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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 864798, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903108

ABSTRACT

Severe disease from SARS-CoV-2 infection often progresses to multi-organ failure and results in an increased mortality rate amongst these patients. However, underlying mechanisms of SARS- CoV-2-induced multi-organ failure and subsequent death are still largely unknown. Cytokine storm, increased levels of inflammatory mediators, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the organs contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19. One potential consequence of immune/inflammatory events is the acute progression of generalized edema, which may lead to death. We, therefore, examined the involvement of water channels in the development of edema in multiple organs and their contribution to organ dysfunction in a Murine Hepatitis Virus-1 (MHV-1) mouse model of COVID-19. Using this model, we recently reported multi-organ pathological abnormalities and animal death similar to that reported in humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We now identified an alteration in protein levels of AQPs 1, 4, 5, and 8 and associated oxidative stress, along with various degrees of tissue edema in multiple organs, which correlate well with animal survival post-MHV-1 infection. Furthermore, our newly created drug (a 15 amino acid synthetic peptide, known as SPIKENET) that was designed to prevent the binding of spike glycoproteins with their receptor(s), angiotensin- converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) (SARS-CoV-2 and MHV-1, respectively), ameliorated animal death and reversed altered levels of AQPs and oxidative stress post-MHV-1 infection. Collectively, our findings suggest the possible involvement of altered aquaporins and the subsequent edema, likely mediated by the virus-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress response, in the pathogenesis of COVID- 19 and the potential of SPIKENET as a therapeutic option.

2.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 458, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225869

ABSTRACT

Cryoablation is an emerging type of treatment for cancer. The sensitization of tumors using cryosensitizing agents prior to treatment enhances ablation efficiency and may improve clinical outcomes. Water efflux, which is regulated by aquaporin channels, contributes to cancer cell damage achieved through cryoablation. An increase in aquaporin (AQP) 3 is cryoprotective, whereas its inhibition augments cryodamage. The present study aimed to investigate aquaporin (AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5) gene expression and cellular localization in response to cryoinjury. Cultured breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were exposed to freezing to induce cryoinjury. RNA and protein extracts were then analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Localization of aquaporins was studied using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to silence aquaporin gene expression and cell viability was assessed using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Cryoinjury did not influence gene expression of AQPs, except for a 4-fold increase of AQP1 expression in MDA-MD-231 cells. There were no clear differences in AQP protein expression for either cell lines upon exposure to frozen and non-frozen temperatures, with the exception of fainter AQP5 bands for non-frozen MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cancer cells to freezing temperatures altered the localization of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in both MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells. The silencing of AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 exacerbated MDA-MD-231 cell damage associated with freezing compared with control siRNA. This was also observed with AQP3 and AQP5 silencing in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of aquaporins may potentially enhance cryoinjury. This cryosensitizing process may be used as an adjunct to breast cancer cryotherapy, especially in the border area targeted by cryoablation where freezing temperatures are not cold enough to induce cellular damage.

3.
Phytomed Plus ; 1(2): 100027, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032443

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 caused a series of acute atypical respiratory diseases worldwide. However, there is still a lack of drugs with clear curative effects, and the clinical trial research of vaccines has not been completely finished. Purpose: LH capsules are approved TCM patent medicine that are widely used for the treatment of respiratory tract infectious diseases caused by colds and flu. On April 12, 2020, LH capsules and granules were officially repurposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for patients with mild COVID-19 based on their safety and efficacy demonstrated through multicentre, randomized, controlled clinical trials. We hope to conduct a comprehensive review of it through modern pharmacy methods, and try to explain its possible mechanism. Methods: Using the full names of LH capsules Lianhuaqingwen, Lianhua Qingwen andSARS-COV-2, COVID-19 as the keywords of the search terms, systemically search for existing related papers in various databases such as Web of Science and PubMed. And completed the collection of clinical data in ClinicalTrials.gov and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Last but not least, we have sorted out the anti-inflammatory and antiviral mechanisms of LH capsules through literature and Selleck. Results: This review systematically sorted out the active ingredients in LH capsules. Furthermore, the related pharmacological and clinical trials of LH capsule on SARS-CoV-2, IAV and IBV were discussed in detail. Moreover, the present review provides the first summary of the potential molecular mechanism of specific substances in LH capsules involved in resistance to SARS-COV-2 infection and the inhibition of cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) caused by IL-6. Conclusion: This review summarizes the available reports and evidence that support the use of LH capsules as potential drug candidates for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. However, TCM exerts its effects through multiple targets and multiple pathways, and LH capsules are not an exception. Therefore, the relevant mechanisms need to be further improved and experimentally verified.

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