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1.
Current Opinion in Psychiatry ; 36(2):134-139, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2213027

ABSTRACT

Purpose of reviewTo provide an overview of recently published work on anxiety, focusing on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and its treatment.Recent findingsSelf-reported anxiety symptoms were highly prevalent during the COVID-19 global pandemic in both the general population and in selected groups. There remains divided opinion about whether internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is noninferior to face-to-face CBT for GAD. A systematic review of drug treatment for GAD showed efficacy for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), agomelatine, and quetiapine. There may be a place for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of GAD. There was some evidence of efficacy for complementary therapies, including physical exercise, yoga, acupuncture, and Withania somnifera (ashwagandha). However, a systematic review of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol found insufficient evidence of efficacy in anxiety disorders.SummaryAntidepressants and quetiapine show efficacy in the treatment of GAD. Internet-based psychological interventions have a place in the treatment of GAD when face-to-face treatment is inaccessible. There is increasing evidence for the use of physical exercise in the management of GAD. Some other complementary therapies, including cannabinoids, require further, methodologically sound, research.

2.
Translational Issues in Psychological Science ; 8(3):431-439, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2211912

ABSTRACT

Anxiety and depression symptoms were documented at high levels during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for emerging adults. However, most of the research thus far has lacked prepandemic longitudinal or well-matched comparison samples, and cannot determine the extent to which the pandemic increased internalizing symptoms in this population. Additionally, more research is necessary to understand which types of emotion regulation (ER) strategies were used in the pandemic, as these strategies are tightly linked to psychopathology risk and resilience. The current study tested for differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and ER strategy use in emerging adults between a typical prepandemic college semester, and the beginning of the pandemic in the U.S. (April 2020). Results showed higher depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as significant changes in ER strategies, during the pandemic compared to prepandemic levels in well-matched independent samples (N = 324) and a longitudinal sample (n = 54). Planning, positive reappraisal, and self-blame decreased, while catastrophizing and other-blame increased during the pandemic across samples. These findings demonstrate significant increases in internalizing symptoms for emerging adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide important insights on how this population coped with the pandemic. The study was limited by examining levels at the beginning of the pandemic and cannot determine if such levels were maintained or fluctuated across the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement What is the significance of this article for the general public?-The present study demonstrates increases in depression and anxiety symptoms among emerging adults along with changes in emotion regulation strategy use during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight potential coping profiles to target in counseling and interventions to minimize the negative impacts of salient, life-altering stressors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Psychiatria Danubina ; 34(4):781-789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High levels of anxiety and depression symptoms have been reported in patients with COVID-19 compared to the general population. These symptoms were related to variables such as gender, age, and education level with anxiety/depression levels. We aimed to determine the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms and epidemic-related decreased functioning, worry, and quality of life (QoL).

4.
Psychiatria Danubina ; 34(4):752-757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that COVID-19 patients are at risk of developing mental disorders. Limited number of studies about psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is currently available.

5.
PeerJ ; 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2203241

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study aimed to estimate the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and identify its associated factors.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population in China from March 16 to April 2, 2020. The participants were recruited using stratified random sampling. Data on demographic characteristics and COVID-19 related factors were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The anxiety score was measured based on the Chinese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7).ResultsThe study comprised 10,824 participants, of which 37.69% had symptoms of anxiety. The risk factors for anxiety symptoms included poor self-reported health (OR = 1.672, p < 0.001), chronic diseases (OR = 1.389, p < 0.001), and quarantine (OR = 1.365, p < 0.001), while participants' perceptions that COVID-19 would be controlled was a protective factor (OR = 0.774, p < 0.001). The interactions between quarantine and self-reported health (p < 0.001), as well as between perceptions of COVID-19 and self-reported health (p < 0.001) were found to have a significant effect on GAD-7 scores.ConclusionsSelf-reported health status, chronic diseases, quarantine, and perceptions of COVID-19 were significantly associated with GAD-7 scores, indicating that mental health interventions are urgently needed during pandemics, especially for high-risk groups.

6.
Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi ; 33(4):293-294, 2022.
Article in English, Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202525

ABSTRACT

Dear Editor, In this paper, it is aimed to raise awareness about the stepped care model as an approach in the organization of mental health services related to the protection, development, care and treatment of mental health. Concerning mental health, World Health Organization emphasizes that "Mental Health is more than mental disorders. It is a state of well-being that includes using one's own abilities, self-realization, coping with the stresses in the natural flow of life, learning to be well and trying to heal, working efficiently and contributing to the society in which they live." (World Health Organization 2022a). It has been reported that the disease burden of common mental disorders (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychoactive substance use disorders, suicide, etc.) is gradually increasing (World Health Organization 2021). Especially in the last century, the importance and seriousness of endemic and pandemic events (HIV, SARS virus, and still continuing Covid-19, etc.) or non-communicable diseases (cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, etc.), climate changes, economic, socio-political dynamics and wars are noteworthy as a predisposition and/or precipitating factors in terms of mental health (World Health Organization 2022a, World Health Organization 2022b). Protection and improvement of mental health, together with individual, social, and structural mental health determinants, predict interventions that reduce risks, increase resilience, and create a supportive environment for mental health. These interventions are recommended to be designed individually, in a way to be disseminated to special groups across the community. Globally, one person dies by suicide every 40 seconds, and more than 18 million health workers are needed in terms of human resources.

7.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(12):e0278475, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To improve the mental health of isolated patients with COVID-19 by face-to-face psychological rehabilitation program.

8.
BJPsych Open ; 9(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2196609

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 has created many challenges for women in the perinatal phase. This stems from prolonged periods of lockdowns, restricted support networks and media panic, alongside altered healthcare provision.AimsWe aimed to review the evidence regarding the psychological impact on new and expecting mothers following changes to antenatal and postnatal service provision within the UK throughout the pandemic.MethodWe conducted a narrative literature search of major databases (PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar). The literature was critically reviewed by experts within the field of antenatal and perinatal mental health.ResultsChanges to service provision, including the introduction of telemedicine services, attendance of antenatal appointments without partners or loved ones, and lack of support during the intrapartum period, are associated with increased stress, depression and anxiety. Encouraging women and their partners to engage with aspects of positive psychology through newly introduced digital platforms and virtual service provision has the potential to improve access to holistic care and increase mental well-being. An online course, designed by Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in response to changes to service provision, focuses on postnatal recovery inspiration and support for motherhood (PRISM) through a 5-week programme. So far, the course has received positive feedback.ConclusionsThe pandemic has contributed to increased rates of mental illness among pregnant and new mothers in the UK. Although the long-term implications are largely unpredictable, it is important to anticipate increased prevalence and complexity of symptoms, which could be hugely detrimental to an already overburdened National Health Service.

9.
BMC Health Services Research ; 22(1):1563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic placed great pressure on health care workers and increased the risk of these workers developing mental illness. Effective leadership is essential to prevent mental illness from developing. The study aim was to investigate health care workers' perceptions of the support given by their managers, their need for such support, and their levels of anxiety during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1):798, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although negative attitudes are known to develop with experiences of COVID-19 infection, it remains unclear whether such attitudes contribute to depression and anxiety as sequelae of COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the relationships between attitude towards COVID-19 infection and post-COVID-19 depression and anxiety.

11.
BMJ Open ; 13(1):e063391, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2193766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the mental health of perinatal women in five European countries during the third pandemic wave and identify risk factors related to depressive and anxiety symptoms. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, online survey-based study. SETTING: Belgium, Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the UK, 10 June 2021-22 August 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant and up to 3 months postpartum women, older than 18 years of age. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) were used to assess mental health status. Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models were performed to identify factors associated with poor mental health. RESULTS: 5210 women participated (including 3411 pregnant and 1799 postpartum women). The prevalence of major depressive symptoms (EDS ≥13) was 16.1% in the pregnancy group and 17.0% in the postpartum . Moderate to severe generalised anxiety symptoms (GAD ≥10) were found among 17.3% of the pregnant and 17.7% of the postpartum women. Risk factors associated with poor mental health included having a pre-existing mental illness, a chronic somatic illness, having had COVID-19 or its symptoms, smoking, unplanned pregnancy and country of residence. Among COVID-19 restrictive measures specific to perinatal care, pregnant and postpartum women were most anxious about not having their partner present at the time of delivery, that their partner had to leave the hospital early and to be separated from their newborn after the delivery. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six pregnant or postpartum women reported major depression or anxiety symptoms during the third wave of the pandemic. These findings suggest a continued need to monitor depression and anxiety in pregnancy and postpartum populations throughout and in the wake of the pandemic. Tailored support and counselling are essential to reduce the burden of the pandemic on perinatal and infant mental health.

12.
Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya ; 84(2):104-112, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164621

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic that is currently raging in the world caused, together with quarantine restrictions and other measures to combat it, significant distress in the human population. This distress has led to a sharp increase in the incidence of mental disorders in the population, especially of depressive, anxiety and stress-related disorders. This increase in psychiatric morbidity, in turn, significantly increased the number of people needing to take certain psychotropic drugs. On the other hand, the current lack of effective specific agents for the treatment of COVID-19 infection also posed the task of finding potential candidates for repositioning of a new indication (treatment of this new infection) among already registered drugs. Among the drugs screened for potential efficacy against the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, thousands of drugs which are currently registered in the world, of course, there are many psychotropic drugs. Some of them actually turned out to be promising candidates for such repositioning. In this brief review, we show that several classes of psychotropic drugs can be potential candidates for repositioning for the treatment of COVID-19: ligands of sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors (primarily fluvoxamine, but possibly others, including the innovative Russian anxiolytic fabomotizole (Afobazole), melatonergic agonists (exogenous melatonin and possibly also agomelatine (Valdoxan) and, again, fabomotizole (Afobazole)), as well as peptide bioregulators with nootropic, antidepressant, anti-anxiety, anti-stress and immunomodulatory properties (Noopept, Selang). Copyright © 2021 Izdatel'stvo Meditsina. All rights reserved.

13.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163151

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIndividuals with neurodevelopmental disorders often have atypical emotion profiles, but little is known about how they regulate their emotions. While several studies have examined emotion regulation strategy use in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), only a few have included individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or focused on specific syndromes such as Williams syndrome (WS). MethodsA parent-reported survey launched during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic allowed to exploratorily study emotion regulation strategy use and its link to anxiety in individuals with ASD with (N=785) and without ID (N=596), WS (N=261), and Intellectual Disability not otherwise specified (N=649). ResultsUsing multilevel analyses, besides revealing specific group differences in emotion regulation strategy use, a variety of strategies (e.g., rumination, avoiding information, repetitive behaviors) were found to be linked to elevated levels of anxiety, while focusing on the positive was linked to lower anxiety levels in all groups. Moreover, only autistic people without ID used humor more frequently while experiencing lower anxiety levels. ConclusionThis study sheds light on an underexplored area of emotion regulation strategy use in different neurodevelopmental disorders. It also paves the way to further examine emotion regulation in more rigorous ways to better understand emotion regulation in different neurodevelopmental disorders as well as the impact on outcome measures such as anxiety. This exploratory study may help to develop and validate adequate measures to study a broad array of ER strategies used by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders.

14.
Journal of Dental Hygiene (Online) ; 96(4):6-8, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156718

ABSTRACT

" Dental health care workers (DHCWs) encounter myriad stressors in their day-to-day work including financial pressures, tightly booked schedules, paperwork demands, practice management issues, reimbursement concerns, uncooperative patients, and physical demands inherent to oral health care delivery.1,2 These pressures are often accompanied by personal characteristics, such as perfectionism and prioritization of others' needs, leaving DHCWs vulnerable to distress, mental health disorders, and burnout.3 This stress endemic,4,5 owing to prolonged exposure to internal and external stressors, can take a heavy physical and emotional toll on DHCWs. If left untreated, distress can progress and impair physical well-being and personal and professional functioning.2,9 Both distress and depression have been associated with decreased function of the limbic system and prefrontal cortex as well as systemic vascular inflammation and elevated serum cytokine levels.10,11 Furthermore, anxiety and depression often overlap;20% through 70% of patients with depression also meet the lifetime criteria for an anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorders have been implicated in the underlying etiology of depression in many cases.12,13 The interaction of stress and anxiety suggests a bidirectional relationship;psychological stress can lead to depression in susceptible people, and depression may exacerbate anxiety disorders and stress. Furthermore, as health care professionals, it is also important that we acknowledge that our mental health affects our ability to care for others optimally. [...]creating professional environments that allow for open communication about mental health among members of the dental team can reduce the stigma around mental health diagnoses and treatment for DHCWs. Adoption of the following concrete steps is suggested to improve identification and prevention of mental health disorders for DHCWs and reduce stigmas associated with seeking mental health care: 1) beginning in training programs, instruction to recognize the signs and symptoms of stress, distress, and burnout;2) greater focus on developing and monitoring self-care plans for DHCWs;3) ongoing continuing education offerings focused on DHCW self-care;4) peer support programs to discuss self-care and mental health care;5) easily accessible information through local, state, and national dental organizations to connect with mental health care providers;6) systematic efforts to elucidate treatment barriers among DHCWs.

15.
PLoS One ; 17(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2154222

ABSTRACT

Objectives Depression and anxiety are common in frail older people and are associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, yet they typically face greater barriers to accessing mental health treatments than younger people and express preferences for self-managing their symptoms. This study aims to explore frail older adults’ experiences of self-managing symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Design Qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring experiences of depression and/or anxiety, ways participants self-managed these and the contexts within which this took place. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants 28 frail older adults in the United Kingdom, purposively sampled for neighbourhood, frailty and symptoms of anxiety/depression. Analysis Thematic analysis to inductively derive themes from the data. Results Our findings suggest that frail older adults find maintaining independence, engaging in meaningful activities, and socialising and peer support important for self-managing depression and anxiety. These could all be adapted to the level of frailty experienced. Drawing on life experiences, addressing the perceived cause and faith were helpful in some situations and for some personalities. Distraction and avoidance were helpful for more severe symptoms or where the causes of symptoms could not be resolved. Self-management strategies were less well-established for anxiety symptoms, especially when linked to newer health fears and worries about the future. Conclusions Developing services and sources of information that support and facilitate key therapeutic components of self-management, which align with older adults’ preferred coping styles and take into account levels of frailty, may be a way of supporting frail older people waiting for mental health treatments or those who prefer not to access these. Greater awareness of anxiety and how it can be self-managed in frail older people is needed.

16.
Missouri Medicine ; 118(6):494-498, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2147695

ABSTRACT

Burnout is the result of chronic work-related stress and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, low sense of personal accomplishment, cynicism, and detachment from patients.3 Burnout can occur in any occupation but has been found in most studies of physicians to be as high as 50%.4 Burnout is a distinct phenomenon from other well-understood mental health disturbances such as depression or anxiety disorders.5 While burnout typically only occurs in the setting of chronic workrelated stress, depressive and anxiety disorders may arise in the absence of any external stressors. [...]confounding the disorder is increasing severity of burnout has been strongly associated with increased likelihood of major depression and suicidal thoughts.6 As burnout is a risk factor for other mental health conditions, understanding symptoms and warning signs might facilitate prevention and earlier physician intervention before mental health problems develop. Medical students during training develop higher rates of suicidality compared to their age-matched peers.16 While the baseline mental health of physicians was already poor, the significant stressors of COVID-19 compounded these numbers.2 Frontline workers in New York City had high rates of psychological symptoms of distress, including acute stress in 57%, depressive symptoms in 48%, and anxiety symptoms in 33%.17 Thirteen percent of frontline healthcare workers reported receiving mental health services or medication due to stress related to the pandemic.18 One in five healthcare workers reported needing services and not receiving them.19 It is extraordinarily important for healthcare workers, especially physicians, to recognize their own mental health needs and know when they require help. Because many physicians struggle to recognize their own psychological problems, it is critical to have objective measures available for increasing selfawareness of burnout, depression, suicide ideation, and related symptoms.

17.
BJPsych Open ; 8(6): e203, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to >6 million deaths. Anti-mask movements may decrease the effects of preventive measures. Psychological factors that may be related to anti-mask behaviour are not well researched. AIMS: This study aims to determine the psychological correlates of anti-mask attitudes and behaviour in an online general population sample, focusing on the possible role of claustrophobia. METHOD: Data on attitudes and behaviour toward mask-wearing were collected from an online sample of 3709 people. Predictors of both anti-mask attitudes and behaviour were assessed with linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Few people (3.3%) were overtly opposed to mask-wearing; mask opposition was more common in men than women. Predictors of negative attitude toward mask-wearing and low adherence to mask-related measures were similar and included male gender, lower education, lower income, being employed, having had COVID-19 and lower COVID-19-related anxiety. Psychopathology measures did not show a prediction, whereas claustrophobia had a significant prediction that was over and above those of other predictors. Avoidance behaviour had similar predictors, except for higher COVID-19-related anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Although low adherence to mask-wearing during the pandemic was not related to having a mental disorder, it may partly be caused by psychological factors. Those who had a negative attitude also reported lower adherence behaviour, and were characterised by being male, having lower education, being employed and having lower COVID-19-related anxiety; claustrophobia was a strong predictor of attitude. Understanding psychological factors responsible for low adherence may help to decrease morbidity and mortality in future pandemics.

18.
Meditsinskiy Sovet ; 2022(21):88-94, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146003

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus infection pandemic has spread all over the world millions of people have been recovered from it that makes necessary the research of their health status after the acute infection phase. The accumulated data about previous coronavirus epidemics showed their prolonged impacton the nervous system with the manifestation of mental and neurological symptoms. Specialists from different countries from the beginning of the pandemic have revealed typical symptoms in patients recovered from coronavirus infection with negative tests still complained on residual respiratory, gastroenterological and psychoneurological symptoms that manifested with asthenic, cognitive, dissomnic and affective disorders, anosmia and changes in taste preferences. No correlation between infection severity and symptoms set in the reconvalescence period has been found. Different countries have been used different terms to describe it like prolonged, long, chronic covid.The leading medical centers have made their impact in this problem analysis During the two recent years a big international research base, including the data from electronic medical histories has been accumulated concerning COVID 19 reconvalescents health status. WHO has presented the postcovid 19 syndrome work definition, in its structure psychoneurological symptoms such as asthenia, anxiety-depressive and cognitive disorders, insomnia play an important role. The healthcare provision for the patients with postcovid syndrome remains the issue needed further elaboration, the most promising treatment plan seems the combination of pharma-cotherapy with psychosocial interventions. Tofizopam as a drug with anxiolytic, secondary precognitive and aniastenic effects can be recommended for the postocovid syndrome psychoneurological symptoms. © 2022, Remedium Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

19.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(33):4217-4226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145251

ABSTRACT

Background Mental health problems among college students have become increasingly prominent. Social anxiety is one of the prevalent psychological problems among college students. Objective To explore the research hot spots,frontiers and trends on social anxiety among college students,and provide reference for researchers participating in the research of college students' social anxiety in the future. Methods 643 English articles in database of Web of Science(WOS) and 166 Chinese articles in database of China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)from 2000 to 2021 were analyzed using CiteSpace on August 27,2021. Results The number of English articles on social anxiety among college students showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2021. The research hot spots and frontiers of social anxiety among college students were mainly focused on substance abuse,mobile phone and internet addiction,negative evaluation fear,racial differences,psychological intervention and COVID-19 epidemic. The future research trends were mainly focused on the mechanism of substance abuse and mobile phone addiction. Conclusion Chinese scholars can refer to the research hot spots,trends and the differences between domestic and foreign research shown by this visual analysis,and focus on the related problems of substance abuse and mobile internet addiction among college students with social anxiety. © 2022 Chinese General Practice. All rights reserved.

20.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2145064

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic places a high demand on frontline healthcare workers. Healthcare workers are at high-risk of contracting the virus and are subjected to its consequential emotional and psychological effects. This study aimed to measure the level of depression and anxiety among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study;data were collected from healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia using a survey that included the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7. A total of 326 participants took part in the study by completing and submitting the survey. Results The vast majority of the participating healthcare workers were Saudi nationals (98.8%) working in a public healthcare facility (89.9%). The results indicated that most of the participants had mild levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 72.5% of the respondents had anxiety, ranging from mild (44.1%) to moderate (16.2%) and severe (12.2%). Moreover, 24.4% of the respondents had depression ranging from mild (21.7%) to moderate (2.1%) and severe (0.6%). The generalized linear models showed that the <30 age group (Beta = 0.556, p = 0.037) and the 30–39-year age group (Beta = 0.623, p = 0.019) were predicted to have anxiety. The analysis revealed that females were more anxious (Beta = 0.241, p = 0.005) than males. Healthcare providers working in primary healthcare centers (Beta = −0.315, p = 0.008) and labs (Beta = −0.845. p = 0.0001 were predicted to be less anxious than those working in other healthcare facilities. The data analysis showed that participants with good economic status had more depression than the participants in the other economic status groups (Beta = 0.067, p = 0.003). Conclusion This study found that the level of anxiety and depression in healthcare workers was mild. The factors that may contribute to anxiety in healthcare workers included being female, being younger than 30 or between the ages of 31 and 39, working in a specialized hospital facility, and the number of COVID-19 cases the workers dealt with. Economic status was associated with depression. A longitudinal study design is needed to understand the pattern of anxiety levels among healthcare workers over time during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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