were negative. Her condition fit description of CREST (Calcinosis, RP, Oesophageal dysmotility, telangiectasia). Her management included weaning off Methotrexate and reduction in the dose of corticosteroids.In February 2019, Respiratory work up showed normal Chest radiograph, High resolution CT chest showing no significant abnormality and FEV1 82%, FVC 86%, and DLCO 77%. Her PASP was 25mmHg. Overall, her condition remained stable over the course of next year. Her medication included Cellcept, low dose prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, and Sildenafil. More importantly, Digital ulcers have been well controlled with combined vasodilator therapy.In April 2020, she developed SARS-CoV-2 with mild respiratory symptoms and was admitted to a different hospital. Fortunately, she responded well to ward based supportive and symptomatic treatment with no need for respiratory support. Subsequently, she has seen a different respiratory physician and had repeat imaging of chest which has led to dilemma whether the ground glass opacities in both lungs is due to scleroderma lung or COVID-19 related lung disease. She was given high dose prednisolone by the respiratory physician which has been reduced in rheumatology clinic. The new findings on chest imaging are sequelae of SARS-COV-2.Case report-DiscussionThis case highlights few important points as below:Systemic sclerosis diagnosis was not made for many years even though she has had severe digital ulcers for a long time. She was being managed as Rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic sclerosis remains a difficult disease to diagnose and is still under recognised.SARS-COV-2 related illness has not affected this patient adversely despite the fact of being on long term maintenance prednisolone of 7.5mg daily dose and Cellcept 2gm. Her cellcept was temporarily stopped during acute illness.We know that viral pneumonitis can present with typical ground glass opacities in bilateral areas of lungs and differential diagnosis does include connective tissue related lung disease but this lady had no significant respiratory involvement prior to COVID-19 illness and follow up scan will help to decide if this is disease progression or related to viral cause.Case report-Key learning pointsThere are multiple learning points in this case:Continuity of care under same primary team can avoid confusion related to diagnosis and diagnosis related complications. This lady had none, or mild subclinical lung involvement related to systemic sclerosis prior to contracting COVID-19 illness. Her CT chest findings after the episode of SARS-COV-2 were attributed to systemic sclerosis as she was seen by different respiratory team. This conti uity is not always possible, but MDT collaboration needs to be improved across hospitals and across various departments.Systemic sclerosis remains an under diagnosed and under recognized complex rheumatic disorder and more primary care physicians need to be educated so they can appropriately refer these cases to Rheumatology services.Multi-disciplinary collaboration between Rheumatology, Respiratory and other specialties is the key point to manage these complex cases.This case also highlights an interesting observation that presence of significant immune disorder and immunosuppressant medication does not always equate to worse outcome if patient contracts SARS-COV-2. Supportive care, appropriate observation, and temporary suspension of DMARD in such cases can avoid any further complications.

18.
U.S. Pharm. ; 46:6-13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1553161

ABSTRACT

Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection that requires immediate treatment. Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy is based upon the most likely pathogen, according to a patient’s age and immune status. Antimicrobial therapy should be modified after identification of the causative microorganism and results of susceptibility tests. Preventive measures include the use of vaccines that target Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as the use of chemoprophylaxis in selected situations. Pharmacists are in a key position to recommend appropriate antimicrobial therapy for the treatment and prophylaxis of bacterial meningitis and to ensure that patients are receiving recommended vaccinations.

19.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323314

ABSTRACT

Dendrimers comprise a specific group of macromolecules, which combine structural properties of both single molecules and long expanded polymers. The three-dimensional form of dendrimers and the extensive possibilities for use of additional substrates for their construction creates a multivalent potential and a wide possibility for medical, diagnostic and environmental purposes. Depending on their composition and structure, dendrimers have been of interest in many fields of science, ranging from chemistry, biotechnology to biochemical applications. These compounds have found wide application from the production of catalysts for their use as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents. Of particular interest are peptide dendrimers as a medium for transport of therapeutic substances: synthetic vaccines against parasites, bacteria and viruses, contrast agents used in MRI, antibodies and genetic material. This review focuses on the description of the current classes of dendrimers, the methodology for their synthesis and briefly drawbacks of their properties and their use as potential therapies against infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Dendrimers/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Biotechnology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Contrast Media , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Design , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mice , Nanotechnology , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereoisomerism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
20.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(7): 53, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a comprehensive narrative review of reactive arthritis (ReA) with focus on articles published between 2018 and 2020. We discuss the entire spectrum of microbial agents known to be the main causative agents of ReA, those reported to be rare infective agents, and those reported to be new candidates causing the disease. The discussion is set within the context of changing disease terminology, definition, and classification over time. Further, we include reports that present at least a hint of effective antimicrobial therapy for ReA as documented in case reports or in double-blind controlled studies. Additional information is included on microbial products detected in the joint, as well as on the positivity of HLA-B27. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports of ReA cover several rare causative microorganism such as Neisseria meningitides, Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Blastocytosis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, ß-haemolytic Streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and Rickettsia rickettsii. The most prominent new infectious agents implicated as causative in ReA are Staphylococcus lugdunensis, placenta- and umbilical cord-derived Wharton's jelly, Rothia mucilaginosa, and most importantly the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In view of the increasingly large spectrum of causative agents, diagnostic consideration for the disease must include the entire panel of post-infectious arthritides termed ReA. Diagnostic procedures cannot be restricted to the well-known HLA-B27-associated group of ReA, but must also cover the large number of rare forms of arthritis following infections and vaccinations, as well as those elicited by the newly identified members of the ReA group summarized herein. Inclusion of these newly identified etiologic agents must necessitate increased research into the pathogenic mechanisms variously involved, which will engender important insights for treatment and management of ReA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Reactive/microbiology , COVID-19 , Clostridium Infections , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Staphylococcal Infections , Streptococcal Infections , Arthritis, Reactive/genetics , Blastocystis Infections , Cryptosporidiosis , Cyclosporiasis , Entamoebiasis , Escherichia coli Infections , Giardiasis , HLA-B27 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Meningococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , SARS-CoV-2 , Strongyloidiasis , Tuberculosis
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