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1.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(4):5-11, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241279

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the impact of obesity and overweight on the course of COVID-19. Patients and methods. This prospective study included 218 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection aged 18 to 94 years hospitalized between June 2020 and March 2021. We evaluated their clinical and laboratory parameters and their association with body weight. All patients were divided into 3 groups depending on their body mass index (BMI). Group 1 included 81 patients with grade 1-3 obesity (BMI >=30);group 2 comprised 71 overweight patients (BMI >=25 and <30);group 3 included 66 patients with normal body weight (BMI >=18.5 and <25). We analyzed clinical symptoms (including shortness of breath, fever, myalgia, headache, fatigue, changes in the oropharynx, cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, anosmia, and diarrhea), prevalence of concomitant disorders and complications, findings of computed tomography and pulse oximetry, and findings of instrumental and laboratory examinations (complete blood count, urine test, electrocardiography, echo cardiography, biochemical assays, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin index, D-dimer, ferritin). Data analysis was performed using the Statistica 6.0 software. Results. We found that overweight and obese patients were more likely to have the main COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities than those with normal weight. Overweight and obese patients also required respiratory support more frequently than patients with normal weight. Obese and overweight patients had more severe systemic inflammation (CRP, procalcitonin), cytolysis (ALT, AST), and thrombosis (D-dimer). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that obesity and overweight are the factors associated with a more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which should be considered when planning their treatment and developing resource strategies.Copyright © 2022, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

2.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1586, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324063

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare, but progressive disease that accounts for about 19% of all inflammatory myopathies. Dysphagia occurs in 20-30% of IMNM patients. It often follows proximal muscle weakness and ensues in the later stages of the disease. We report a rare case of IMNM, presenting with dysphagia as the initial symptom, followed by proximal muscle weakness. Case Description/Methods: A 74-year-old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented to the ED with 2-3 weeks of intractable nausea, vomiting, and dysphagia for solids and liquids. Vital signs were stable, and initial labs displayed an AST of 188 U/L and ALT of 64 U/L with a normal bilirubin. Computed tomogram of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were negative. An esophagram showed moderate to severe tertiary contraction, no mass or stricture, and a 13 mm barium tablet passed without difficulty. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy exhibited a spastic lower esophageal sphincter. Botox injections provided no significant relief. He then developed symmetrical proximal motor weakness and repeat labs demonstrated an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level of 6,357 U/L and aldolase of 43.4 U/L. Serology revealed positive PL-7 autoxantibodies, but negative JO-1, PL-12, KU, MI-2, EJ, SRP, anti-smooth muscle, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Muscle biopsy did not unveil endomysial inflammation or MHC-1 sarcolemmal upregulation. The diagnosis of IMNM was suspected. A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube was placed as a mean of an alternative route of nutrition. He was started on steroids and recommended to follow up with outpatient rheumatology. He expired a month later after complications from an unrelated COVID-19 infection. Discussion(s): The typical presentation of IMNM includes painful proximal muscle weakness, elevated CK, presence of myositis-associated autoantibodies, and necrotic muscle fibers without mononuclear cell infiltrates on histology. Dysphagia occurs due to immune-mediated inflammation occurring in the skeletal muscle of the esophagus, resulting in incoordination of swallowing. Immunotherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin are often the mainstay of treatment. Our patient was unique in presentation with dysphagia as an initial presenting symptom of IMNM, as well as elevated enzymes from muscle breakdown. It is critical as clinicians to have a high degree of suspicion for IMNM due to the aggressive nature of the disease and refractoriness to treatment.

3.
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine ; 33(3):e95, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322715

ABSTRACT

History: Twenty-two year old male basic trainee was brought to the ED after collapsing during a routine ruck march. At mile 8/12, soldier was noted to develop an unsteady gate and had witnessed loss of consciousness. A rectal core temperature was obtained and noted to be >107degreeF. Cooling initiated with ice sheets and EMS was activated. On arrival to the ED, patient demonstrated confusion and persistently elevated core temperatures despite ice sheeting, chilled saline and cold water bladder lavage. Cooling measures were discontinued after patient achieved euthermia in the ED;however, his temperatures subsequently spiked>103degreeF. Given rebound hyperthermia, an endovascular cooling (EVC) device was placed in the right femoral vein and patient was transferred to the ICU. Multiple attempts to place EVC device on standby were unsuccessful with subsequent rebound hyperthermia. Prolonged cooling was required. Physical Exam: VS: HR 121, BP 85/68, RR 22 SpO2 100% RA, Temp 102.4degreeF Gen: young adult male, NAD, shivering, A&Ox2 (person and place only) HEENT: Scleral anicteric, conjunctiva non-injected, moist mucus membranes Neck: Supple, no LAD Chest: CTAB, no wheezes/rales/rhonchi CV: tachycardia, regular rhythm, normal S1, S2 without murmurs, rubs, gallops ABD: NABS, soft/non-distended, no guarding or rebound EXT: No LE edema, tenderness SKIN: blisters with broad erythematous bases on bilateral heels Neuro: CN II-XII grossly intact, 5/5 strength in all extremities. Differential Diagnosis: 216. Septic Shock 217. Hypothalamic Stroke 218. Exertional Heat Stroke (EHS) 219. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome 220. Thyroid Storm Test Results: CBC: 18.2>14.5/40.6<167 CMP: 128/3.5 88/1831/2.7<104, AST 264, ALT 80, Ca 8.8 Lactate: 7.1 CK: 11 460 Myoglobin: 18 017 TSH: 3.16 CXR: No acute cardiopulmonary process Blood Cx: negative x2 CSF Cx: Negative COVID/Influenza/EBV: Negative Brain MRI: wnl. Final Diagnosis: Exertional Heat Stroke. Discussion(s): No EVC protocols exist for the management of EHS or rebound/refractory hyperthermia. As a result, the protocol used for this patient was adapted from post-cardiac arrest cooling protocols. It is unclear if this adapted protocol contributed to his delayed cooling and rebound hyperthermia as it was not intended for this patient demographic/ pathophysiology. Furthermore, despite initiating empiric antibiotics upon admission, delayed recognition and tailored therapy for his bilateral ankle cellulitis may have contributed to the difficulty in achieving euthermia. In summary, more research needs to be done to evaluate and develop an EVC protocol for EHS. Outcome(s): Euthermia was achieved and maintained after 36 hours of continuous EVC, at which point it was discontinued. His CK, AST/ALT, creatinine and sodium down-trended after discontinuation of EVC. Patient's antibiotics were transitioned to an oral formulation for treatment of ankle cellulitis and he was prepared for discharge. He was discharged with regular follow-up with the Fort Benning Heat Clinic. Follow-Up: After discharge, patient had regularly scheduled visits with the Fort Benning Heat Clinic. His typical lab markers for exertional heat stroke were regularly monitored. He had continued resolution of his Rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury and hyponatremia with typical treatment. Soldier returned to duty after 10 weeks of close monitoring and rehabilitation.

4.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1911-S1912, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322458

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic which has been increasingly used in the post-operative state for pain control. Hepatotoxicity is a rare complication, and few cases are reported in patients with chronic liver disease. We present a case of acute liver injury from bupivacaine use in a healthy patient without prior history of liver disease. Case Description/Methods: A 68-year-old female with a past medical history of primary hypertension and recent nontraumatic complete tear of the right rotator cuff, presents to the hospital with fatigue, loss of appetite, and nausea. She recently underwent an arthroscopy of the right shoulder with repair of the rotator cuff two weeks prior. Her surgery was uncomplicated, and patient was started on bupivacaine ONQ pump infusion at 5 ml/hr for three days for post-operative pain. Further history reveals patient is non-alcoholic without prior liver disease, including cirrhosis. Review of systems is concerning for associated generalized abdominal discomfort. Physical exam demonstrated jaundice with scleral icterus with mild periumbilical tenderness to palpation without hepatosplenomegaly or ascites. Labs demonstrated elevated total bilirubin of 10.2 mg/dL with Alkaline phosphatase, ALT, and AST being 924 U/L, 429 U/L, and 279 U/L, respectively. Imaging studies including CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast, abdominal ultrasound, MRCP, and portal vein doppler were negative. Additional work up for underlying liver disease including acetaminophen and ethanol levels, SARS-CoV2, Hepatitis panel, EBV antigen, and urine toxicology were negative. It was determined patient had bupivacaine induced hepatotoxicity. Patient's health improved with conservative management and she was discharged with instructions for close monitoring of her LFTs. Discussion(s): Bupivacaine is an amino-amide anesthetic which binds to the intracellular portion of voltage-gated sodium channels and prevents depolarization of pain signals. It is metabolized by the liver and thus reports of hepatotoxicity, although rare, occur in patients with underlying liver pathology. Our patient became symptomatic with acute rise in LFTs. An extensive workup for other etiologies of acute liver toxicity was negative. Rapid vascular uptake of the drug is the most common reason for bupivacaine toxicity;and this remains a possibility for the mechanism of toxicity in our patient. A prior case report of bupivacaine hepatotoxicity demonstrated a cholestatic pattern, which is consistent with our findings.

5.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2230-S2231, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322457

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gastrointestinal tract involvement from herpes simplex virus is commonly associated with esophagitis. However, herpes simplex infection of the stomach is very rare with only a handful of cases being reported in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of herpes gastritis causing gastric outlet obstruction in an otherwise healthy, immunocompetent individual. Case Description/Methods: A 37-year-old male with a recent past medical history of COVID-19 infection, presented to the hospital with intractable nausea, vomiting, bloating, and early satiety for two days. Upon evaluation, CBC and CMP were remarkable for a WBC of 12.5 k/mm3 and ALT and AST of 124 U/L and 129 U/L, respectively. Lipase was 373 U/L. A CT abdomen/pelvis w/contrast showed circumferential wall thickening with edematous changes in the antrum consistent with localized inflammatory response. There was suspicion for gastric lymphoma and patient was admitted for further workup. An EGD was performed which showed exudative esophagitis and antral wall edema with luminal narrowing of gastric antrum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed a 2.5 x 3 cm antral wall lesion worrisome for linitis plastica. Esophageal biopsies showed focal cytologic changes consistent with herpes esophagitis. The FNA of the gastric antral wall showed multinucleation of the basal cell layer with classic ground glass nuclei, consistent with herpes infection. No dysplasia or malignancy was seen. Both HSV1 and HSV2 IgG were elevated. HSV IgM was normal. A HSV PCR was ordered but never resulted. Patient was started on Valacyclovir 1 g PO BID for 10 days. He underwent a follow-up EGD 3 months later which showed complete resolution of the gastric antral changes (Figure). Discussion(s): Herpes gastritis is extremely rare. Literature review has revealed only 3 case reports of herpes gastritis;and all involved immunocompromised patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of herpes gastritis in an immunocompetent patient. Our patient presented with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction which was caused by local inflammation from herpes simplex. It is unclear if having a COVID 19 infection altered patient's immunity and lead to herpes gastritis. This may need further investigation. No established guideline exists for treatment duration. Our patient received 10-day course of Valacyclovir, and his symptoms improved. Furthermore, patient had complete resolution of the herpes infection on follow-up EGD, indicating adequate treatment response.

6.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1954, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We report a case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) induced by cannabis gummies containing Corydalis Rhizome. Case Description/Methods: A 37-year-old female presented to her primary care clinic with recurrent fevers, night sweats, and myalgias for 7 weeks accompanied by eye redness, brain fog, headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. She denied rashes, tick-bites, cough, dyspnea, chest pain, joint swelling, or genitourinary symptoms. Past medical history was notable for IBS, migraines, and anxiety. She reported edible marijuana use four times a week, rare alcohol use, and denied tobacco use. She denied a family history of liver disease. Physical exam was notable for tachycardia to 110 and scleral injection with the remainder of vitals and exam unremarkable. Initial labs were notable for AST 61, ALT 44 and CRP of 12. CBC, BMP, urinalysis, ESR, blood cultures, blood smear for parasite screen, tests for Lyme disease, Babesia, Tularemia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, EBV, HIV, RPR, ANA, CMV, parvovirus B19, and chest x-ray were all negative. The patient was referred to infectious disease with further testing for West Nile, Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and COVID-19 returning negative. Repeat LFTs showed worsening transaminitis with ALT 979 and AST 712, alkaline phosphatase 88, total bilirubin 0.7, and albumin 4.9. Hepatitis workup including hepatitis A, B, and C, HSV, EBV, VZV serologies, AMA, ASMA, antiLKM Ab, acetaminophen level, INR, iron panel, CPK, TSH, and abdominal ultrasound were all normal. It was later discovered that her marijuana gummies contained Corydalis rhizome extract known to be hepatotoxic. Cessation of this drug was strongly advised. She was discharged with hepatology follow-up and underwent a liver biopsy showing patchy periportal and lobular inflammation with extension across the limiting plate, hepatocyte injury and apoptosis, and increased lipofuscin for age compatible with mild to moderate hepatitis. She had complete recovery after cessation of Corydalis-containing gummies. (Figure) Discussion: Our patient consumed '1906 Midnight', an American cannabis brand containing Corydalis rhizopus 100 mg, advertised to improve sleep, pain, and have a liver protective effect. A Korean systematic review on herbal-induced liver injury reported that Corydalis was the 3rd most frequent causative herb, with 36 cases. Although there are several personal accounts on social networking sites and other websites, there are no American-based publications reported on DILI from Corydalis. (Table Presented).

7.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2034, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321425

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Syphilis is a multi-systemic disease caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. Very rarely, it can affect the liver and cause hepatitis. Since most cases of hepatitis are caused by viral illnesses, syphilitic hepatitis can be missed. Here, we present a case of syphilitic hepatitis in a 35-year-old male. Case Description/Methods: Patient was a 35-year-old male who presented to the hospital for jaundice and mild intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. His medical history was only significant for alcohol abuse. His last drink was 4 weeks ago. He was sexually active with men. On exam, hepatomegaly, mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant, jaundice, and fine macular rash on both hands and feet were noted. Lab tests revealed an ALT of 965 U/L, AST of 404 U/L, ALP of 1056 U/L, total bilirubin of 9.5 mg/dL, direct bilirubin of 6.5 mg/dL, INR of 0.96, and albumin of 2.0 g/dL. Right upper quadrant ultrasound showed an enlarged liver but was negative for gallstones and hepatic vein thrombosis. MRI of the abdomen showed periportal edema consistent with hepatitis without any gallstones, masses, or common bile duct dilation. HIV viral load and Hepatitis C viral RNA were undetectable. Hepatitis A & B serologies were indicative of prior immunization. Hepatitis E serology and SARS-CoV-2 PCR were negative. Ferritin level was 177 ng/mL. Alpha-1-antitrypsin levels and ceruloplasmin levels were normal. Anti-Smooth muscle antibody titers were slightly elevated at 1:80 (Normal < 1:20). Anti-Mitochondrial antibody levels were also slightly elevated at 47.9 units (Normal < 25 units). RPR titer was 1:32 and fluorescent treponemal antibody test was reactive which confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis. Liver biopsy was then performed which showed presence of mixed inflammatory cells without any granulomas which is consistent with other cases of syphilitic hepatitis. Immunohistochemical stain was negative for treponemes. Patient was treated with penicillin and did have Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin down trended after treatment. Repeat tests drawn exactly 1 month post treatment showed normal levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin (Figure). Discussion(s): Liver damage can occur in syphilis and can easily be missed because of the non-specific nature of presenting symptoms. In our patient, the fine macular rash on both hands and feet along with history of sexual activity with men prompted us to test for syphilis which ultimately led to diagnosis and treatment in a timely manner. (Figure Presented).

8.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1944-S1945, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326578

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) presents as primarily lung manifestations with extrapulmonary involvement in immunocompromised hosts. Granulomatous hepatitis as first presentation of DH in an immunocompetent host is uncommon. Case Description/Methods: 25-year-old female presented with one month of fever, fatigue, myalgias, 30-pound weight loss, cough, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. She has lived in the Midwest and southwestern US. Presenting labs: TB 1.9 mg/dL, AP 161 U/L, AST 172 U/L, ALT 463 U/L. Workup was negative for COVID, viral/autoimmune hepatitis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and HIV. CT scan showed suspected gallstones and 9 mm left lower lobe noncalcified nodule. EUS showed a normal common bile duct, gallbladder sludge and enlarged porta hepatis lymph nodes which underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). She was diagnosed with biliary colic and underwent cholecystectomy, with white plaques noted on the liver surface (A). Liver biopsy/FNA showed necrotizing granulomas (B) and fungal yeast on GMS stain (C). Although histoplasmosis urine and blood antigens were negative, histoplasmosis complement fixation was >1:256. She could not tolerate itraconazole for DH, requiring amphotericin B. She then transitioned to voriconazole, discontinued after 5 weeks due to increasing AP. However, her symptoms resolved with normal transaminases. At one year follow up, she is asymptomatic with normal liver function tests. Discussion(s): DH is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum endemic to Ohio, Mississippi River Valley, and southeastern US. DH more commonly affects immunocompromised hosts with AIDS, immunosuppressants, and organ transplant. Gastrointestinal involvement is common in DH (70-90%) with liver involvement in 90%. However, granulomatous hepatitis as primary manifestation of DH is rare (4% of liver biopsies). Hepatic granulomas are seen in < 20%. Patients may present with nonspecific systemic symptoms. Serum/urine antigens may be negative. Gold standard for diagnosis is identifying yeast on tissue stains. Recommended treatment is amphotericin B followed by 1 year of itraconazole. However, shorter treatment duration may be effective in immunocompetent hosts. This case is unique in that granulomatous hepatitis was the first presentation of DH in our immunocompetent patient diagnosed on EUS FNA and liver biopsy. Clinicians must have a high degree of suspicion for DH in patients with fever of unknown origin especially in endemic areas regardless of immunologic status. (Table Presented).

9.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2117, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325639

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the US there has been a recent outbreak of adenovirus hepatitis in the pediatric population. However, to our knowledge, there has been only one reported case of adenovirus hepatitis in an immunocompetent adult. We have identified another such case. Case Description/Methods: A 25 year old female with no medical history presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and subjective fevers for two weeks and was found to have transaminitis 25-30x the upper limit of normal, which were: AST 791, ALT 542, ALP 92, and total bilirubin of 2.9. The patient reported no prior history of liver disease. She denied alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, or herbal medications, but did report taking acetaminophen 1500 mg daily for two weeks. Serum acetaminophen levels were normal and serum and urine toxicology were negative. US with doppler was unremarkable, CT showed cholelithiasis, MRCP showed a normal common bile duct without obstructive calculus. Autoimmune causes of hepatitis, ceruloplasmin and alpha-1 antitrypsin were all unremarkable. HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, CMV, HSV, VZV, EBV, HIV, and COVID19 were all negative. Ultimately, the serology for adenovirus was positive. After a week of supportive treatment, the patient's labs trended down and symptoms resolved. Discussion(s): Adenovirus is confirmed by a rise in antibody titer or by virus detection. Coagulative necrosis in histopathology is a finding in liver biopsies if they are pursued in unexplained cases of liver injury. Ultimately, adenovirus hepatitis can be diagnosed once all common causes of hepatitis have been excluded. In the current outbreak, only children have been getting adenovirus hepatitis. In adults, a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies contributes to immunity, and therefore only in immunocompromised states, do adults get such an infection. Supportive care with IV fluids, electrolyte correction, and antiemetics usually is enough with eventual symptomatic and laboratory improvement as it was for our patient. Studies have shown that extensive disease can be treated with antiviral drugs, cidofovir, and ribavirin. Our patient's history of acetaminophen use is a confounder, however, her normal serum level and her symptoms suggestive of an infectious cause made acetaminophen less of a culprit. We hypothesize that our patient's use of acetaminophen when she was initially exposed to the virus is what made her susceptible to developing adenovirus hepatitis and we hope this case adds insight for clinicians dealing with future adult cases.

10.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1213, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325262

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Biliary fistulas are a rare complication of gallstones. Fistula formation can occur in a number of adjacent sites;even more rare complication is the formation of a cholecystocolonic fistula. Case Description/Methods: A 74-year-old man who had recently undergone an extensive hospitalization secondary to inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) and COVID-19 infection. During his hospitalization, he required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation with subsequent PEG tube placement. He was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation facility when he developed worsening respiratory distress. Laboratory examinations were pertinent for ALT of 252, AST of 140 and ALP of 401 without hyperbilirubinemia. Blood cultures revealed Escherichia coli bacteremia. Given transaminitis and bacteremia, an MRCP was performed which demonstrated evidence absent space between gallbladder and hepatic flexure of the colon suggesting a CCF (Figure A). An ERCP with sphincterotomy was performed which showed extravasation of contrast from the gallbladder into the colon at the hepatic flexure (Figure B). He underwent cholecystectomy and fistula repair without any complications and gradual improvement in liver function test. He was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Discussion(s): Complications of gallstones are well established, which include the common bile duct obstruction, but also include the rare occurrences of acute cholangitis, malignancy, and fistula formation. CCF is a rare complication of gallstones which can occur in the stomach, duodenum, or colon with a variable clinical presentation. Complications from an undiagnosed fistula can be life threatening including colon perforation and fecal peritonitis. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge and the high degree of clinical suspicion involved in establishing the diagnosis of CCF in patient without abdominal symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease. We hypothesize that stone formation resulting in the development of the fistula may be secondary to the underlying history of IDP and subsequent immobility. Although rare, CCF should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pneumobilia and bacteremia. A timely diagnosis should be made to proceed with immediate treatment including cholecystectomy and fistula closure to prevent fatal complications.

11.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2049, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325173

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Altered mental status (AMS) is a common symptom in patients with liver disease with a wide list of differential diagnoses. Knowledge of etiologies of AMS unique to patients with hepatic dysfunction is vital in order to help recognize, diagnose, and treat the underlying cause in a timely manner. Case Description/Methods: A 46-year-old man with a history of recent COVID infection was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation of acute liver injury and AMS. On arrival, his labs were notable for AST of 408 U/L, ALT of 620 U/L, ALP of 5942 U/L, TB of 11.0 mg/dL, and an INR of 1.1. His work-up included an MRCP that showed segmental biliary ductal dilation with associated restricted diffusion and peribiliary enhancement concerning for sclerosing cholangitis. ERCP revealed a 3cm biliary cast that was removed and noted diffuse rarefaction of ducts throughout the entire biliary tree. A liver biopsy revealed centrizonal cholestasis with portal-based bile ductular reaction and mild bile duct injury. Despite adequate treatment of suspected infection and hepatic encephalopathy, his AMS persisted. His basic metabolic panel (BMP) was notable for Na of 143 mEq/L. A send-out lipid panel that was obtained to work-up his dyslipidemia revealed a total cholesterol of 1018 mg/dL, triglycerides of 420mg/dL, and the presence of lipoprotein X. A venous blood gas (VBG) was obtained showing a Na of 157 mEq/L and serum osmolality was 322 mmol/kg, confirming true hypernatremia. He was slowly treated with hypotonic solutions with significant improvement in his mentation. On follow-up one year later, he has persistent cholestasis and is currently being considered for liver transplant. Discussion(s): The final diagnosis was COVID-related ischemic cholangitis and disappearing bile ducts with persistent cholangiopathy, presenting with severe cholestasis, accumulation of lipoprotein X, and pseudonormonatremia. When faced with severe cholestatic liver disease, clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of accumulation of lipoprotein X and its association with hyperviscosity and spurious electrolyte abnormalities. Clinicians should rely on obtaining blood gas analyses for accurate electrolyte measurement in such cholestatic patients as blood gas analyses utilize direct ion-sensitive electrodes (ISE) to measure electrolytes, whereas routine basic metabolic panels utilize indirect ISE that are liable to spurious results in the presence of hyperlipoproteinemia/lipoprotein X.

12.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(4):937-938, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319312

ABSTRACT

Purpose of study Introduction COVID-19 emerged at the end of 2019 as an epidemic of respiratory disease in Wuhan, China that later spread globally and was declared as pandemic. The common clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection include fever, cough, myalgias, headache, sore throat, anosmia, nasal congestion, fatigue and chest pain. The most serious complications include bilateral multifocal pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Acute pancreatitis is rarely reported in association with COVID-19 infection. We report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection. Case Report: A 69-year-old man with past medical history of hyperlipidemia and seizure disorder presented with two days of epigastric pain radiating to back. The patient reported fever, malaise and dry cough for the last 3 days. Home medication included atorvastatin and carbamazepine for 10 and 15 years respectively. The patient denied smoking and alcohol use. COVID- 19 PCR was positive. Labs showed WBC of 3800/muL, hgb 11.8 g/dL, calcium 8.4 mg/dL , lipase 426 U/L, D-Dimer 179 ng/ml DDU, High sensitivity C-reactive protein 27.5 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L) ALT 26 U/L, AST 31 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 103 U/L and total bilirubin 0.3 mg/dL. Ultrasound of the right upper quadrant and CT abdomen showed normal pancreas, common bile duct and gallbladder with no evidence of gallstones. Triglyceride level was 70 mg/dL (<149 mg/dL) on the lipid panel. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis and received treatment with IV fluids and pain medication. The symptoms improved gradually and the patient was discharged home with resumption of home medications. Methods used Case Report Summary of results The common differentials for acute pancreatitis include alcohol use, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, viral infections like mumps and measles, hypercalcemia and medication-related, etc. Normal AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin along with absence of gallstones and normal common bile duct ruled out alcoholic and biliary pancreatitis. Normal calcium level and triglyceride level rule out hypercalcemia and hypertriglyceridemia as the cause of pancreatitis. Carbamazepine has rarely been reported to cause acute pancreatitis typically soon after the initiating the therapy or with increase in the dose. The use of carbamazepine for more than 15 years without any recent dose change makes this unlikely as the cause of pancreatitis. The onset of acute pancreatitis during the timeline of COVID-19 constitutional symptoms and absence of other risk factors suggests that COVID-19 infection is responsible for acute pancreatitis in our patient. Conclusions We report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection. Further studies are warranted to better understand the etiology and the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection.

13.
Endocrine Practice ; 29(5 Supplement):S33, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319050

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis (HTP) is a variant of pancreatitis requiring unique management. The complications of COVID-19 and its treatments can make HTP therapy more nuanced. This case describes a patient who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with HTP, and COVID-19. The patient developed renal and respiratory failure, necessitating hemodialysis (HD) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), complicating an otherwise straightforward medical management plan. Case Description: A morbidly obese (BMI 38.9 kg/m2) 43-year-old male presented to an outside hospital with abdominal pain, and vomiting, and was found to have HTP with triglycerides (TG) >2000 mg/dL (<149 mg/dL) and presumed new-onset type 2 Diabetes (HbA1c 10.9%) with DKA. Treatment with fluids, intravenous (IV) insulin infusion and plasmapheresis were initiated. He developed hypoxia after receiving over 17 liters of fluids and was intubated, subsequently developing renal failure and was transferred to our tertiary center for HD and ECMO. On admission, he tested positive for COVID-19, rhabdomyolysis [creatinine kinase 5600 U/L (30-200 U/L)], HTP [TG 783 mg/dL (<149 mg/dL), lipase 461 U/l (7-60 U/L)], glucose 269 mg/dL (not in DKA), transaminitis [AST 184 U/L (4-40 U/L), ALT 61 U/L (4-41 U/L)] and renal failure (GFR 10 ml/min/1.73m2). IV insulin infusion was initiated for hyperglycemia worsened by COVID-19 dexamethasone treatment. Plasmapheresis was performed twice with minimal effect at maintaining a low TG. Fenofibrate was not initiated due to renal failure;Lovaza could not be given via oral gastric tube;Atorvastatin was attempted once rhabdomyolysis resolved, with subsequent worsening of liver function tests. Heparin infusion was initiated for deep vein thrombosis treatment and HTP but was stopped after development of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The patient developed worsening hypoglycemia requiring cessation of IV insulin, hypotension requiring maximum pressor support, and worsening sepsis leading to his death. Discussion(s): This case illustrates the challenges of managing a patient with HTP and COVID-19. It demonstrates how a normally straightforward treatment algorithm can become increasingly complex when factoring the patient's comorbid conditions. The case highlights the importance of knowing both treatment indications and contraindications for HTP. In this case, HTP may have been the initial diagnosis, straightforward for most endocrinologists, but its treatments and comorbid conditions ultimately made the landscape more challenging, limiting effective management and ultimately leading to this patient's demise.Copyright © 2023

14.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(4):5-11, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318163

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the impact of obesity and overweight on the course of COVID-19. Patients and methods. This prospective study included 218 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection aged 18 to 94 years hospitalized between June 2020 and March 2021. We evaluated their clinical and laboratory parameters and their association with body weight. All patients were divided into 3 groups depending on their body mass index (BMI). Group 1 included 81 patients with grade 1-3 obesity (BMI >=30);group 2 comprised 71 overweight patients (BMI >=25 and <30);group 3 included 66 patients with normal body weight (BMI >=18.5 and <25). We analyzed clinical symptoms (including shortness of breath, fever, myalgia, headache, fatigue, changes in the oropharynx, cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, anosmia, and diarrhea), prevalence of concomitant disorders and complications, findings of computed tomography and pulse oximetry, and findings of instrumental and laboratory examinations (complete blood count, urine test, electrocardiography, echo cardiography, biochemical assays, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin index, D-dimer, ferritin). Data analysis was performed using the Statistica 6.0 software. Results. We found that overweight and obese patients were more likely to have the main COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities than those with normal weight. Overweight and obese patients also required respiratory support more frequently than patients with normal weight. Obese and overweight patients had more severe systemic inflammation (CRP, procalcitonin), cytolysis (ALT, AST), and thrombosis (D-dimer). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that obesity and overweight are the factors associated with a more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which should be considered when planning their treatment and developing resource strategies.Copyright © 2022, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

15.
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry ; 47(Supplement 1):51-52, 2022.
Article in English, Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317510

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A new type of coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, caused the Covid-19 (SARS-COV2) pandemic. Common cold symptoms are seen, but in more severe cases, pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, multi-organ failure are seen, and it causes death in the course of time. In this study, among the laboratory parameters followed in cases diagnosed with Covid-19 and followed in home isolation, service and intensive care unit;It is aimed to retrospectively evaluate CRP, procalcitonin, ferritin, D-Dimer, fibrinogen AST, ALT and LDH levels with ROC and other statistical analyzes in terms of predicting mortality in the treatment and follow-up of the disease. Materials-Methods: Between 01.04.2020 and 01.10.2020, the patients who applied to Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Medical Faculty Hospital with cold symptoms and were diagnosed with Covid-19 with RT-PCR positivity, were analyzed from Covid-19 infected serum and plasma. The results of the biomarkers were examined. Demographic data, vital signs and laboratory findings of the cases were compared. The results were statistically evaluated with the SPSS 22.0 package program. Result(s): 300 cases who received home isolation, service and supportive treatment in the intensive care unit were included in the study. Crp, Pct, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen, LDH, AST and ALT values were found to be statistically significant. According to the results of ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis performed to determine the predictive values of laboratory parameters that were significant as a result of univariate statistical analysis, Crp (0.890775), Pct (0.86795), D-dimer (0.856975), ferritin (0.836975), LDH (0.7829), fibrinogen (0.773925), AST (0.685925) and ALT (0.594025) were found. Conclusion(s): The high mutation ability of SARS-CoV-2 makes it difficult to control the pandemic. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease has gained importance for the treatment of patients with high mortality risk. According to the ROC results we obtained in this study, it supports that CRP, Procalcitonin, Ferritin, D-dimer and LDH levels can be used as effective parameters in determining the prognosis and mortality risk in Covid-19 patients.

16.
Endocrine Practice ; 29(5 Supplement):S29, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317037

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The association between worse COVID-19 outcomes and diabetes has been well-established in the literature. However, with more cases of new-onset diabetes and pancreatitis being reported with or after COVID-19 infection, it poses the question if there is a causal relationship between them. Case Description: 31 y/o female with COVID-19 infection 4-6 weeks ago with moderate symptoms (not requiring hospital admission or monoclonal ab), presented to ED with bandlike epigastric pain radiating to back, which is worsened with food, associated with nausea, vomiting, polyuria, and fatigue. Workup showed lipase 232, AST 180, ALT 256. Blood glucose was 281 and HbA1c was 12. CT A/P showed post cholecystectomy status, normal pancreas with mesenteric adenitis. MRCP showed hepatic steatosis with trace fluid around the pancreas s/o inflammation, and no evidence of choledocholithiasis or biliary dilatation. She denied alcohol use and autoimmune workup for pancreatitis was unremarkable. Islet cell antibodies were negative. The patient improved with fluid resuscitation and was discharged home on insulin with plans to transition to oral agents outpatient. Discussion(s): Long COVID is defined as a range of conditions or symptoms in patients recovering from COVID-19, lasting beyond 4 weeks after infection. A retrospective cohort study showed increased new-onset diabetes incidence in patients after COVID-19. This was redemonstrated in a systematic review and meta-analysis that showed a 14.4% increased proportion of new diagnoses of diabetes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Possible pathophysiology that have been attributed to this include undiagnosed pre-existing diabetes, hyperglycemia secondary to acute illness and stress from increased inflammatory markers during the cytokine storm, the effect of viral infections on the pancreas, and concurrent steroid use in patients with severe respiratory disease. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 receptors is thought to the other mechanism by which COVID can cause pancreatitis and hyperglycemia. Study showed increased lipase and amylase levels in patients with COVID and the increase in serum levels was proportional to the severity of the disease. Patients who died due to COVID-19 were also found to have degeneration of the islet cells. While, several studies have showed new onset diabetes and pancreatitis during an active COVID infections, we need larger cohort studies to comment on its true association or causation, especially in patients with long COVID symptoms. As more cases of new onset diabetes and pancreatitis with COVID-19 are being reported, there may be a need for more frequent blood sugar monitoring during the recovery phase of COVID-19.Copyright © 2023

17.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 78(Supplement 111):302-303, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2306673

ABSTRACT

Background: After infection with SARS-CoV- 2 is observed short-term and long-term post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). A systematic review of 57 studies comprising more than 250 000 survivors of COVID-19 indicates that more than half of COVID-19 survivors experienced PASC 6 months after recovery. The most common PASC involved functional mobility impairments, pulmonary abnormalities, and mental health disorders [Groff D et al]. It has been suggested that co-infection of SARS-CoV- 2 with EBV or other herpes viruses (HSV1 / 2, HHV6, CMV) contributes to both severe COVID-19 and post-COVID symptoms. Method(s): 88 patients with the post-COVID- 19 condition were examined, including 52.3 % female, 47.7 % male, mean age 41.4 +/- 6.7 years. Patients underwent the following studies: anamnestic, clinical, general laboratory, biochemical and immunological analysis. PCR DNA of EBV, HHV6, CMV in blood, saliva, and the posterior pharyngeal mucosa was performed by Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, Australia) and EBNA-IgG, VCAEBV-IgG, HHV6-IgG was performed by ELISA. Result(s): There were 2 groups of patients: the first included 68 patients with the post-COVID- 19 condition and active phase of herpesviruses. They were found positive EBV DNA -in 29 (42.6%) patients, positive HHV6 DNA -17 (25.0%) patients, positive EBV DNA, and HHV6 -in 22 (32, 4%) patients;the second group included 20 patients with the post-COVID- 19 condition and latent phase of herpesviruses and negative DNA EBV and/or HHV6 were found. In patients of the first group compared with the second group, patients were found COVID-19 had a severe course, pneumonia was diagnosed more often (77.9% vs. 40.0%), patients needed oxygen support and inpatient treatment lasted longer (16 +/- 7 vs. 10 +/- 4 days). In the first group patients compared with the second group patients were subfebrile temperature, headache, irritability, depression, myalgia, arthralgia, shortness of breath (p < 0.05). In patients of the first group compared with the second group in serum blood, we found elevated ESR, lymphopenia, monocytosis, increased activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, CRP, D-dimer (p < 0.05) Conclusion(s): 1. Reactivation of herpesvirus infections is common in 72.3% of patients with the post-COVID- 19 condition: the EBV DNA positive were found in 42,6% of patients, the HHV6 DNA positive in 25,0% of patients, and EBV+HHV6 DNA positive in 32,4% of patients. 2. Patients with the post-COVID- 19 condition and reactivation of herpesviruses were characterized by severe COVID-19, manifestations of subfebrile, impaired mobility, mental disorders, and pulmonary abnormalities, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. 3. Our studies confirm the possible participation of reactivated herpesvirus infections (EBV, HHV6) in the formation of post-COVID- 19 conditions, which suggests the need for diagnosis of these infections and specific treatment. (Figure Presented).

18.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 18(4 Supplement):S47-S48, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2298775

ABSTRACT

Background Taletrectinib is a potent, next-generation, CNS-active, ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with selectivity over TRKB. In previous reports from TRUST-I, taletrectinib showed meaningful clinical efficacy and was well tolerated in pts with ROS1+ NSCLC (n = 109) regardless of crizotinib (CRZ) pretreatment status. We report updated efficacy and safety data with ~1.5 yr follow-up. Methods TRUST-I is a multicenter, open-label, single-arm study with two cohorts: ROS1 TKI-naive and CRZ-pretreated. Pts in both cohorts received taletrectinib 600 mg QD. Key study endpoints included IRC-confirmed ORR (cORR), DoR, disease control rate (DCR), PFS, and safety. A pooled analysis of ORR, PFS, and safety including pts from additional clinical trials was also conducted. Results In the 109 pts from TRUST-I (enrolled prior to Feb 2022) the median follow-up was 18.0 mo in TKI-naive (n = 67) and 16.9 mo in CRZ-pretreated pts (n = 42). cORR was 92.5% in TKI-naive and 52.6% in CRZ-pretreated pts (table). Median DoR (mDoR) and mPFS were not reached. Intracranial-ORR was 91.6%;ORR in pts with G2032R was 80.0%. In a pooled analysis with phase I studies, ORR was 89.5% and 50.0% for TKI-naive and CRZ-pretreated pts, respectively;mPFS was 33.2 mo and 9.8 mo. In 178 pts treated at 600 mg QD, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were 92.7%;most (64.0%) were grade 1-2. The most common TEAEs were increased AST (60.7%), increased ALT (55.6%), and diarrhea (55.6%). Neurological TEAEs (dizziness, 18.5%;dysgeusia, 12.4%) and discontinuations due to TEAEs (3.4%) were low. Further updated results will be presented. [Formula presented] Conclusions With additional follow-up, taletrectinib continued to demonstrate meaningful efficacy outcomes including high response rates, prolonged PFS, robust intracranial activity, activity against G2032R, and tolerable safety with low incidence of neurological AEs. Clinical trial identification NCT04395677. Editorial acknowledgement Medical writing and editorial assistance were provided by Arpita Kulshrestha of Peloton Advantage, LLC, an OPEN Health company, and funded by AnHeart Therapeutics, Inc Legal entity responsible for the study AnHeart Therapeutics, Inc. Funding AnHeart Therapeutics, Inc. Disclosure S. He: Financial Interests, Personal, Other, Employment: AnHeart Therapeutics. T. Seto: Financial Interests, Institutional, Research Grant: AbbVie, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly Japan, Kissei Pharmaceutical, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Pfizer Japan, Takeda Pharmaceutical;Financial Interests, Personal, Other, Employment: Precision Medicine Asia;Financial Interests, Personal, Speaker's Bureau, Honoraria for lectures: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Covidien Japan, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly Japan, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, MSD, Mochida Pharmaceutical, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Pfizer Japan, Taiho Pharmaceutical, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Towa Pharmaceutical. C. Zhou: Financial Interests, Personal, Other, Consulting fees: Innovent Biologics Qilu, Hengrui, TopAlliance Biosciences Inc;Financial Interests, Personal, Speaker's Bureau, Payment or honoraria: Eli Lilly China, Sanofi, BI, Roche, MSD, Qilu, Hengrui, Innovent Biologics, C-Stone LUYE Pharma, TopAlliance Biosciences Inc, Amoy Diagnositics, AnHeart. All other authors have declared no conflicts of interest.Copyright © 2023 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

19.
Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya ; 86(2):18-27, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2292125

ABSTRACT

Clinical parameters characterizing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir were examined in a multicenter, non-interventional (before-and-after study design) trial in 264 patients with mild COVID-19. It is shown that on the background of 14-day therapy with favipiravir body temperature normalized, blood oxygen saturation improved, and the frequency of tachycardia detection reduced by 16% (p < 0.0001). A statistically significant decrease by 91,3% (p 0.0001) in the frequency of SARS-nCoV-2 RNA detection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa discharge was revealed. A decrease in the concentration of ferritin (by 69% compared to initial values), blood glucose (by 21%), creatinine (by 10%), C-reactive protein (by 36%) (p 0.0001), and D-dimer by 61% (p = 0.016) was noted. The results of the SF-36 health survey questionnaire revealed a significant (p 0.05) improvement in the quality of life in terms of physical functioning (by 35%), and role functioning associated with physical and emotional state by 107% and 160%, respectively. Analysis of the COV19-QoL questionnaire revealed a decrease by 24% in negative perception of the disease (p < 0,01). Among the identified adverse events, elevated level of ALT (in 39.47% of patients), hyperuricemia (in 28.95% of patients), and elevated AST (in 23.68% of patients) prevailed. All the adverse events occurred with mild or moderate severity. There were no lethal outcomes in the studied sample of patients. The analysis showed a satisfactory level of the tolerability of the treatment.Copyright © 2023 Izdatel'stvo Meditsina. All rights reserved.

20.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 41(2):468, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2293685

ABSTRACT

Background. Prior research has shown that viruses may trigger JDM, although the degree to which COVID-19 may serve as a trigger for JDM remains unknown. We present two case reports of JDM occurring after COVID-19 infection. We also provide case numbers of new JDM diagnoses pre-and post-COVID-19 as well as an analysis of JDM population characteristics pre-and post-COVID-19. A 5year-old female developed upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms and was diagnosed with COVID-19 in December of 2020. She developed Gottron's sign, heliotrope rash, and weakness resulting in admission in February of 2021. She had elevated CK, AST, ALT, LDH, and aldolase. Her CMAS (childhood myositis assessment scale) was 24. An MRI showed diffuse myositis. Myositis specific antibody (MSA) testing revealed a positive MJ antibody. She was diagnosed with JDM and started on steroids, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and IVIG with improvement. The second patient was a 4year-old female who was diagnosed with COVID-19 in October 2020. In January 2021, she developed heliotrope rash and Gottron's papules. She developed decreased exercise tolerance in May 2021 found to have elevated Aldolase and LDH. Her CMAS was 34. An MRI showed diffuse myositis. MSA testing was significant for a positive P155/140 antibody. She was started on hydroxychloroquine, steroids, IVIG and methotrexate with improvement. Due to the aforementioned cases a retrospective analysis was performed assessing the characteristics of JDM pre-and post-COVID-19 at Lurie Children's Hospital. Methods. The Cure JM biorepository houses clinical data, laboratory data, and patient samples obtained at the onset of JDM. The following information was obtained from newly diagnosed JDM patients: MSA, DAS (disease activity score), flow cytometry results, vWF antigen, neopterin, CMAS, capillary end row loop(ERL), LDH, Aldolase, ESR, CRP, IgG, complements, ANA, and age at diagnosis. We identified 10 patients with a diagnosis of JDM from January 1st 2020 -July 1st 2021 who were designated as the post-COVID-19 group. This population was compared to a total of 51 patients diagnosed with JDM between Jan 1st 2010 and December 31st 2019 who were designated as the pre-COVID-19 group. Data analysis was performed using Welch T-testing. Research enrollment was impacted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To better assess JDM rates, chart review and EMR reports were obtained to determine the total number of JDM diagnoses. Results. T-testing showed no significant change in DAS, ERL count, T or B cell flow cytometry, vWF antigen, CK, CMAS, CRP, Aldolase, LDH, IgG, complements or ANA titer between the pre-and post-COVID-19 JDM groups. The analysis showed a significant change in NK cell population with a decrease in the absolute NK cell number (pre 163, post 90.75. P value 0.03), and NK cell percentage (pre 6.6%, post 3.625%, P value 0.008). Both of the patients presented in this case report showed a low NK cell number (1% and 3% respectively). The total number of new JDM cases rose from an average of 6.3 cases per year to an average 9 cases per year from January 1st 2020 to December 31st 2021. Conclusion. This study provides two case reports of COVID-19 likely triggering JDM. This study also shows a modest increase in the number of new JDM cases since the onset of the pandemic. Interestingly, the NK cell population in the post-COVID-19 JDM patients were significantly decreased. NK cells have multiple roles in not only immune regulation, but also the immune response to viruses. This study suggests that NK cells play a role in the development of in virally mediated JDM, specifically in cases triggered by COVID-19. Future studies will be important to further delineate the function of NK cells in these patients. Markers of JDM disease severity, including DAS, Neopterin, CK, and CMAS, did not significantly change in our institution's JDM population after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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