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1.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199118

ABSTRACT

Due to the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still prevalent, and current reports show that some parts of the world have seen increase in incidence, it is relevant that health professionals and scientists know about recent or novel trends, especially drug treatments. Additionally, the safety profiles of these drug treatments need to be documented and shared with the public. Some studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids in COVID-19 treatment. On the contrary, others have also reported that NSAIDs and corticosteroids may worsen symptoms associated with COVID-19. While some researchers have suggested that corticosteroids may be helpful if used in the early stages of COVID-19, there are still some conflicting findings regarding the use of corticosteroids in certain viral infections. Our review suggests that methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and ibuprofen have therapeutic potential in reducing mortality due to COVID-19 among hospitalized patients. This review also highlights the fact that the use of NSAIDs is not associated with adverse outcomes of COVID-19. In reality, evidence suggests that NSAIDs do not increase the risk of COVID-19 infections. Also, the literature reviewed suggests that corticosteroid treatment in COVID-19 was linked with a decrease in all-cause mortality and disease progression, without increase in adverse events when compared to no corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2022 Amponsah, Tagoe, Adams and Bugyei.

2.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199115

ABSTRACT

Zapnometinib is a MEK inhibitor currently under clinical development for the treatment of COVID-19 and influenza. Zapnometinib has both antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. Information concerning the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the compound following single oral doses of 30 mg/kg [C-14]-zapnometinib to rats was required to support pharmacology and toxicology studies in animals and clinical studies in man. As part of the development and safety assessment of this substance, zapnometinib was radioactively labeled and used for the investigation of time-dependent plasma concentrations, the rates and routes of excretion, the extent and time-course of compound distribution in body tissues, the metabolite profiles in plasma, urine and feces and the chemical nature of its metabolites. The present study reveals a rapid but low absorption of zapnometinib from the gastrointestinal tract, with more than 90% of the compound being excreted within 48 h, mainly via feces. Whole body autoradiography confirms that zapnometinib was rapidly and widely distributed, with greatest concentrations in the circulatory and visceral tissues. Maximum plasma and tissue concentrations occurred between two and 8 h post dose. Penetration into the brain was low, and elimination from most tissues almost complete after 168 h. Metabolic profiles showed that the main clearance routes were metabolism via oxidative reactions and glucuronidation. These results further strengthen the knowledge of zapnometinib with respect to the clinical development of the drug.

3.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1040027, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198888

ABSTRACT

Quercetin (QCT) is a naturally occurring phenolic flavonoid compound with inbuilt characteristics of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune protection. Several recent studies have shown that QCT and QCTits nanoparticles have therapeutic potential against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Novel therapeutics also include the implication of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to protect from SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. This article highlighted the therapeutic/prophylactic potential of engineered EVs loaded with QCT against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several biotechnological engineering approaches are available to deliver EVs loaded with QCT nanoparticles. Among these biotechnological advances, a specific approach with significantly higher efficiency and yield has to be opted to fabricate such drug delivery of nano molecules, especially to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current treatment regime protects the human body from virus infection but has some limitations including drugs and long-term steroid side effects. However, the vaccine strategy is somehow effective in inhibiting the spread of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection. Moreover, the proposed exosomal therapy met the current need to repair the damaged tissue along with inhibition of COVID-19-associated complications at the tissue level. These scientific findings expand the possibilities and predictability of developing a novel and cost-effective therapeutic approach that combines the dual molecule, EVs and QCT nanoparticles, to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the most suitable engineering method to fabricate such a drug delivery system should be better understood before developing novel therapeutics for clinical purposes.

4.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1006395, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198867

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has cast a notorious damage to the public health and global economy. The Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) is a crucial element of the host antiviral pathway and plays a pivotal but complex role in the infection and development of COVID-19. Herein, we discussed the antagonistic mechanism of viral proteins to the STING pathway as well as its activation induced by host cells. Specifically, we highlighted that the persistent activation of STING by SARS-CoV-2 led to abnormal inflammation, and STING inhibitors could reduce the excessive inflammation. In addition, we also emphasized that STING agonists possessed antiviral potency against diverse coronavirus and showed adjuvant efficacy in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines by inducing IFN responses.

5.
Frontiers in Chemistry ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198677

ABSTRACT

The economical and societal impact of COVID-19 has made the development of vaccines and drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection a priority. While the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been widely explored as a drug target, the SARS-CoV-2 helicase (nsp13) does not have any approved medication. The helicase shares 99.8% similarity with its SARS-CoV-1 homolog and was shown to be essential for viral replication. This review summarizes and builds on existing research on inhibitors of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 helicases. Our analysis on the toxicity and specificity of these compounds, set the road going forward for the repurposing of existing drugs and the development of new SARS-CoV-2 helicase inhibitors.

6.
Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems ; 44(1):1017-1028, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2198492

ABSTRACT

In November of 2019 year, there was the first case of COVID-19 (Coronavirus) recorded, and up to 3rd of April of 2020, 1,116,643 confirmed positive cases, and around 59,158 dying were recorded. Novel antiviral structures of the 2019 pandemic disease Coronavirus are discussed in terms of the metric basis of their molecular graph. These structures are named arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxy-chloroquine, thalidomide, and theaflavin. Metric dimension or metric basis is a concept in which the whole vertex set of a structure is uniquely identified with a chosen subset named as resolving set. Moreover, the fault-tolerant concept of those structures is also included in this study. By this concept of vertex-metric resolvability of COVID antiviral drug structures are uniquely identified and help to study the structural properties of the structure. [ FROM AUTHOR]

7.
7th International Conference on Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering, ICAPIE 2022 ; 27:565-570, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2198468

ABSTRACT

The pandemic that started in 2019 in Wuhan caused a vast number of deaths worldwide due to the absence of effective therapy against SARS-CoV-2. The present study investigates the interaction of AMP with viral protein and host receptors. We screened plant-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMP) from the docking web server with the help of PDB ID. We selected five anti-microbial peptides based on their antiviral and physiological activities. The interaction of anti-microbial peptide and Mpro was analyzed using the HADDOCK web server. The results revealed that the minimum Z-score was obtained by the 6LU7-1N4N complex followed by 6LU7-1GPS docked complex. The docking results showed the interaction potency of AMP with 6LU7. The dynamic simulation study of 100ns was performed to check the stability of the docked complexes of AMP and 6LU7. From the stable and positive results of dynamics studies, we can conclude that these selected AMPs have immense potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of disease. © 2022 The authors and IOS Press.

8.
Current Traditional Medicine ; 9(1):44-83, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197854

ABSTRACT

Background: Over recent years, evidence-based modern medicine has overshadowed the use and efficacy of natural and traditional medicines. However, in the wake of the pandemic, the in-terest in the quest for therapeutic resources linked to traditional, complementary, and integrative medicine has substantially increased. This has further facilitated the research and development of potential therapeutic crude drugs or their formulations in the management of COVID-19 and the symptoms associated with the latter. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the various traditional medicines used as integrative medicines in alleviating symptoms attributed to the COVID-19 infection. Method(s): The literature was thoroughly browsed for recent research articles, systematic reviews, case studies, and review articles on ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar using keywords like complementary medicine, alternative medicine, and holistic approach to enlist a few. Subse-quently, they were thoroughly screened to include only recent studies and evidence. Additionally, the official guidelines published by the Government and other regulatory bodies were also sought to be included in the article. Study Design: The review article follows the narrative literature review method. However, the pri-mary data was skimm ed for relevance, and only recent shreds of evidence pertinent to the review were included. Result(s): The review elucidated the pharmacological activity of various treatment regimens in different systems of medicine, with available supportive clinical evidence. Additionally, it also under-scored the importance of holistic health interventions, and how these traditional and integrative systems of medicine cater to the same. Conclusion(s): The recent evidence presents a broad-spectrum effect of these therapeutic interven-tions, primarily in the fields of mental health, mild to moderate, and even severe forms of the infec-tion, employing various pharmacological pathways. These studies primarily include studies and sta-tistics pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2) but may include supporting evidence from other respiratory viruses. This information may prove imper-ative in guiding new research, and also in designing and supporting an integrative treatment regi-men. Conclusively, any suspicion pertaining to the COVID-19 infection should be sought by follow-ing the protocols recommended by the concerned health authorities of the respective region/country. Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

9.
Recenti Progressi in Medicina ; 114(1):815-817, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197599

ABSTRACT

Recently, the therapeutic armamentarium against Sars-CoV-2 has been enriched with oral antivirals that can be used in the early phases of covid-19. Real-life data on their efficacy in multiple myeloma (Mm) outpatients with mild-to-moderate covid-19 are lacking. We described the clinical outcomes at 30 days in Mm subjects with covid-19 treated with oral antivirals. Nirmatrelvir/r was prescribed in 10 subjects whereas molnupiravir in 5. Despite two hospitalizations were reported, we did not observe deaths due to covid-19 in this vulnerable group. Our preliminary observations reinforce the early use of oral antivirals as a useful means to contain severe covid-19 in high-risk patients such as Mm individuals characterized by an impaired immune response.

10.
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 58 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197574

ABSTRACT

The main aim of the paper is to assess whether vitamin C, vitamin D, and natural honey can be administered in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic for promising in line methods with recent evidence. Both systematic literature and clinical trial identification were conducted by searching various databases. A total 58 articles and 29 clinical trials were selected wherein 11 for vitamin C, 16 for vitamin D, and 2 for natural honey were identified for analysis. The high doses of vitamin C (i.e. '200 mg/kg body weight/day, divided into 4 doses') has been found to reduce COVID-19 lung damage, various flu infections. Additionally, the high doses of vitamin C can shorten around 7.8% stay in the intensive care unit. At the same time, vitamin D can effectively protect from lung injury and acute respiratory infections whereas vitamin D deficiency severely affects 75% of the institutionalized people (serum 25(OH) D < 25 nmol/L). Meanwhile, natural honey which contains proteins (0.1-0.4%);ash (0.2%);water (15-17%) has potential antiviral effects and the ability to improve immunity. Therefore, the administration of vitamins and honey is the promising evidence-based approach for reducing fatalities, saving lives, and bringing the COVID-19 pandemic to a rapid end. It is believed that the utilization of vitamin C, vitamin D, and natural honey with the current treatment may be effective in treating COVID-19-caused fatal complications such as pneumonia. Therefore, high-level clinical studies are required on COVID-19 to administrate the effects of vitamins and natural honey. Copyright © 2022, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Biblioteca). All rights reserved.

11.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(12):e0279182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197074

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a threat to human beings and numerous cases of infection as well as millions of victims have been reported. The binding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is known to promote the engulfment of the virus by host cells. Employment of flavor/fragrance compositions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting the binding of viral RBD (vRBD) to hACE2 might serve as a favorable, simple, and easy method for inexpensively preventing COVID-19, as flavor/fragrance compositions are known to directly interact with the mucosa in the respiratory and digestive systems and have a long history of use and safety assessment. Herein we report the results of screening of flavor/fragrance compositions that inhibit the binding of vRBD to hACE2. We found that the inhibitory effect was observed with not only the conventional vRBD, but also variant vRBDs, such as L452R, E484K, and N501Y single-residue variants, and the K417N+E484K+N501Y triple-residue variant. Most of the examined flavor/fragrance compositions are not known to have anti-viral effects. Cinnamyl alcohol and Helional inhibited the binding of vRBD to VeroE6 cells, a monkey kidney cell line expressing ACE2. We termed the composition with inhibitory effect on vRBD-hACE2 binding as "the molecularly targeted flavor/fragrance compositions". COVID-19 development could be prevented by using these compositions with reasonable administration methods such as inhalation, oral administration, and epidermal application.

12.
PLoS One ; 17(12):e0278963, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2197061

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the only antiviral drug approved for COVID-19 therapy by the FDA. Another drug LAGEVRIO™ (molnupiravir) though has not been approved yet by FDA but has been authorized on December 23, 2021, for emergency use to treat adults with mild-to moderate COVID-19 symptoms and for whom alternative COVID-19 treatment options are not clinically appropriate. The fact is that the efficacy of RDV is, however, limited in vivo though it is highly promising in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this paper we are focusing on the action mechanism of RDV and how it can be improved in vivo. The stability of RDV alone and on encapsulation with our platform technology based polymer NV-387 (NV-CoV-2), were compared in presence of plasma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a non-clinical pharmacology study of NV-CoV-2 (Polymer) and NV CoV-2 (Polymer encapsulated Remdesivir) in both NL-63 infected and uninfected rats was done. In addition, the antiviral activity of NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R was compared with RDV in a cell culture study. The results are (i) NV-CoV-2 polymer encapsulation protects RDV from plasma-mediated catabolism in both in vitro and in vivo, studies;(ii) Body weight measurements of the normal (uninfected) rats after administration of the test materials (NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R) showed no toxic effects. (iii) Body weight measurements and survival rates of the NL-63 infected rats were similar to the uninfected rats after treatment with NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R. Overall, the efficacy as an antiviral regimens were found in this order as below;NV-CoV-2-R > NV-CoV-2 > RDV. Our platform technology based NV-387-encapsulated-RDV (NV-CoV-2-R) drug has a dual effect against different variants of the coronaviruses. First, NV-CoV-2 is an antiviral regimen. Secondly, RDV is protected from plasma-mediated degradation in transit. All together, NV-CoV-2-R is the safest and efficient regimen against COVID-19.

13.
Virology Journal ; 19(1):226, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is the causative agent of neurological disease in pigs. No effective therapeutics are currently available for PHEV infection. Resveratrol has been shown to exert neuroprotective and antiviral effects. Here resveratrol was investigated for its ability to inhibit PHEV replication in nerve cells and central nervous system tissues.

14.
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology ; 2022:4291758, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194224

ABSTRACT

Following the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and the subsequent development of the COVID-19 pandemic, organs such as the lungs, kidneys, liver, heart, and brain have been identified as priority organs. Liver diseases are considered a risk factor for high mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, liver damage has been demonstrated in a substantial proportion of patients with COVID-19, especially those with severe clinical symptoms. Furthermore, antiviral medications, immunosuppressive drugs after liver transplantation, pre-existing hepatic diseases, and chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis have also been implicated in SARS-CoV-2-induced liver injury. As a result, some precautions have been taken to prevent, monitor the virus, and avoid immunocompromised and susceptible individuals, such as liver and kidney transplant recipients, from being infected with SARS-CoV-2, thereby avoiding an increase in mortality. The purpose of this review was to examine the impairment caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact of drugs used during the pandemic on the mortality range and therefore the possibility of preventive measures in patients with liver disease.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022:1672031, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2194206

ABSTRACT

Opioids are a class of chemicals, naturally occurring in the opium poppy plant, and act on the brain to cause a range of impacts, notably analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. Moreover, an overview was taken in consideration for SARS-CoV-2 incidence and complications, as well as the medicinal uses of opioids were discussed being a safe analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in a specific dose. Also, our article focused on utilization of opioids in the medication of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the major objective of this study was to investigate the antiviral effect of opioids throughout an in silico study by molecular docking study to fifteen opioid compounds against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (PDB ID 6LU7, M(pro)). The docking results revealed that opioid complexes potentially inhibit the M(pro) active site and exhibiting binding energy (-11.0 kcal/mol), which is comparably higher than the ligand. Furthermore, ADMET prediction indicated that all the tested compounds have good oral absorption and bioavailability and can transport via biological membranes. Finally, M(pro)-pholcodine complex was subjected to five MD (RMSD, RMSF, SASA, Rg, and hydrogen bonding) and two MM-PBSA, and conformational change studies, for 100 ns, confirmed the stability of pholcodine, as a representative example, inside the active site of M(pro).

17.
2022 International Conference on Biomedical and Intelligent Systems, IC-BIS 2022 ; 12458, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2193346

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019,a new coronavirus suddenly broke out all over the world.To date, there is still no targeted medicine available for the treatment of this disease. Vaccineis essential for controlling the epidemicofSARS-CoV-2. But the effective ofvaccine was reduced because of the SARS-CoV-2constant mutation. It is gratifying that scientistuncover theinfection mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2. The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 is highly conserved and plays an important role of the life cycle of virus. Therefore, we executed virtual screening on the FDA-approved database and hoped to find a potential candidate against the main protease. As a result, we obtained eight available active compounds derived from the database through molecular dynamics simulations. As antiviral treatment candidates, the drugs can also be used to clinical emergencies. © 2022 SPIE. All rights reserved.

18.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e14005, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2193274
20.
2022 International Conference on Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, RAEE and CS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2192050

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is the technique of finding new uses for currently used or under-researched drugs. Because this strategy requires less time and money, it is thought to be a particularly effective drug development strategy. Due to current technological breakthroughs, the accessibility of vast and reliable database resources, as well as data accessibility from genomes, proteomics, transcriptomics, etc., there are numerous opportunities to identify drugs by drug repurposing. The recent SARS-COV-2 epidemic, which has so far claimed 6,245,750 lives, has significantly increased the use of bioinformatics techniques in deciphering the characteristics of viral diseases. Using FDA-approved antiviral drugs that target the COVID-19 spike protein, we have used a bioinformatics approach to drug repurposing to find possible effective inhibitors against the Coronavirus (COVID-19). We used a variety of bioinformatics tools in this study, including AutoDock-Vina, PyMol, and Discovery Studio, to identify a promising drug called Cepharanthine (CEP), which demonstrates successful outcomes and efficacy compared to recently used antiviral drug candidates like arbidol, talampicillin, bromhexine, chloroquine, lycorine, bruceine A, reserpine, indinavir, galidesiver, doxycycline, methisazone, flupentixol, trifluoperazine and fluoxetine. The potential therapeutic value of cepharanthine as a drug for treating COVID-19 has been investigated in this study. It is expected that the proposed study will help medical professionals and researchers cure disorders linked to Severe acute respiratory and variations of it. © 2022 IEEE.

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