Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.010
Filter
1.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 6(3): 177-180, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109655
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac537, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107554

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibacterial therapy is frequently used in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without evidence of bacterial infection, prompting concerns about increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We evaluated trends in AMR before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis included hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with >1-day inpatient admission and a record of discharge or death from 271 US facilities in the BD Insights Research Database. We evaluated rates of AMR events, defined as positive cultures for select gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens from any source, with nonsusceptibility reported by commercial panels before (1 July 2019-29 February 2020) and during (1 March 2020-30 October 2021) the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Results: Of 5 518 666 admissions evaluated, AMR rates per 1000 admissions were 35.4 for the prepandemic period and 34.7 for the pandemic period (P ≤ .0001). In the pandemic period, AMR rates per 1000 admissions were 49.2 for SARS-CoV-2-positive admissions, 41.1 for SARS-CoV-2-negative admissions, and 25.7 for patients untested (P ≤ .0001). AMR rates per 1000 admissions among community-onset infections during the pandemic were lower versus prepandemic levels (26.1 vs 27.6; P < .0001), whereas AMR rates for hospital-onset infections were higher (8.6 vs 7.7; P < .0001), driven largely by SARS-CoV-2-positive admissions (21.8). AMR rates were associated with overall antimicrobial use, rates of positive cultures, and higher use of inadequate empiric therapy. Conclusions: Although overall AMR rates did not substantially increase from prepandemic levels, patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection had a significantly higher rate of AMR and hospital-onset infections. Antimicrobial and diagnostic stewardship is key to identifying this high-risk AMR population.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109908

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization expressed concern that antimicrobial resistance would increase during the COVID-19 pandemic due to the excessive use of antibiotics. This study aimed to explore if antibiotic prescribing patterns in general practices located in the North Denmark Region changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted as a registry-based study. Data was collected for every antibiotic prescription issued in general practices located in the North Denmark Region during the first year of the pandemic (1 February 2020 to 31 January 2021) and the year prior to the pandemic (1 February 2019 to 31 January 2020). Data were compared regarding antibiotic agents and the type of consultation linked to each antibiotic prescription. Results showed that antibiotic prescriptions decreased by 18.5% during the first pandemic year. The use of macrolides and lincosamides, along with combinations of penicillins and beta-lactamase -sensitive penicillins, was reduced the most. Face-to-face consultations related to an antibiotic prescription decreased by 28.5%, while the use of video consultations increased markedly. In Denmark, COVID-19 restrictions have contributed to both a lower consumption of antibiotics and a change in prescription patterns in general practice. Probably some of the COVID-19 -preventing initiatives could be of importance moving forward in the fight against antimicrobial resistance.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109905

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-known global threat due to the subsequent increase in antimicrobial usage. Several antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies have been implemented to curb irrational prescribing and reduce the AMR burden. However, since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has enormously impacted the healthcare system and jeopardized public health, causing millions of deaths globally. Our semi-structured qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 on AMS activities in the UK hospitals. Seventeen interviews were conducted with health care professionals who were part of AMS teams (consultant medical microbiologists, infectious disease consultants, antimicrobial pharmacists). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. An inductive thematic framework was adopted to analyse and create the themes. After agreement of the hierarchical framework definition, all transcripts were coded accordingly. Four main themes and 15 sub-themes were identified. These main themes were: (1) AMS activities or strategies before and during the pandemic; (2) challenges to implementing AMS activities before and during the pandemic; (3) information from public authorities on AMS during the pandemic; and (4) new AMS activities/strategies adopted during the pandemic. Staff vacancies, redeploying of AMS staff to other duties and meeting the burden related to the COVID-19 and lack of resources were the most frequently identified contributing factors to withheld AMS activities during the pandemic. However, modifications to the hybrid working environment, i.e., remote or flexible working, allowed for resumption of AMS activities including virtual ward rounds, virtual meetings and other activities. Further research needs to assess the impact of the hybrid delivery system on AMS activities.

5.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare acute care virtual visits with in-person visits with respect to equity of access, markers of quality and safety, and parent and provider experience, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We compared patient demographics, antimicrobial prescribing rates, ED utilization, and patient-experience scores for virtual visits and in-person care at two academic pediatric primary care practices using chi-square testing and interrupted time series analyses. Parent and provider focus groups explored themes related to virtual visit experience and acceptability. RESULTS: We compared virtual acute care visits conducted in March 2020-February 2021 (n=8,868) with in-person acute care visits conducted in February 2019-March 2020 (n= 24,120) and March 2020-February 2021 (n=6,054). There were small differences in patient race/ethnicity across the different cohorts (p<0.01). Virtual visits were associated with a 9.6% (-11.5%, -7.8%, p<0.001) decrease in all antibiotic prescribing and a 13.2% (-22.1%, -4.4%, p<0.01) decrease in antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections. Unanticipated ED visits did not significantly differ among visit types. Patient experience scores were significantly higher (p<0.05) for virtual acute care in overall rating of care and likelihood to recommend. Focus group themes included safety, distractibility, convenience, treatment, and technology. Providers were broadly accepting of virtual care while parental views were more mixed. CONCLUSION: Telehealth acute care visits may not have negative effects on quality and safety, as measured by antimicrobial prescribing and unanticipated ED visit rates. Efforts to increase parental acceptance and avoid creating disparities in access to virtual care will be essential to continued success of telehealth acute care visits.

6.
Applied Surface Science ; 611:155612, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104376

ABSTRACT

The demand for medical textiles in various forms with strong antimicrobial activity drastically increased during the COVID19 pandemic. In an attempt to tackle this issue and to develop antimicrobial textiles in more environmentally benign manner, a viscose fabric after coating with biopolymer chitosan has been impregnated with Ag- and Cu-based nanoparticles. Chitosan was applied in the presence and absence of cross-linker 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA). In situ green synthesis of nanoparticles was performed using a Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Formation of nanoparticles on the fiber surface was confirmed by FESEM. Elemental analysis by XPS showed the synthesized nanoparticles exist as AgCl and a mixture of Cu/CuO/Cu2O in the modified samples. Moreover, these nanoparticles appeared to be present not only on the sample surface but also buried within the fibers, as indicated by XPS mapping and depth profiling measurements. All impregnated fabrics exhibited excellent antifungal activity providing the maximum reduction of yeast Candida albicans colonies. Antibacterial activity was stronger against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli than Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, and it was highly influenced by metal content. The fabrics impregnated with AgCl nanoparticles showed lower cytotoxicity towards human keratinocyte cells.

7.
Recent Highlights Ii, Vol. 79 ; : 65-103, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102487

ABSTRACT

Although the whole world is currently observing the global battle against COVID-19, it should not be underestimated that in the next 30 years, approximately 10 million people per year could be exposed to infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. As new antibiotics come under pressure from unpredictable resistance patterns and relegation to last-line therapy, immediate action is needed to establish a radically different approach to countering resistant microorganisms. Among the most widely explored alternative methods for combating bacterial infections are metal complexes and nanoparticles, often in combination with light, but strategies using monoclonal antibodies and bacteriophages are increasingly gaining acceptance. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) uses light and a dye termed a photosensitizer (PS) in the presence of oxygen to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the field of illumination that eventually kill microorganisms. Over the past few years, hundreds of photomaterials have been investigated, seeking ideal strategies based either on single molecules (e.g, tetrapyrroles, metal complexes) or in combination with various delivery systems. The present work describes some of the most recent advances of PDI, focusing on the design of suitable photosensitizers, their formulations, and their potential to inactivate bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Particular attention is focused on the compounds and materials developed in our laboratories that are capable of killing in the exponential growth phase (up to seven logarithmic units) of bacteria without loss of efficacy or resistance, while being completely safe for human cells. Prospectively, PDI using these photomaterials could potentially cure infected wounds and oral infections caused by various multidrug-resistant bacteria. It is also possible to treat the surfaces of medical equipment with the materials described, in order to disinfect them with light, and reduce the risk of nosocomial infections.

8.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100700

ABSTRACT

Prior to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the rise in antimicrobial resistance was a major source of concern in public health. However, due to the novelty of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic, antibiotics were administered prior to laboratory testing for secondary gram-negative bacteria (SGNB) in order to avoid or reduce the occurrence of SGNB infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the etiology, prevalence, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Respiratory and blood samples were collected from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. They were subsequently cultured and bacterial isolates identified according to standard microbiological protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed and interpreted according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2021 guidelines. A total of sixty-four non-repetitive GNB were isolated from respiratory samples and twenty-two GNB from blood samples. K. pneumoniae was the major cause of SGNB, followed byAcinetobacter species. K. pneumoniae had over 60% resistance to beta-Lactam combination agents, cephalosporin, and the carbapenem group of antibiotics. In the current study, we observed that K. pneumoniae was the major cause of SGNB and had high resistance to the antimicrobial agents. Hence, it is important that the epidemiology and susceptibility patterns of circulating organisms causing SGNB infection are always monitored to inform clinical treatment and decrease the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

9.
Journal of Laboratory Physicians ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096901

ABSTRACT

Introduction In the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, a long hospital stay and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics make the patients prone to acquire nosocomial infections especially with unconventional organisms, and Chryseobacterium gleum is one such rare nosocomial pathogen. Methods The given study is a case-series-based study conducted from September 2020 to April 2021 in which clinically suspected pneumonia patients who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were included. Results Seventeen C. gleum isolates were obtained in pure culture from the tracheal aspirates of nine COVID-19 patients (including repeat samples to rule out colonization) within a period of eight months (September 2020-April 2021). Our records showed that there has been an increase in the number of isolates of C. gleum obtained in respiratory samples in 2020. We also did a review of literature of all the cases of C. gleum pneumonia reported till now. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the isolation of this rare pathogen from COVID-19 patients with clinical significance in a large cohort of patients. Therefore, it becomes important to consider this pathogen as a significant cause of respiratory infections, especially in patients recovered post COVID-19.

10.
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine ; 23(10):613-619, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2095832

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a condition characterized by inflammatory changes in the respiratory system caused by non-hospital pathogens. The symptoms and signs of a lower respiratory tract infection range from cough, dyspnoea, pleuritic chest pain, sputum with mucopurulent components, to systemic features such as myalgia, and fever. Patients in their older years are more likely to present with confusion or worsening pre-existing conditions and may lack fever. Severe CAP is a pneumonia that requires supportive therapy within intensive care settings, and is still associated with a high mortality and significantly morbidity, specifically amongst the elderly population with multiple comorbidities. Despite the improvement in supportive care by new modalities, such as high-flow nasal oxygen therapy, severe CAP remains one of the most common reasons for admission to a critical care facility. Correct diagnosis, risk stratification and early initiation of antibiotic treatment are key factors determining outcomes of patients with severe CAP. Future developments are likely to concentrate on diagnostics such as point of care microbiological tests and adjuvant non-antibiotic immunomodulating treatment strategies. Further research is warranted to elucidate the role of treatment with corticosteroids in severe CAP. Neither coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia nor pneumonia in immunocompromised patients are within the scope of this article. Copyright © 2022

11.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 897-909, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095435

ABSTRACT

Procalcitonin is a commonly used biomarker for infection and severity in the intensive care unit. Although relatively specific for bacterial, as opposed to viral, infections, serum procalcitonin levels also correlate with disease severity and thus cannot reliably distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial infections in the setting of critical illness, particularly in cases of severe influenza and coronavirus disease-2019. Baseline procalcitonin levels are insufficiently discriminative to permit the withholding of antibiotics in patients with critical illness and suspected sepsis. Trends in procalcitonin levels over time, however, give us the opportunity to individualize the duration of antibiotics without negative impacts on mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Virus Diseases , Humans , Procalcitonin , Critical Illness , Critical Care , Biomarkers , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
12.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(4): 688-691, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093425

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the defining global health threats of our time, but no international legal instrument currently offers the framework and mechanisms needed to address it. Fortunately, the actions needed to address AMR have considerable overlap with the actions needed to confront other pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Health , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(6): 2241-2251, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093279

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of molnupiravir (MLN) on Omicron sublineages is limited. We investigated the effectiveness of MLN in older adults diagnosed with Omicron BA.2. METHODS: Data of elderly COVID-19 patients (over 60 years) admitted to Chinghai Hospital (Shanghai, China) from 26 March to 31 May 2022 were reviewed. Study outcomes were a composite of undetectable viral load (VL) and disease progression [all-cause mortality, initiation of oxygen supply through high-flow device or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or intensive care unit (ICU) admission] and their individual outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 42 elderly patients were enrolled: 26 of them received MLN, 17 (40.5%) were males, the median age was 84 years, and 12 were fully vaccinated (31.0%). Among these elderly COVID-19 patients, five (11.90%) experienced obvious dyspnea or were transferred to ICU [three MLN users (11.5%) versus two non-MLN users (12.5%)]. Compared with no MLN use, MLN use was associated with rapid undetectable VL. At day 10, MLN users achieved significantly greater undetectable VL than non-MLN users. Adjusted analysis showed that elderly patients who received MLN were 7.584 times more likely to achieve undetectable VL at day 10 than non-MLN users. Overall, elderly patients experienced a median hospital stay of 13 days. Compared with patients receiving standard care (SC), the median hospital stay of MLN users was reduced by 2.5 days. CONCLUSION: Early initiation of MLN in elderly COVID-19 was associated with fast undetectable VL and short hospital stay.

14.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society ; 67(3):5602-5614, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092449

ABSTRACT

Despite the social distancing and hygiene rules prescribed by the WHO, the novel Corona-virus is still on the way of a significant rapid rise in deaths. Therefore, identification of chemotherapeutic drugs against Corona Viral Infection all around the world is still requires. Some medicinal plants have a valuable therapeutic effect when mixt with honey, the obtained formulations are preliminary use in Cameroon against viral infection particularly respiratory infections. In this work, we looked for the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 molecule throw execution of in silico computational studies of six Cameroonian plants intervening in the treatment respiratory infections in apiphytotherapy. AutoDock Vina was used for docking studies against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) and spike (SP) proteins. We further conducted of pharmacokinetics properties and the safety profile of compounds with the top score in order to identify the best drug candidates. Totally 100 compounds were screened, of these, eighteen showed high binding affinity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SP. The results suggest the effectiveness of compounds 10 and 17 obtained from Citrus Sinensis as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 as they tightly bind to its Mpro and SP with low binding energies. The stability of the two compounds complexed with Mpro and SP was validated through MD simulation. The availability of potent protein inhibitors and diverse of compounds from Cameroon flora scaffolds indicate the feasibility of developing potent Mpro and SP proteins inhibitors as antivirals for COVID-19. Based on further in vivo and in vitro experiments and clinical trials, some of these phytoconstituents could be proposed for effective inhibition of the replication of the SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Kliniceskaa Mikrobiologia i Antimikrobnaa Himioterapia ; 24(2):181-192, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091716

ABSTRACT

Objective. Development of local clinical protocols for antibacterial therapy of COVID-19-associated bacterial pneumonia in the therapeutic department of the city clinical hospital based on an analysis of the treatment process in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of 1382 cases of hospitalization in the therapeutic department of patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia for the period from 2020 to 2021 was carried out. The structure of etiotropic therapy, the frequency and timing of microbiological studies of the biomaterial, the manifestations of the main markers of bacterial infection during dynamic monitoring of clinical and laboratory parameters in patients prescribed antibiotic therapy, as well as statistics of the stay of patients in the therapeutic department of the hospital were assessed. Based on the results obtained in the course of microbiological studies, an assessment was made of the microbial landscape of the lower respiratory tract of patients with an analysis of the sensitivity of strains of the leading microflora to a wide range of antibiotics. Results. The study found that the dominant flora in COVID-19-associated pneumonia in hospitalized patients was gram-negative bacteria – K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii – their proportion was more than 50%. Among K. pneumoniae strains, 89.4% were ESBL producers, 63.5% of the strains were resistant to carbapenems, which with a high probability allows them to be considered carbapenemase-producing strains. Among the strains of P. aeruginosa, the proportion of strains resistant to carbapenems and with a high degree of probability being strains – producers of carbapenemase was 41.1%. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp. these were 76.4%, and associated resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was also demonstrated. Gram-positive microorganisms were found in 34.3% of cases and were mainly represented by strains of S. aureus (74.9%), only 26.4% of strains of this pathogen were methicillin-resistant. Conclusions. Microbiological monitoring conducted in 2020–2021 revealed the presence, among the pathogens of viral-bacterial pneumonia, at an early stage of hospitalization, a significant proportion of gram-negative bacteria with resistance of the MDR and XDR types. Based on the obtained microbiological data, starting empirical schemes for antibacterial therapy of secondary viral and bacterial pneumonia, which complicated the course of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, were developed and proposed. © 2022, Interregional Association for Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090289

ABSTRACT

Annually, antimicrobial-resistant infections-related mortality worldwide accelerates due to the increased use of antibiotics during the coronavirus pandemic and the antimicrobial resistance, which grows exponentially, and disproportionately to the current rate of development of new antibiotics. Nanoparticles can be an alternative to the current therapeutic approach against multi-drug resistance microorganisms caused infections. The motivation behind this work was to find a superior antibacterial nanomaterial, which can be efficient, biocompatible, and stable in time. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of ZnO-based nanomaterials with different morphologies, synthesized through the solvothermal method and further modified with Au nanoparticles through wet chemical reduction. The structure, crystallinity, and morphology of ZnO and ZnO/Au nanomaterials have been investigated with XRD, SEM, TEM, DLS, and FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial effect of unmodified ZnO and ZnO/Au nanomaterials against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated through disc diffusion and tetrazolium/formazan (TTC) assays. The results showed that the proposed nanomaterials exhibited significant antibacterial effects on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, ZnO nanorods with diameters smaller than 50 nm showed better antibacterial activity than ZnO nanorods with larger dimensions. The antibacterial efficiency against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus improved considerably by adding 0.2% (w/w) Au to ZnO nanorods. The results indicated the new materials' potential for antibacterial applications.

17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089984

ABSTRACT

The demographics and outcomes of ICU patients admitted for a COVID-19 infection have been characterized in extensive reports, but little is known about antimicrobial stewardship for these patients. We designed this retrospective, observational study to investigate our hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted antimicrobial stewardship practices and likely affected the rate of antibiotic de-escalation (ADE), patient outcomes, infection recurrence, and multidrug-resistant bacteria acquisition. We reviewed the prescription of antibiotics in three ICUs during the pandemic from March 2020 to December 2021. All COVID-19 patients with suspected or proven bacterial superinfections who received antibiotic treatment were included. The primary outcome was the rate of ADE, and secondary outcomes included the rate of appropriate empirical treatment, mortality rates and a comparison with a control group of infected patients before the COVID-19 pandemic. We included 170 COVID-19 patients who received antibiotic treatment for a suspected or proven superinfection, of whom 141 received an empirical treatment. For the latter, antibiotic treatment was de-escalated in 47 (33.3%) patients, escalated in 5 (3.5%) patients, and continued in 89 (63.1%) patients. The empirical antibiotic treatment was appropriate for 87.2% of cases. ICU, hospital, and day 28 and day 90 mortality rates were not associated with the antibiotic treatment strategy. The ADE rate was 52.2% in the control group and 27.6% in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that empirical antibiotic treatment was appropriate in most cases. The ADE rates were lower in the COVID-19 group than in the control group, suggesting that the stress associated with COVID-19 affected our practices.

18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 1-8, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089722

ABSTRACT

During 2020-2021, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean reported clinical emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales that had not been previously characterized locally, increased prevalence of carbapenemases that had previously been detected, and co-production of multiple carbapenemases in some isolates. These increases were likely fueled by changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including empirical antibiotic use for potential COVID-19-related bacterial infections and healthcare limitations resulting from the rapid rise in COVID-19 cases. Strengthening antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiologic research, and infection prevention and control programs and antimicrobial stewardship in clinical settings can help prevent emergence and transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Latin America/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria
19.
Advanced Materials Interfaces ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084974

ABSTRACT

Polymeric substrates can be endowed with antiviral properties by grafting N-chloramine precursors to the surface. These surfaces bind oxidative chlorine from a dilute chlorine bleach solution and are similarly recharged after depletion for reuse. Previously, enhanced antibacterial efficacy of quaternized N-chloramines compared to their neutral counterparts is reported. In this study, a new quaternized N-chloramine N-1-(3-methacrylamidopropyl)-N-1,N-1,N-10,N-10-tetramethyl-N-10-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)decane-1,10-diaminium (MAMPIP) featuring two quaternary ammonium groups within the structure to boost the chlorination efficiency and achieve excellent antiviral efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is reported. Antiviral fabrics are prepared by free-radical graft polymerization of MAMPIP, or copolymerization of MAMPIP with a comonomer (acrylamide or methacrylamide) onto cotton fabrics to achieve enhanced durability to re-chlorination. The poly(MAMPIP) grafted cotton, after chlorination, is highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 and achieves 4.59 log reduction (99.997%) after 5 min contact. Samples grafted with the copolymer of MAMPIP and acrylamide or methacrylamide are resistant to hydrolysis during re-chlorination and retain high active chlorine and antiviral activity after 5 cycles of re-chlorination (>3 log reduction after 10 min contact). Furthermore, the N-chloramine coatings show excellent stability after exposure to simulated daylight conditions under an accelerated weathering tester, and storage for 200 days at 21 degrees C, 65% RH. The resulting quaternized N-chloramine grafted cotton is a suitable platform for reusable antiviral textiles.

20.
J Control Release ; 352: 931-945, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086390

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 acquired symptoms have affected the worldwide population and increased the load of Intensive care unit (ICU) patient admissions. A large number of patients admitted to ICU end with a deadly fate of mortality. A high mortality rate of patients was reported with hospital-acquired septic shock that leads to multiple organ failures and ultimately ends with death. The patients who overcome this septic shock suffer from morbidity that also affects their caretakers. To overcome these situations, scientists are exploring progressive theragnostic techniques with advanced techniques based on biosensors, biomarkers, biozymes, vesicles, and others. These advanced techniques pave the novel way for early detection of sepsis-associated symptoms and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics and immunomodulators and prevent the undue effect on other parts of the body. There are other techniques like externally modulated electric-based devices working on the principle of piezoelectric mechanism that not only sense the endotoxin levels but also target them with a loaded antibiotic to neutralize the onset of inflammatory response. Recently researchers have developed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralizing cartridge that not only senses the LPS but also appropriately neutralizes with dual mechanistic insights of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This review will highlight recent developments in the new nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis and therapeutics of sepsis that is responsible for the high number of deaths of patients suffering from this critical disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL