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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1154058, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327975

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection on anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG (AAA1) humoral response in immunosuppressed inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) patients. Methods: This is a nested cohort study from the prospective Swiss Clinical Quality Management registry. A total of 368 IRD patients for which serum samples were available before and after the SARS-CoV2 pandemic were included. Autoantibodies against ApoA-1 (AAA1) and its c-terminal region (AF3L1) were measured in both samples. The exposure of interest was anti-SARS-CoV2 spike subunit 1 (S1) seropositivity measured in the second sample. The effect of SARS-CoV2 infection (anti-S1 seropositivity) on becoming AAA1 or AF3L1 positive and on the change of AAA1 or AF3L1 optical density (OD) between the two samples was tested with multivariable regressions. Results: There were 12 out of 368 IRD patients who were seroconverted against S1. The proportion of patients becoming AF3L1 seropositive was significantly higher in anti-S1-positive patients, compared with anti-S1-negative patients (66.7% versus 21.6%, p = 0.001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that anti-S1 seroconversion was associated with a sevenfold increased risk of AFL1 seropositivity (odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.1-25.9) and predicted median increase in AF3L1 OD values (+0.17, 95% CI: 0.08-0.26). Conclusions: SARS-CoV2 infection is associated with a marked humoral response against the immunodominant c-terminal region of ApoA-1 in IRD patients. The possible clinical impact of AAA1 and AF3L1 antibodies on disease progression, cardiovascular complications, or long COVID syndrome deserves future investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Fever , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Apolipoprotein A-I , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270143

ABSTRACT

Elevated anti-apolipoprotein A-1 (AAA1) antibody levels associated with cardiovascular risk have been observed in previously SARS-CoV-2-infected or COVID-19-vaccinated individuals. Since patient safety is generally a priority in vaccination, we sought to investigate AAA1 antibody levels in healthy adults after mRNA vaccination. We conducted a prospective cohort study in healthy adult volunteers recruited from military workers of the Transport Air Base in Prague who had received two doses of mRNA vaccines. Anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibody levels were determined using ELISA from serum samples obtained at three and four time points after the first and second vaccine doses, respectively, within almost 17 weeks of follow-up. The transient AAA1 positivity rate achieved 24.1% (95% confidence interval CI: 15.4-34.7%), i.e., 20 out of 83 participants had at least one positive post-vaccination sample, with a repeat positivity confirmed in only 5 of them. This rate was associated with a BMI > 26 kg/m2, as documented by an adjusted odds ratio of 6.79 (95% CI: 1.53-30.01). In addition, the highest positivity rate of 46.7% (21.3-73.4%) was observed in obese subjects with >30 kg/m2. Since the incidence rate of AAA1 positivity remained unchanged after the first and second vaccine doses, any relationship between AAA1 positivity and mRNA vaccination was inconclusive. The present study showed a transient AAA1 positivity rate associated with overweight or obesity without a proven association with mRNA vaccination.

3.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; : 101751, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258912

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infections decrease total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A-I, A-II, and B levels while triglyceride levels may be increased or inappropriately normal for the poor nutritional status. The degree of reduction in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A-I are predictive of mortality. With recovery lipid/lipoprotein levels return towards pre-infection levels and studies have even suggested an increased risk of dyslipidemia post-COVID-19 infection. The potential mechanisms for these changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels are discussed. Decreased HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I levels measured many years prior to COVID-19 infections are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infections while LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, Lp (a), and triglyceride levels were not consistently associated with an increased risk. Finally, data suggest that omega-3-fatty acids and PCSK9 inhibitors may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infections. Thus, COVID-19 infections alter lipid/lipoprotein levels and HDL-C levels may affect the risk of developing COVID-19 infections.

4.
Drug Development and Delivery ; 22(4):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012508
5.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934177

ABSTRACT

Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein (apo) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that influences HDL quality and functionality, particularly in the acute phase of inflammation. On the other hand, the structural and functional correlations of HDL containing SAA and apoA-I have not been reported. The current study was designed to compare the change in HDL quality with increasing SAA content in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states in reconstituted HDL (rHDL). The expressed recombinant human SAA1 (13 kDa) was purified to at least 98% and characterized in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states with apoA-I. The dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) binding ability of apoA-I was impaired severely by the addition of SAA, while SAA alone could not bind with DMPC. The recombinant human SAA1 was incorporated into the rHDL (molar ratio 95:5:1, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC): cholesterol: apoA-I) with various apoA-I:SAA molar ratios from 1:0 to 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2. With increasing SAA1 content, the rHDL particle size was reduced from 98 Å to 93 Å, and the α-helicity of apoA-I:SAA was decreased from 73% to 40% for (1:0) and (1:2), respectively. The wavelength maximum fluorescence (WMF) of tryptophan in rHDL was red-shifted from 339 nm to 345 nm for (1:0) and (1:2) of apoA-I:SAA, respectively, indicating that the addition of SAA to rHDL destabilized the secondary structure of apoA-I. Upon denaturation by urea treatment from 0 M to 8 M, SAA showed only a 3 nm red-shift in WMF, while apoA-I showed a 16 nm red-shift in WMF, indicating that SAA is resistant to denaturation and apoA-I had higher conformational flexibility than SAA. The glycation reaction of apoA-I in the presence of fructose was accelerated up to 1.8-fold by adding SAA in a dose-dependent manner than that of apoA-I alone. In conclusion, the incorporation of SAA in rHDL impaired the structural stability of apoA-I and exacerbated glycation of HDL and apoA-I.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , Lipoproteins, HDL , Apolipoprotein A-I/chemistry , Cholesterol , Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein
6.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i205-i206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Replication of the enveloped SARS-COV2 virus can alter lipidomic composition and metabolism of infected cells [1]. These alterations commonly result in a decline in HDL, total cholesterol and LDL, and an increase in triglyceride levels in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the 'cytokine storm' subsequent to release of inflammatory cytokines can severely impair lipid homeostasis. Importantly, decreased HDL-cholesterol correlates with severity of COVID-19 infection and represents a significant prognostic factor in predicting poor clinical outcomes [2]. Similarly, it has been observed that COVID-19 patients' recovery is accompanied by a rise in serum HDL levels. Pharmacological intervention that aims to restore ApoA-1 or functional HDL particles may have beneficial roles for clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients and has recently been approved for compassionate use [3]. SARS-CoV 2 spike proteins S1 and S2 can bind free cholesterol and HDL-bound cholesterol, facilitating virus entry by binding the ACE2 co-receptor Scavenger Receptor-BI (SR-BI) [4]. When activated at the trans-membrane level, SR-BI signalling culminates in Ser1173-eNOS phosphorylation with both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect. We hypothesized that SARS-COV2 binding promoted SR-BI internalization, so that it could not exert its essential protective function. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of CER-001, a mimetic HDL, in antagonizing this process. METHOD: Endothelial and tubular (RPTEC) cells were exposed to S1, S2 and S1 + S2 (50-250 nM) with or without CER-001 (CER-001 50-500 ug/mL) and cholesterol (10-50 uM). Apoptosis tests (MTT and AnnV/PI) were performed. Internalization of SR-BI, ACE2 with S1 and activation of eNOS was evaluated by FACS analysis. SR-BI and ACE2 expression were evaluated on kidney biopsies from COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: At concentrations used, the exposition of S1, S2 and S1 + S2 in the presence of CER-001 and cholesterol did not induce apoptosis of endothelial cells and RPTEC. Endothelial and tubular cells stimulated by S1, in presence of cholesterol, showed an increased intracellular level of SR-BI and ACE-2, with significantly reduced eNOS phosphorylation compared to baseline (P < 0.05). The treatment with CER-001 reversed trans-membrane SR-BI levels and eNOS phosphorylation to baseline values. The detection of S1 spike protein by endothelial cells immunohistochemistry revealed an increased level in S1-exposed cells with cholesterol and reduced S1 intracellular positive staining in CER-001-exposed cells (P < 0.05). Interestingly, S1-exposed cells without cholesterol appeared not to be capable of mediating S1 spike protein internalization. Consistent with in vitro results, analysis of renal biopsies from COVID-19 patients with proteinuria showed increased SR-BI and ACE-2 cytoplasmic signals and reduced expression at the apical domain of injured tubules. CONCLUSION: Our data confirmed the key role of lipid profile in SARS-COV2 infection, evaluating the molecular signalling involved in HDL metabolism and inflammatory processes, and could offer new therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 patients. (Figure Presented).

7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(10): e13818, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers different auto-antibodies, including anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgGs (AAA1), which could be of concern as mediators of persistent symptoms. We determined the kinetics of AAA1 response over after COVID-19 and the impact of AAA1 on the inflammatory response and symptoms persistence. METHODS: All serologies were assessed at one, three, six and twelve months in 193 hospital employees with COVID-19. ROC curve analyses and logistic regression models (LRM) were used to determine the prognostic accuracy of AAA1 and their association with patient-reported COVID-19 symptoms persistence at 12 months. Interferon (IFN)-α and-γ production by AAA1-stimulated human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) was assessed in vitro. RESULTS: AAA1 seropositivity was 93% at one month and declined to 15% at 12 months after COVID-19. Persistent symptoms at 12 months were observed in 45.1% of participants, with a predominance of neurological (28.5%), followed by general (15%) and respiratory symptoms (9.3%). Over time, strength of correlations between AAA1 and anti-SARS-COV2 serologies decreased, but remained significant. From the 3rd month on, AAA1 levels predicted persistent respiratory symptoms (area under the curves 0.72-0.74; p < 0.001), independently of disease severity, age and gender (adjusted odds ratios 4.81-4.94; p = 0.02), while anti-SARS-CoV-2 serologies did not. AAA1 increased IFN-α production by HMDMs (p = 0.03), without affecting the IFN-γ response. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 induces a marked though transient AAA1 response, independently predicting one-year persistence of respiratory symptoms. By increasing IFN-α response, AAA1 may contribute to persistent symptoms. If and how AAA1 levels assessment could be of use for COVID-19 risk stratification remains to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents , Apolipoprotein A-I , Autoantibodies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomedicines ; 10(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760358

ABSTRACT

In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and haptoglobin are associated with the risk of liver fibrosis, inflammation (NASH), and COVID-19. We assessed if these associations were worsened by T2DM after adjustment by age, sex, obesity, and COVID-19. Three datasets were used: the "Control Population", which enabled standardization of protein serum levels according to age and sex (N = 27,382); the "NAFLD-Biopsy" cohort for associations with liver features (N = 926); and the USA "NAFLD-Serum" cohort for protein kinetics before and during COVID-19 (N = 421,021). The impact of T2DM was assessed by comparing regression curves adjusted by age, sex, and obesity for the liver features in "NAFLD-Biopsy", and before and during COVID-19 pandemic peaks in "NAFLD-Serum". Patients with NAFLD without T2DM, compared with the values of controls, had increased A2M, decreased ApoA1, and increased haptoglobin serum levels. In patients with both NAFLD and T2DM, these significant mean differences were magnified, and even more during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with the year 2019 (all p < 0.001), with a maximum ApoA1 decrease of 0.21 g/L in women, and a maximum haptoglobin increase of 0.17 g/L in men. In conclusion, T2DM is associated with abnormal levels of A2M, ApoA1, and haptoglobin independently of NAFLD, age, sex, obesity, and COVID-19.

9.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 15(1):270-278, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743256

ABSTRACT

As cardiovascular diseases are still a major cause of death in most countries, it is still relevant to look into treatment of such diseases. Dyslipidemia is one of the important identified risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. As this is largely driven by lifestyle and diet, it may be difficult to control it with lifestyle modifications alone. Currently, Statins remains to be the mainstay therapy for dyslipidemia but this is also met by problems within certain patient population. The drug may be contraindicated in certain patient groups;some patients tend to not respond to Statins;while certain patients may not tolerate the adverse events. This study looked into available literature on studies done on dyslipidemia using plant-based formulations using randomized clinical trial. Based on the review conducted, there are several plant-based formations with potential to be similar in efficacy to Statins. Some of the plants used are abundant or may be easily sourced. With the increasing popularity of food supplements or nutraceuticals, exploration on the potential of plant-based products is attractive. Despite the promising results of some studies, these will need further investigations and targeting a larger population size. Formulation options may need to be explored also focused on its stability. © RJPT All right reserved.

10.
Gastro Hep Adv ; 1(3): 393-402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoprotein A1 (A1) and haptoglobin (HP) serum levels are associated with the spread and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We have constructed and validated a multivariable risk calculator (A1HPV6) integrating A1, HP, alpha2-macroglobulin, and gamma glutamyl transferase to improve the performances of virological biomarkers. METHODS: In a prospective observational study of hospitalized patients with nonsevere SARS-CoV-2 infection, A1HPV6 was constructed in 127 patients and validated in 116. The specificity was assessed in 7482 controls representing the general population. The primary diagnostic endpoint was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. The primary prognostic endpoint was the age-and sex-adjusted risk of A1HPV6 to predict patients with WHO-stage > 4 (W > 4) severity. We assessed the kinetics of the A1HPV6 components in a nonhuman primate model (NHP), from baseline to 7 days (D7) after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for A1HPV6 was 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) in the validation subset, which was not significantly different from that in the construction subset, 0.99 (0.99-0.99; P = .80), like for sensitivity 92% (85-96) vs 94% (88-97; P = .29). A1HPV6 was associated with W > 4, with a significant odds ratio of 1.3 (1.1-1.5; 0.002). In NHP, A1 levels decreased (P < .01) at D2 and normalized at D4; HP levels increased at D2 and peaked at D4. In patients, A1 concentration was very low at D2 vs controls (P < .01) and increased at D14 (P < .01) but was still lower than controls; HP increased at D2 and remained elevated at D14. CONCLUSION: These results validate the diagnostic and prognostic performances of A1HPV6. Similar kinetics of apolipoprotein A1, HP, and alpha-2-macroglobulin were observed in the NHP model. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01927133.

11.
Blood ; 138:2095, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582242

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications in patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are emerging as important sequelae that contribute to mortality, including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infraction. Reported incidence of thrombotic and thromboembolic complications in moderate/severe COVID-19 patients is from 21% to 49%, while even higher incidence in non-surviving COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying mechanism between thrombosis and COVID-19 is still unclear. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important role on initiating fibrinolysis by converting zymogen plasminogen to plasmin, a serine protease that degrades the fibrin clot, and therefore preventing excessive pathological blood clots. A homologous protein to plasminogen is apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a major component of lipoprotein(a). The apo(a) inhibits fibrinolysis and exacerbates thrombosis through blocking the conversion from Glu-plasminogen to Lys-plasminogen, which has a higher binding affinity to fibrin and is a better substrate to tPA. The population distribution of plasma apo(a) level is positively skewed (most values are clustered around the left tail of the distribution close to zero), and the plasma apo(a) level in most people is less than 300 μg/mL. High plasma concentration of apo(a) (> 300 μg/mL), or genetic variants of LPA, the gene that encodes for apo(a), correlates with thrombotic cardiovascular risk and thromboembolic risk in many population-based clinical or genetic studies. To investigate the potential correlation between infection of SARS-COV-2 and thrombosis, we tested de-identified plasma samples collected from hospitalized patients with or without positivity of SARS-CoV-2 testing results and COVID-19 diagnosis (ICD10CM:U07.1) through the COVD-19 Tissue Bank at the Medical College of Wisconsin. The tPA enzymatic activity was measured by the release of p-nitroaniline chromophore from a plasmin-specific synthetic substrate with exogenous human plasminogen, with the intensity of color proportional to tPA activity. The apo(a) concentration is measured by ELISA capturing total apo(a) antigen. Our results show that the SARS-CoV-2-positive inpatients have higher plasma tPA concentration than the SARS-CoV-2 negative inpatients (6.0 versus 3.0 ng/mL, p<0.05), while plasma tPA enzymatic activity is lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive inpatients than the SARS-CoV-2 negative inpatients (15.2 versus 25.5 ΔA/min/mL/10 4, p<0.0001) (Figure A). The plasma apo(a) concentration is significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2-positive inpatients than in the plasma from SARS-CoV-2-negative inpatients (the median of the two groups are 114.8 versus 34.4 μg/mL, p<0.05) (Figure B). Among the 20 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 13 survived. The 13 survived patients have one additional plasma sample collected after recovering from COVID-19 (date range between the two blood collections of onset and after recovery is from 19 to 87 days, the mean duration is 42 days). After recovery, 11 out of 13 surviving patients have increased plasma tPA enzymatic activity (the mean value at onset versus recovery is 5.2 versus 7.1 ΔA/min/mL/10 4, p<0.05) (Figure C). Consistently, 11 out of 13 surviving patients have decreased plasma apo(a) concentration compared to the plasma collected during the onset of COVID-19 from the same individuals (the median values of the onset and recovery are 141.1 versus 106.5 μg/mL, p<0.001) (Figure D). In summary, our study shows lower tPA enzymatic activity and higher apo(a) concentration in SARS-CoV-2-positive hospitalized patients compared to SARS-CoV-2-negative hospitalized patients. Among the survived patients, the reduction of apo(a) concentration after recovering from COVID-19 is accordance with the increase of tPA enzymatic activity. Considering the role of apo(a) in inhibiting fibrinolysis through limiting tPA-mediated plasminogen to plasmin conversion, the alteration in apo(a) concentration provide a possible explana ion of change of tPA activity in patients with severe COVID-19. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Baumann Kreuziger: CSL Behring: Consultancy;Quercegen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy;Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Consultancy.

12.
European Heart Journal ; 42(SUPPL 1):2757, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554461

ABSTRACT

Background: Unravelling autoimmune targets triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection may provide crucial insights in the physiopathology of the disease and foster the development of potential therapeutic candidate targets and prognostic tools. SARS-CoV-2 autoimmune-mediated inflammation have been reported, but the existence of autoantibodies against apolipoprotein A-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgG) in COVID-19 remains unexplored. Anti-apoA-1 IgGs have emerged as an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease and mortality in humans with proinflammatory and proatherogenic functions in vivo and in vitro. Purpose:We want to determine i) the degree of homology between SARSCoV-2, apoA-1, and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) epitopes, ii) the association between anti-SARSCoV2 and anti-apoA-1 IgGs, and iii) their relationship to prognosis. Methods: We performed bioinformatics modelling coupled with mimetic peptides engineering, as well as functional and competition assays with antibodies to identify molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2, apoA-1 and TLR2 epitopes. Anti-Spike domain 1 (SD1) IgGs, anti-apoA-1 IgGs and against mimic peptides, as well as cytokines were assessed by immunoassays on a case-control (n=101), an intensive care unit (ICU;n=126) with a 28-days follow-up for overall mortality, and a general population cohort (n=663) with available samples in the pre and post-pandemic period. Results: Linear sequence homologies and antibodies cross-reactivity between apoA-1, TLR2, and Spike epitopes were identified. Overall, antiapoA-1 IgG levels were higher in COVID-19 patients or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals than in healthy donors or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seronegative individuals (p<0.0001). Significant and similar associations were noted between anti-apoA-1, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, cytokines, and lipid profile. In ICU patients, anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 seroconversion rates displayed similar 7-days kinetics, reaching 82% for anti-apoA-1 seropositivity. C-statistics (CS) indicated that baseline anti-Spike/TLR2 mimic-peptide IgGs displayed a significant prognostic accuracy for overall mortality at 28 days (CS: 0.64;p=0.02). In the general population, SARSCoV-2 exposure increased baseline anti-apoA-1 IgG levels. Conclusions: COVID-19 induces a marked humoral response against the major protein of high-density lipoproteins. As a correlate of poorer prognosis in other clinical settings, such autoimmunity signatures may relate to long-term COVID-19 prognosis assessment and warrant further scrutiny in the current COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Cytol Genet ; 55(6): 519-523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547186

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection is associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study was to determine the content of ApoA1, ApoB, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in the plasma of patients (n = 81) with COVID-19, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ApoA1, ApoB, and oxLDL were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (Elabscience, United States). The measurements were performed at an optical wavelength of 450 nm. It was shown that the level of ApoA1 in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes and especially with COVID-19 was significantly lower than in the blood of healthy people. Blood ApoA1 levels did not show a further decrease in patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes or CVD compared to patients with COVID-19 without concomitant diseases. It was found that the level of ApoB in the blood of patients with diabetes and, especially, with COVID-19 is significantly higher than in the blood of healthy people. Blood levels of ApoB and oxLDL are higher in patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes or CVD compared to patients with COVID-19 without comorbidities. Thus, levels of ApoA1, ApoB, and oxLDL may be promising markers of COVID-19.

14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(2): e13713, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trigger a humoral autoimmune response against a broad range of endogenous components, which may affect recipients' prognosis in predisposed individuals. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-1 (AAA1 IgG) the major protein fraction of High Density Lipoprotein have been shown to be raised in COVID-19 and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and other populations where they have been associated with poorer outcomes. We wanted to assess the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination on AAA1 autoimmune biomarkers in RA patients. METHODS: 20 healthy controls and 77 RA mRNA-based vaccinated patients were collected at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, 2 and 8 weeks after the second vaccination. AAA1 and SARS-CoV-2 serologies were measured by immunoassays. Systemic and local symptoms occurring during the vaccination protocol were recorded. RESULTS: mRNA-based vaccination induced a significant increase in median AAA1 IgG levels in both healthy controls and RA patients overtime. However, in both populations, these medians trend did not translate into significant increase in AAA1 IgG seropositivity rates despite evolving from 5 to 10% in healthy controls, and from 9 to 12.9% in RA patients. No associations were retrieved between AAA1 IgG and symptoms of any kind during the vaccination protocol. CONCLUSIONS: mRNA-based vaccination seems to induce a light AAA1 IgG response in immunocompetent individuals within 2 months after the last injection. Although we did not observe any warning signs, the formal demonstration of the harmlessness of such biological warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13661, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unravelling autoimmune targets triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection may provide crucial insights into the physiopathology of the disease and foster the development of potential therapeutic candidate targets and prognostic tools. We aimed at determining (a) the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 humoral response and (b) the degree of linear homology between SARS-CoV-2, apoA-1 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) epitopes. DESIGN: Bioinformatics modelling coupled with mimic peptides engineering and competition experiments were used to assess epitopes sequence homologies. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 IgG as well as cytokines were assessed by immunoassays on a case-control (n = 101), an intensive care unit (ICU; n = 126) and a general population cohort (n = 663) with available samples in the pre and post-pandemic period. RESULTS: Using bioinformatics modelling, linear sequence homologies between apoA-1, TLR2 and Spike epitopes were identified but without experimental evidence of cross-reactivity. Overall, anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were higher in COVID-19 patients or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals than in healthy donors or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seronegative individuals (P < .0001). Significant and similar associations were noted between anti-apoA-1, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, cytokines and lipid profile. In ICU patients, anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 seroconversion rates displayed similar 7-day kinetics, reaching 82% for anti-apoA-1 seropositivity. In the general population, SARS-CoV-2-exposed individuals displayed higher anti-apoA-1 IgG seropositivity rates than nonexposed ones (34% vs 16.8%; P = .004). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 induces a marked humoral response against the major protein of high-density lipoproteins. As a correlate of poorer prognosis in other clinical settings, such autoimmunity signatures may relate to long-term COVID-19 prognosis assessment and warrant further scrutiny in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Apolipoprotein A-I/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apolipoprotein A-I/chemistry , Computational Biology , Epitopes/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 2/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117120

ABSTRACT

Individuals with features of metabolic syndrome are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus associated with the severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite considerable attention dedicated to COVID-19, the link between metabolic syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Using data from the UK Biobank, we investigated the relationship between severity of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome-related serum biomarkers measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression analyses were used to test biomarker levels and biomarker-associated genetic variants with SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive cases and negative controls, a 10 mg/dl increase in serum HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 levels was associated with ∼10% reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation of known genetic variants for HDL-cholesterol revealed that individuals homozygous for apolipoprotein E4 alleles had ∼2- to 3-fold higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or mortality from COVID-19 compared with apolipoprotein E3 homozygotes, even after adjustment for HDL-cholesterol levels. However, cumulative effects of all evaluated HDL-cholesterol-raising alleles and Mendelian randomization analyses did not reveal association of genetically higher HDL-cholesterol levels with decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results implicate serum HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels measured prior to SAR-CoV-2 exposure as clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection but do not provide evidence that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with SAR-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , COVID-19 , Cholesterol, HDL , Homozygote , Metabolic Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Apolipoprotein A-I/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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