Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 114
Filter
1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(10): e26018, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 stretched healthcare systems to their limits, particularly in settings with a pre-existing high burden of infectious diseases, including HIV and tuberculosis (TB). We studied the impact of COVID-19 on TB services at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We surveyed ART clinics providing TB services in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium in Africa and the Asia-Pacific until July 2021 (TB diagnoses until the end of 2021). We collected site-level data using standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 46 participating ART clinics, 32 (70%) were in Africa and 14 (30%) in the Asia-Pacific; 52% provided tertiary care. Most clinics (85%) reported disrupted routine HIV care services during the pandemic, both in Africa (84%) and the Asia-Pacific (86%). The most frequently reported impacts were on staff (52%) and resource shortages (37%; protective clothing, face masks and disinfectants). Restrictions in TB health services were observed in 12 clinics (26%), mainly reduced access to TB diagnosis and postponed follow-up visits (6/12, 50% each), and restrictions in TB laboratory services (22%). Restrictions of TB services were addressed by dispensing TB drugs for longer periods than usual (7/12, 58%), providing telehealth services (3/12, 25%) and with changes in directly observed therapy (DOT) (e.g. virtual DOT, 3/12). The number of TB diagnoses at participating clinics decreased by 21% in 2020 compared to 2019; the decline was more pronounced in tertiary than primary/secondary clinics (24% vs. 12%) and in sites from the Asia-Pacific compared to Africa (46% vs. 14%). In 2021, TB diagnoses continued to decline in Africa (-8%) but not in the Asia-Pacific (+62%) compared to 2020. During the pandemic, new infection control measures were introduced or intensified at the clinics, including wearing face masks, hand sanitation and patient triage. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to staff shortages, reduced access to TB care and delays in follow-up visits for people with TB across IeDEA sites in Africa and the Asia-Pacific. Increased efforts are needed to restore and secure ongoing access to essential TB services in these contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Developing Countries , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/therapeutic use
2.
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069363

ABSTRACT

Background To contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, non-pharmacologic interventions, including lockdown and social distancing, may have adverse impact on access to HIV testing and care. This study investigated the impact of Covid-19 on HIV testing and care at a major hospital in Taiwan in 2020-2021. Methods The numbers of clients seeking anonymous HIV voluntary counseling and testing were compared 2 years before (2018-2019) and 2 years after Covid-19 outbreak (2020-2021). People living with HIV (PLWH) who sought care at the hospital during 2018-2021 were included to examine the status of HIV care delivery and disposition. Results The annual number of HIV screening tests performed had significantly decreased from 2,507 and 2,794 in 2018 and 2019, respectively, to 2,161 and 1,737 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The rate of discontinuation of HIV care among PLWH was 3.7% in 2019, which remained unchanged in 2020 (3.7%) and 2021 (3.8%). The respective percentage of annual plasma HIV RNA testing <2 times increased from 8.4% and 7.8% in 2018 and 2019 to 7.0% and 10.7% in 2020 and 2021, so was that of annual syphilis testing <2 times (10.1% and 8.8% to 7.9% and 12.0%). The rates of plasma HIV RNA <200 copies/ml ranged from 97.0% to 98.1% in 2018-2021. Conclusions During the Covid-19 pandemic, access to HIV counseling and testing was significantly limited. While the number of HIV-related testing decreased, the impact of Covid-19 on the continuity of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression among PLWH appeared to be minimal in Taiwan.

3.
Drugs Context ; 112022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067166

ABSTRACT

The logistical management of an injectable therapy for the treatment of HIV can be expensive, time consuming, frustrating and riddled with barriers. In this Commentary, we describe our experiences to date with acquiring, storing, handling, administering and billing for long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine through four scenarios, each of which have presented their own unique obstacles and learning curves. At the time of writing, we have successfully transitioned four patients from the CUSTOMIZE trial to long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine. In doing so, we encountered a variety of barriers to acquiring, handling and administering the medication for both insured and uninsured patients; it is expensive, on a limited number of insurance formularies, and often requires a prior authorization from the provider. Cold-chain handling of the injectable therapy, along with individual patient characteristics, present barriers to management and administration of this therapy. Whilst a seemingly very attractive option for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults, long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine present a variety of challenges to pharmacists, providers and clinic staff on how to obtain it for and administer it to the patient. We plan to continue documenting our experiences, progress and successes, or lack thereof, in order to fine-tune our process and share with others.

4.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062604

ABSTRACT

Obtaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) was a challenge for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. On 26 January 2020, the Chinese Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention issued a nationwide directive to relax restrictions on where and when PLHIV could refill ART. This qualitative study explored unexpected barriers under this directive and recommendations to improve future ART delivery. Between February 11 and February 15 2020, in-depth interviews of 4 groups of stake holders related to ART refilling (i.e., PLHIV, community-based organization employees, CDC staff, infectious disease physicians and nurses), were conducted via WeChat. Data were managed by NVivo 11.0 and transcripts were coded using thematic analysis. Sixty-two interviews were conducted. The main barriers to refilling ART included: (1) inconsistent documentation requirements to refill ART, (2) lack of specific protocols on ART refilling, (3) insufficient staffing, and (4) regimen verification and drug shortages. The most common recommendations to improve future ART delivery were: (1) to establish a nationwide system to distribute ART and (2) increase the number of pills delivered with each ART refill. Strengthening protocols and systems to refill ART and improving collaboration is key to preventing interruptions in ART among PLHIV during public health emergencies.

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A1578, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060843

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Pulmonary Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumatoceles are air-filled cavitary lesions that are rarely seen in the lung after infection, trauma, or as part of a more diffuse cystic disease process. Several infectious agents have been associated with pneumatoceles, one of them being Pneumocystis Jirovecii, a potentially life-threatening fungus commonly seen as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of bilateral extensive pneumatocele in a newly diagnosed HIV patient found to be positive for Pneumocystis pneumonia CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old female presented to the emergency room for 2 months of shortness of breath, body aches, and chills. She was saturating at 86% on room air on arrival. Initial chest x-ray showed bilateral airspace disease. Had additional history of daily smoking, polysubstance abuse, and poor follow-up with doctors’ appointments due to social issues. She was started on oxygen support, steroids, antibiotics, and IV fluids. Labs were notable for normal overall WBC count but low lymphocyte count of 0.4. A CT Angiogram of the chest showed moderate to severe diffuse bilateral gas-filled cystic structures throughout the lungs, consistent with pneumatoceles. Infectious workup performed: COVID PCR, Influenza A/B antigen, legionella antigen, strep. pneumoniae antigen, B-D-glucan assay, histoplasma and blastomyces antigens, and HIV antibody. HIV antibody, strep pneumo antigen, and B-D-glucan assay came positive. She did not have a known diagnosis of HIV prior to this admission. Antibiotic regimen was changed to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, Bactrim, and fluconazole. Bronchoscopy with lavage was performed. Lavage samples were sent for cytology and found to be positive for Pneumocystis on GMS stain HIV viral load was checked and found to be at 1.4 million copies. CD4 count was less than 25 Patient was started on antiretroviral therapy in addition to prolonged course of Bactrim. She was ultimately discharged from the hospital in stable condition with pulmonary and infectious disease follow-up. At this time her pneumatoceles have improved on follow-up imaging. DISCUSSION: Pneumatoceles can rarely present as a complication of PCP pneumonia and can be a marker of more advanced disease. In our patient, pneumatoceles were identified first followed by diagnosis of HIV and PCP pneumonia. Overall incidence of post-infectious pneumatoceles is low at 2-8%. Prompt treatment and careful monitoring is needed due to risk of mortality from underlying infection and progression to pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: HIV with PCP infection complicated by pneumatocele formation is much less common due to improvements in HIV detection and screening for opportunistic infection, but should remain an important consideration in patients with unexplained cystic lung disease patterns, especially in patients without established outpatient follow-up or who don't see medical providers often. Reference #1: Thomas CF Jr, Limper AH: Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004;350: pp. 2487-2498. Reference #2: Albitar, Hasan and Saleh, Omar M. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Complicated by Extensive Diffuse Pneumatoceles. Am J Med. 2019 May;132(5):e562-e563. Epub 2019 Jan 16. Reference #3: Ryu, Jay et al. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases. Frontiers of Medicine volume 7, pages 316–327 (2013) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Clifford Hecht

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A319, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060563

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care in Chest Infections Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was a very common presentation. Many clinicians sought to rule out COVID-19 in those presenting with hypoxia and shortness of breath due to the importance of triage and quarantining infected individuals and those under investigation. As a result, delay in diagnosis of other viral and bacterial pathogens occurred. There is a known but rare overlapping of disease processes and sometimes even co-infections with COVID-19 and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) which made narrowing the differential challenging [1,2]. We present a case of a patient with known HIV who presented with typical features of COVID-19 and clinically worsened. Further investigation revealed PJP and AIDS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), previously controlled on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), presented with shortness of breath, cough, and syncope. She required sedation and mechanical ventilation following significant hypoxia on admission. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) were concerning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities (Figure 1 and Figure 2) and she was found to be in septic shock requiring vasopressors. She presented during the COVID-19 pandemic and it was initially thought to be the cause of her condition, however she repeatedly tested negative via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Through further investigation, it was found that her total cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count was 184/??L, posing a risk for opportunistic infections. Prior records indicated her last CD4 count was greater than 250/??L. Bronchoscopy showed progressively darker-tinged aliquots significant for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage that stained positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). She was treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, eventually weaned from ventilation, and transferred to the floor despite her high risk of morbidity and mortality [3]. DISCUSSION: This clinical case demonstrates PJP infection in an individual with features on imaging nearly identical to those of COVID-19 during the pandemic. There is a strong role in verifying CD4 count and HIV viral level in those affected with HIV with reported medication adherence who present with critical illness. There should be a low threshold to perform bronchoscopy in patients with ARDS and negative COVID-19 if no known source is identified. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider all causes of ARDS in patients who are immunocompromised with a low threshold to test for and treat uncommon causes, such as opportunistic infections, because the treatment should be directed at the underlying cause. Reference #1: Coleman, H., Snell, L., Simons, R., Douthwaite, S. and Lee, M., 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a diagnostic dilemma in HIV. AIDS, 34(8), pp.1258-1260. Reference #2: Menon, A., Berg, D., Brea, E., Deutsch, A., Kidia, K., Thurber, E., Polsky, S., Yeh, T., Duskin, J., Holliday, A., Gay, E. and Fredenburgh, L., 2020. A Case of COVID-19 and Pneumocystis jirovecii Coinfection. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 202(1), pp.136-138. Reference #3: Dworkin, M., Hanson, D. and Navin, T., 2001. Survival of Patients with AIDS, after Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, in the United States. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 183(9), pp.1409-1412. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by salah alandary No relevant relationships by Joella Lambert No relevant relationships by Joshua Lung

7.
Bioactive Materials ; 21:576-594, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060443

ABSTRACT

Viral infections cause damage to various organ systems by inducing organ-specific symptoms or systemic multi-organ damage. Depending on the infection route and virus type, infectious diseases are classified as respiratory, nervous, immune, digestive, or skin infections. Since these infectious diseases can widely spread in the community and their catastrophic effects are severe, identification of their causative agent and mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis is an urgent necessity. Although infection-associated mechanisms have been studied in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models and animal models, they have shown limitations in organ-specific or human-associated pathogenesis, and the development of a human-organ-mimetic system is required. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissue models, which can present human organ-like physiology in terms of the 3D structure, utilization of human-originated cells, recapitulation of physiological stimuli, and tight cell-cell interactions, were developed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that these models can recapitulate infection-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in 3D engineered tissue models that mimic organ-specific viral infections. First, we briefly described the limitations of the current 2D and animal models in recapitulating human-specific viral infection pathology. Next, we provided an overview of recently reported viral infection models, focusing particularly on organ-specific infection pathologies. Finally, a future perspective that must be pursued to reconstitute more human-specific infectious diseases is presented. Copyright © 2022 The Authors

8.
Implement Sci Commun ; 3(1): 101, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Same-day antiretroviral therapy (SDART) initiation, in which people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, willing, and clinically eligible start ART on the same day of HIV diagnosis, has been implemented in several healthcare facilities in Thailand since 2017. This evidence-based practice has demonstrated increased ART uptake, virologic suppression, and retention in care. However, linkage to care gaps exist in community-based organizations (CBOs) in Bangkok whereby as much as 20% of key populations (KP), mainly men who have sex with men and transgender women, living with HIV were lost to follow-up pre-ART initiation. To increase access to and uptake of ART among these populations, this study proposes that trained KP lay providers should lead community-based ART (CB-SDART) initiation service. This protocol describes the combined use of the Proctor's implementation outcome framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to guide and evaluate the CB-SDART implementation. METHODS: This study follows the hybrid design type 3: it is an implementation trial that secondarily assesses service and client outcomes by comparative interrupted time series analysis. Five strategies have been formulated to meet three implementation outcomes (i.e., feasibility, fidelity, and sustainability): (1) developing stakeholder relationships by engaging the CBO leaderships, (2) training and educating KP lay providers, (3) adapting and tailoring SDART to CBO-specific context, (4) using evaluative and iterative strategies to assess adherence to standard operating procedures, and (5) developing stakeholder relationships by engaging external stakeholders. Teleconsultation with physicians and ART home delivery will be integrated as another ART initiation option for clients and allow service provision during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-method assessment will be conducted on key stakeholders and PLHIV diagnosed at two implementing CBOs, Rainbow Sky Association of Thailand and Service Workers in Group Foundation, in Bangkok, Thailand. DISCUSSION: This implementation research may be the first to provide robust data at the implementation, service, and client levels to inform how to successfully task-shift SDART initiation service to trained KP lay providers and facilitate the expansion of CB-SDART in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Thai Clinical Trial Registry as TCTR20210709004 on July 9, 2021.

9.
HIV Med ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the last decade, substantial differences in the epidemiology of, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for, cascade of care in and support to people with HIV in vulnerable populations have been observed between countries in Western Europe, Central Europe (CE) and Eastern Europe (EE). The aim of this study was to use a survey to explore whether ART availability and therapies have evolved in CE and EE according to European guidelines. METHODS: The Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) Network Group conducted two identical multicentre cross-sectional online surveys in 2019 and 2021 concerning the availability and use of antiretroviral drugs (boosted protease inhibitors [bPIs], integrase inhibitors [INSTIs] and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs]), the introduction of a rapid ART start strategy and the use of two-drug regimens (2DRs) for starting or switching ART. We also investigated barriers to the implementation of these strategies in each region. RESULTS: In total, 18 centres participated in the study: four from CE, six from EE and eight from Southeastern Europe (SEE). Between those 2 years, older PIs were less frequently used and darunavir-based regimens were the main PIs (83%); bictegravir-based and tenofovir alafenamide-based regimens were introduced in CE and SEE but not in EE. The COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly interrupt delivery of ART in most centres. Two-thirds of centres adopted a rapid ART start strategy, mainly in pregnant women and to improve linkage of care in vulnerable populations. The main obstacle to rapid ART start was that national guidelines in several countries from all three regions did not support such as strategy or required laboratory tests first; an INSTI/NRTI combination was the most commonly prescribed regimen (75%) and was exclusively prescribed in SEE. 2DRs are increasingly used for starting or switching ART (58%), and an INSTI/NRTI was the preferred regimen (75%) in all regions and exclusively prescribed in SEE, whereas the use of bPIs declined. Metabolic disorders and adverse drug reactions were the main reasons for starting a 2DR; in the second survey, HIV RNA <500 000 c/ml and high cluster of differentiation (CD)-4 count emerged as additional important reasons. CONCLUSIONS: In just 2 years and in spite of the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant achievements concerning ART availability and strategies have occurred in CE, EE and SEE that facilitate the harmonization of those strategies with the European AIDS Clinical Society guidelines. Few exceptions exist, especially in EE. Continuous effort is needed to overcome various obstacles (administrative, financial, national guideline restrictions) in some countries.

10.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041289

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) could have had to face problems with treatment adherence because of the difficulty of accessing services connected with antiretroviral therapy (ART) dispensation, which could have undermined their health. In this article, we described, over the period 2015-2020, both the activities of our home care assistance unit, the "Unità di Trattamento Domiciliare (UTD)", and the characteristics of the comorbid HIV patients followed-up. To determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected this service, we compared the number/type of services provided in 2020 with those provided in the preceding 5 years, i.e., 2015-2019. We also compared the proportion of monthly interventions carried out in 2018, 2019 and 2020. We found comparable values with some differences in the types of performances due to the heterogeneity of the population and their medical assistance needs. We also observed a stable viro-immunological status of the patients. All of these data suggest that the UTD was consistently active during the lockdown months and pandemic waves preventing therapy discontinuation, and was able to maintain optimal control of patients' HIV infections.

11.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(3): 236-241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039561

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially changed lives and presented several barriers to health services. HIV care continuum needs a high rate of diagnosis, effective treatment, and sustained suppression of viral replication. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected these three steps of HIV care. This study investigated the characteristics of newly diagnosed patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) during the COVID pandemic and compared them with those before the pandemic. METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients in three HIV healthcare centers, in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in the study. The pandemic period included April 1, 2020, to April 1, 2021, and the prepandemic period included March 1, 2019, to March 1, 2020. RESULTS: 756 patients were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. In the pandemic period, this figure was 58% less: 315. Patients in the pre-pandemic and pandemic period had comparable age and gender distributions. PLWH diagnosed in the pandemic period had higher rates of low CD4 cells: low CD4 (<350 cells /mm3) was measured in 243 (36.4%) patients in the pre-pandemic period, while it was done in 126 (47.9%) in the pandemic period (p<0.01). Also, the distribution of CD4 cells was significantly different between periods: In the pandemic period, CD4 cell distribution significantly skewed to lower CD4 categories. Symptomatic patient rates and AIDS-defining disorder rates among symptomatic patients were comparable. Viral loads were not significantly different in the two periods. CONCLUSION: A low number of newly diagnosed PLWH can be explained by less HIV testing, less admission to health care, or an actual decrease of HIV prevalence during the pandemic. Sexual behaviors may have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to HIV transmission restriction. Lower CD4 counts among the newly diagnosed PLWH suggest that admittance to health care is late and a significant portion of PLWH remain undiagnosed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 186, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inconsistent use of antiretroviral therapy can lead to the risk of cross-resistance between drugs. This reduces subsequent antiretroviral drug options. The burden of initial antiretroviral therapy ranges from 11.3% in South Africa to 71.8% in Malaysia. There is evidence that it is important to maintain children's initial antiretroviral therapy regimens. However, the incidence and predictive factors of initial antiretroviral therapy regimen changes in the research context are still unknown in the study setting. So, the study was aimed to assess incidence and predictors of initial antiretroviral therapy regimen changes among children in public health facilities of Bahir Dar city. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted in 485 children who received antiretroviral therapy between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2020. These children were selected using simple random sampling techniques. The data were entered by Epi data 3.1 and the analysis was completed by STATA 14.0. The missing data was treated with multiple imputation method. The data were also summarized by median or mean, interquartile range or standard deviation, proportion and frequency. The survival time was determined using the Kaplan Meier curve. The Cox Proportional Hazard model was fitted to identify predictors of initial antiretroviral therapy regimen change. The global and Shoenfeld graphical proportional hazard tests were checked. Any statistical test was considered significant at P-value < 0.05. Finally, the data were presented in the form of tables, graphics and text. RESULT: Among the 459 study participants, 315 of them underwent initial regimen changes during the study accumulation period. The shortest and longest follow up time of the study were 1 month and 118 months, respectively. The overall incidence rate of initial regimen change was 1.85, 95% CI (1.66-2.07) per 100 person-month observation and the median follow up time of 49 (IQR 45, 53) months. The independent predictors of initial regimen changes were poor adherence (AHR = 1.49, 95%CI [1.16, 1.92]), NVP based regimen (AHR = 1.45, 95%CI [1.15, 1.84]) comparing to EFV based regimen, LPVr based regimen (AHR = 0.22, 95%CI: (0.07, 0.70)) comparing to EFV based regimen, history of tuberculosis (AHR = 1.59, 95%CI [1.14, 2.23]) and being male (AHR = 1.28, 95%CI [1.02, 1.60]). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: In this study, the incidence of initial regimen change was high. The risk of initial regimen change would be increased by being male, poor adherence, having history of tuberculosis and NVP based initial regimen. Therefore, strengthening the health care providers' adherence counseling capability, strengthening tuberculosis screening and prevention strategies and care of initial regimen type choice needs attention in the HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Facilities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e26006, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CUSTOMIZE hybrid III implementation-effectiveness study evaluated implementation of once-monthly long-acting (LA) cabotegravir + rilpivirine in diverse US healthcare settings. Here, we report patient participant perspectives after 12 months in CUSTOMIZE. METHODS: CUSTOMIZE was a phase IIIb, 12-month study conducted from July 2019 to October 2020 at eight diverse US HIV clinics that enrolled virologically suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLHIV) on a stable oral regimen to receive monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA injections after a 1-month oral lead-in. Participants were administered quantitative surveys before injections at months 1 (baseline), 4 and 12. A randomly selected subset of participants was interviewed at baseline and month 12. Data collection at month 12 was completed by October 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: At baseline, 109 and 34 participants completed surveys and interviews, respectively; 87% were male; 35% were Black or African American. All participants who remained in the study at month 12 (n = 102) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml; two participants withdrew due to injection-related reasons. Mean total scores measuring acceptability and appropriateness of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA were high at baseline (4.5-4.6 out of 5) and month 12 (4.7-4.9). At month 12, 74% of participants reported nothing interfered with receiving LA injections; injection pain or soreness was the most common concern (15%). Time spent in the clinic and coming to the clinic for monthly injections was very or extremely acceptable after 12 months for most participants (93% and 87%, respectively), with 64% reporting having spent ≤30 minutes in the clinic for injection visits. At month 12, 92% of participants preferred LA injections to daily oral tablets (3%); 97% plan to continue LA treatment going forward. In month 12 interviews, 24 (77%) of 31 participants reported the COVID-19 pandemic did not impact their ability to receive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Once-monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA was highly acceptable among PLHIV who were virologically suppressed on a stable antiretroviral regimen and interested in trying LA therapy, with few participants reporting challenges receiving LA injections. Implementation data from CUSTOMIZE suggest that monthly LA injections provide a convenient and appealing treatment option for PLHIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Diketopiperazines , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023662

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the factors influencing HIV-related mortality in settings experiencing continuous armed conflict atrocities. In such settings, people living with HIV (PLHIV), and the partners of those affected may encounter specific difficulties regarding adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention in HIV prevention, treatment, and care programs. Between July 2019 and July 2021, we conducted an observational prospective cohort study of 468 PLHIV patients treated with Dolutegravir at all the ART facilities in Bunia. The probability of death being the primary outcome, as a function of time of inclusion in the cohort, was determined using Kaplan-Meier plots. We used the log-rank test to compare survival curves and Cox proportional hazard modeling to determine mortality predictors from the baseline to 31 July 2021 (endpoint). The total number of person-months (p-m) was 3435, with a death rate of 6.70 per 1000 p-m. Compared with the 35-year-old reference group, older patients had a higher mortality risk. ART-naïve participants at the time of enrollment had a higher mortality risk than those already using ART. Patients with a high baseline viral load (≥1000 copies/mL) had a higher mortality risk compared with the reference group (adjusted hazard ratio = 6.04; 95% CI: 1.78-20.43). One-fourth of deaths in the cohort were direct victims of armed conflict, with an estimated excess death of 35.6%. Improving baseline viral load monitoring, starting ART early in individuals with high baseline viral loads, the proper tailoring of ART regimens and optimizing long-term ART, and care to manage non-AIDS-related chronic complications are recommended actions to reduce mortality. Not least, fostering women's inclusion, justice, peace, and security in conflict zones is critical in preventing premature deaths in the general population as well as among PLHIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cohort Studies , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Oxazines , Piperazines , Prospective Studies , Pyridones
15.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 121(9):1617-1621, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2015654
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e26003, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CUSTOMIZE evaluated the implementation of long-acting (LA) cabotegravir + rilpivirine, a novel healthcare provider-administered injectable antiretroviral therapy regimen, in diverse US healthcare settings. Findings from staff-study participants (SSPs) through 12 months of implementation are reported. METHODS: CUSTOMIZE was a phase IIIb, 12-month, single-arm, hybrid III implementation-effectiveness study conducted from July 2019 to October 2020 at eight US clinics of five clinic types: private practice (n = 2), federally qualified health centre (n = 2), university (n = 2), AIDS Healthcare Foundation (n = 2) and health maintenance organization (n = 1). Eligible patient participants received monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA injections after a 1-month oral lead-in. At baseline, month 4 and month 12, SSPs (n = 3 each per clinic), including physicians, nurses or injectors, and administrators, completed quantitative surveys and semi-structured interviews to assess implementation outcomes (acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of intervention measures), programme sustainability and SSP perceptions of, attitudes towards, and expectations for cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA. Month 12 data collection occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In surveys, SSPs reported high mean total scores for acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA implementation at baseline (4.43, 4.52 and 4.38 of 5, respectively) and month 12 (4.45, 4.61 and 4.46 of 5, respectively), regardless of clinic type. At month 12, SSPs were positive about the implementation sustainability (mean Program Sustainability Assessment Tool score, 5.83 out of 7). At baseline, SSPs' top concern was patients' ability to maintain monthly appointments (81%); at month 12, 39% had this concern. The proportion of SSPs reporting patient injection pain or soreness as a barrier was consistent at month 12 versus baseline (48% vs. 46%). Most (78%) SSPs reported optimal implementation of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA in their clinics was achieved in 1-3 months. In interviews, SSP-reported strategies for successful implementation included teamwork, using a web-based treatment planner and having a designated person to track appointment scheduling. In month 12 interviews, SSP-reported structural changes needed for implementation included changing clinic hours and purchasing refrigerators. CONCLUSIONS: In CUSTOMIZE, cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA was successfully implemented across a range of US healthcare settings. Barriers were mitigated with minor process adjustments.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Diketopiperazines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
17.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009635

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 with a diagnosis of cancer have increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes compared to patients without cancer. However, little is known regarding outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and cancer in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Given the unique risks of this population, we sought to understand COVID-19 outcomes using registry data. Methods: This is a descriptive research study utilizing the CCC19 registry, an international multi-institutional registry with healthcare provider-reported cases of patients with cancer and COVID-19. Between March 2020-December 2021, 116 persons with HIV (PWH) and 10,642 persons without HIV (PWOH) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified as eligible for the analysis. Results: Median follow-up time for both groups was 90 days, with interquartile range (IQR) 30-180 days. Most PWH were actively receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, with 71% (n = 82) having named drug information available;bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir was the most common ART (n = 25). PWH were of younger age (median 57.5 yrs [IQR 46.5-63.25] vs 65 yrs [IQR 55-74]), male (81% vs 47%), and either non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (71% vs 34%) compared to PWOH. 12% of PWH (n = 14) were current smokers compared to 6% of PWOH (n = 638), and more than half in each group were never smokers (51% of PWH and 53% of PWOH). The following comorbidities were identified in PWH vs PWOH: cardiovascular (16% vs 20%), pulmonary (16% vs 20%), renal (15% vs 14%), and diabetes mellitus (18% vs 27%). A higher proportion of PWH had hematologic malignancy compared to PWOH (33% vs 19%). More PWH had active cancer which was progressing at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to PWOH (24% vs 14%). 44% of PWH (n = 51) had received active systemic anticancer therapy within the 3 months preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection (including cytotoxic, targeted, endocrine therapies, and immunotherapy) compared to 51% of PWOH (n = 5,420). PWH had an increased rate of hospitalization (58% vs 55%) compared to PWOH. Although a lower proportion of PWH required supplemental oxygen during hospitalization compared to PWOH (34% vs 38%) and ICU admission rates were identical between the two groups (16% vs 16%), PWH had an increased rate of mechanical ventilation (14% vs 10%) and death (24% vs 18%) compared to PWOH. Conclusions: This is the first known study describing outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19 in the PWH population from a large multinational dataset. PWH have characteristics associated with adverse outcomes in prior analyses (male sex, non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic, hematologic malignancy, progressing cancer) but are notably younger and have fewer comorbidities. HIV infection may portend increased risk of severe COVID-19 and death;however, additional analyses, including multivariable regression, are warranted.

18.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(Spec Issue): 85-92, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010438

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Keeping HIV-infected adults away from the health care system during the COVID-19 travel restrictions, presents a challenge to HIV treatment adherence. Methods: This study focused on the initial two phases where Phase 1 designed a Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)-based application; and Phase 2 piloted patient enrolment onto the application and determined the feasibility of remote follow-up of patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results: A off/online user application, MakCHS Health app, was developed. Overall, 112 patients [(66(59%) female] receiving ART at Mulago ISS clinic, Kampala, were enrolled onto the MakCHS Health app. Up to 89 (80%) utilized the app to access medical help. Patients' medical queries included needs for drug refills, missed taking HIV medication, medical illnesses, access to COVID-19 vaccination and other personal needs that required clinicians' attention. Conclusion: Piloting a MakCHS Health application for patient follow-up was feasible and well-received by HIV treatment providers and patients receiving ART. We recommend scale up of the application to enroll all patients receiving long-term treatment for HIV/AIDS, and subsequently expand to. other HIV treatment programs in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Uganda , HIV Infections/drug therapy
19.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995652

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 25-year-old female with no medical history presented with progressive petechial rash at the chest, trunk, bilateral forearms, and thighs. Patient had the COVID-19 vaccine three weeks prior. However, denied recent travel or tick bites. No home medications nor recent hospitalizations, other than a tooth extraction a month earlier. On physical exam, the patient's vitals were unremarkable and had non-blanching petechial rash noted on her torso and bilateral extremities. Labs were significant of platelet count 1,000/mcL, hemoglobin 12.9 mg/dL, WBC 7.52 x103 /mcL, absolute lymphocytes 3.33x103 /mcL. Patient was administered two units of platelets followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and dexamethasone. No bleeding or hemodynamic instability was identified. Platelet count improved to 100,000/mcL over the next 24 hours. Further work-up revealed a positive HIV-1 antibody, absolute CD4 256 cells/mcL, viral load 27,300 copies/mcL. Once starting antiretroviral therapy (ART);bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, platelet count increased within a month to more than 200,000/mcL. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count below 150,000/mcL. HIV-induced cytopenias are common, mainly neutropenia. However, sentinel events of thrombocytopenia are very rare in otherwise healthy individuals. A review of 5,290 HIV patients at the University of British Columbia from 1996 to 2012 revealed only 0.6% incidence of severe thrombocytopenia which they defined as platelet count <20,000/mcL. The exact pathophysiology is not clearly understood, but it is possible that antibodies against HIV cross-react with platelets or possible immune alteration. This is suggested by the prompt resolution of thrombocytopenia once ART is initiated. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a diagnosis of exclusion typically presenting with thrombocytopenia while other cell lines are normal. The greatest concern is when platelet counts drop less than 20,000/mcL due to fears of intracranial bleeding. Literature is not decisive in a correlation between platelet counts and risk of bleeding, yet it is suggested that circulating platelets are younger and more effective to maintain hematopoiesis in ITP when compared to other causes of thrombocytopenia. Treatment approach for ITP depends on the bleeding risk. In the presence of bleeding, urgent platelet transfusion, glucocorticoids, and IVIG are the mainstay of treatment. In absence of bleeding, individualized assessment of the condition is recommended to either monitor or treat. Platelet counts below 20,000-30,000/mcL require steroids or IVIG. In our case, she surprisingly presented only with minor petechial bleeding. Prompt initiation of ART, close monitoring of platelet response and CD4 count, as well as identifying resistant thrombocytopenia is indicated once patient is medically stable. CONCLUSION: Sole presentation of ITP due to HIV infection is rare. Risks of critical bleeding and further management are crucial to prevent fatal outcomes.

20.
HIV/AIDS : Research and Palliative Care ; 14:341-354, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993630

ABSTRACT

Background: In Ethiopia, second-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients was started some years ago;however, few studies have reported the unfavorable outcomes of second-line ART. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence and predictors of unfavorable outcomes and their association with change in viral load among adult HIV/AIDS patients on second-line treatment at selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted at selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 421 HIV/AIDS patients on second-line ART from 2016 to 2021. Cox proportional hazard models with a linear mixed effect model were jointly modeled using the JM package of R software with time-dependent lagged parameterizations, and a 95% confidence interval was used to select significant variables. Results: Overall, 89 HIV/AIDS patients developed unfavorable outcomes. The incidence density was 7.48/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.08, 9.2). Secondary and tertiary educational level (AHR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.89, and AHR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.72), CD4 count less than 100 cells/mm3 (AHR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.83), poor adherence (AHR=3.59, 95% CI: 1.73, 7.49), and TB comorbidity (AHR=2.23, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.14) at the start of second-line ART were significant predictors of incidence of unfavorable outcome. Time-dependent lagged value viral load was significantly associated with the risk of unfavorable outcome (AHR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.63). Conclusion: In the study area, the incidence of an unfavorable outcome of second-line ART was high. Secondary and tertiary educational level, CD4 count less than 100 cells/mm3, poor adherence, and TB comorbidity at the start of second-line ART were significant predictors of incidence of unfavorable outcomes. Thus, strengthening routine viral load measurement, increase patient adherence, intensive counseling, and strong TB screening are needed in the study setting.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL