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1.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 308: 103983, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated abnormalities and recovery in respiratory function after COVID-19 infection in an unvaccinated elite athlete population. METHODS: Measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). RESULTS: The most frequent reported symptoms were fatigue with 80% and muscle/joint pain and headache with 50%, whereas only 10% reported dyspnoea and 30% cough. During follow-up, MIP was up to 13% and MEP up to 8% lower following COVID-19 infection. Likewise, FEV1 was up to 2% and FVC up to 5% lower. While MEP and FEV1 rapidly normalised, MIP and FVC still remained abnormal after 52 days of COVID-19 infection, thereby leading to a restrictive ventilatory pattern. PEF seemed unaffected during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 decreases respiratory function in unvaccinated athletes despite reporting few respiratory symptoms and having mild disease. An initiative aimed at reducing the long-term adverse effects following COVID-19 infection seems warranted, which perhaps may be avoided through vaccination.

2.
J Sci Med Sport ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement after COVID-19 in competitive athletes at return-to-play (RTP) evaluation, following the recommended Italian protocol including cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and 24-Hour Holter monitoring. DESIGN AND METHODS: this is a single centre observational, cross-sectional study. Since October 2020, all competitive athletes (age ≥ 14 years) evaluated in our Institute after COVID-19, prior RTP were enrolled. The protocol dictated by the Italian governing bodies included: 12­lead ECG, blood test, CPET, 24-h ECG monitoring, spirometry. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) was performed based on clinical indication. RESULTS: 219 consecutive athletes were examined (59% male), age 23 years (IQR 19-27), 21% asymptomatic, 77% mildly symptomatic, 2% with previous pneumonia. The evaluation was performed after a median of 10 (6-17) days from negative SARS-CoV-2 swab. All athletes showed a good exercise capacity at CPET without cardiovascular and respiratory limitations. Uncommon premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were found in 9.5% (n = 21) at CPET/Holter ECG monitoring. Two athletes (0.9%) were diagnosed with acute myocarditis (by CMR) and another one with new pericardial effusion. All the three athletes were temporally restricted from sport participation. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis in competitive athletes screened after COVID-19 resolution was detected in a low minority of the cases (0.9%). However, a non-negligible prevalence of uncommon PVCs (9%) was observed, either at CPET and/or Holter ECG monitoring, including all athletes with COVID-19 related cardiovascular abnormalities.

3.
Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury ; JOUR(10):45-47, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2083864

ABSTRACT

Objective of the study was to develop and test a mental self-regulation optimization program for athletes under conditions of restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods and structure of the study. Participants were athletes (men and women) engaged in different sports. The questionnaire "Difficulties of self-regulation in conditions of self-isolation" and the questionnaire of self-government by Y. Kul and A. Furman were used in the study. A program of mental self-regulation for athletes being involved in training and competition activities has been developed based on the psychodiagnostic data analysis. The experimental group of athletes included the program in their preparation, control group trained in the usual mode. A comparative analysis of mental self-regulation among control and experimental groups was conducted. Results and conclusions. The effectiveness of athletes’ mental self-regulation in COVID-19 pandemic conditions depends on the level of formation of planning, self-motivation and volitional regulation. Classes on the program significantly increased the effectiveness of athletes’ mental self-regulation. The classes were aimed at improving goal setting, self-motivation of doing sports and persistence in difficult situations during training and competition activities. © 2022, Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul'tury i sporta. All rights reserved.

4.
Revista De Psicologia Del Deporte ; JOUR(2):48-56, 31.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081755

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the fear of sports psychology in the physical confrontation of Chinese Wushu athletes. This article profiles 40 Chinese students majoring in physical education, and social sports enrolled in a unique martial arts program. The age range is between 19 and 21. The causes of dread among 40 Sanda athletes were investigated using the research methodologies of literature data, interviews, and questionnaire survey. SPSS 14.0 statistical software was utilized to analyze the questionnaire data. Before two competitions following the experiment, students' psychological readiness was evaluated using a psychological exam. The length of the experiment was eighteen weeks. P < 0.05 indicated a substantial difference between the test and control groups to aid Sanda athletes in actual fighting. Provide theoretical support for the psychology of fear. Fear of harm, actual battle experience, and insufficient physical reserve are the causes of the fear of psychology in athletes, which can be overcome through a simulation-based training strategy. The management should develop the special sports quality of sanda athletes, rationalize combat and combat training, enhance technical and tactical skills, and bolster psychological training.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(12)2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080404

ABSTRACT

Conflicting results on the cardiovascular involvement after SARS-CoV-2 infection generated concerns on the safety of return-to-play (RTP) in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement after COVID-19 in Olympic athletes, who had previously been screened in our pre-participation program. Since November 2020, all consecutive Olympic athletes presented to our Institute after COVID-19 prior to RTP were enrolled. The protocol was dictated by the Italian governing bodies and comprised: 12-lead ECG, blood test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), 24-h ECG monitoring, and spirometry. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) was also performed. All Athletes were previously screened in our Institute as part of their periodical pre-participation evaluation. Forty-seven Italian Olympic athletes were enrolled: 83% asymptomatic, 13% mildly asymptomatic, and 4% had pneumonia. Uncommon premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were found in 13% athletes; however, only 6% (n = 3) were newly detected. All newly diagnosed uncommon PVCs were detected by CPET. One of these three athletes had evidence for acute myocarditis by CMR, along with Troponin raise; another had pericardial effusion. No one of the remaining athletes had abnormalities detected by CMR. Cardiac abnormalities in Olympic athletes screened after COVID-19 resolution were detected in a minority, and were associated with new ventricular arrhythmias. Only one had evidence for acute myocarditis (in the presence of symptoms and elevated biomarkers). Our data support the efficacy of the clinical assessment including exercise-ECG to raise suspicion for cardiovascular abnormalities after COVID-19. Instead, the routine use of CMR as a screening tool appears unjustified.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071449

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several restriction measures were imposed to control the virus transmission, with important repercussions on different sectors, including sport. This study aimed to explore the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Italian competitive swimmers by analyzing how the disease and the restriction measures affected their training. In total, 396 competitive swimmers (mean age 16.0 ± 3.2 years) participated. A questionnaire was used to collect their general information, to assess whether they had had COVID-19 and the number of training days lost due to the disease or to the closure of swimming facilities, and the possible alternative training adopted. Twenty-four (6.1%) participants had had COVID-19 and lost, on average, 32 training days. The closure of facilities caused an interruption in swimming training for about 18% of the participants. The majority of these continued their training, mainly through home-based exercise, but reduced their weekly training time (-8 median hours/week). A positive association was found between regularly adopted weekly training volume and that assumed during pandemic closure (OR 9.433, CI95% 1.644-54.137, p = 0.012), suggesting that the previous level of engagement in sport can represent a predictor of exercise maintenance in challenging situations such as a pandemic. Further studies are needed to identify personal, environmental, and social resources that can help individuals to counteract the negative effects of restriction measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swimming , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Athletes , Pandemics
7.
Retos-Nuevas Tendencias En Educacion Fisica Deporte Y Recreacion ; (46)2022.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067957

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 Pandemic has caused several high-performance sports activities to be suspended around the world. It is estimated that the obstruction of athletes' training, competitions and employment contracts have generated uncertainties and insecurities regarding the future of their careers. The objective of the present review is then to analyze the effects of the Pandemic on the psychic and behavioral dimensions of income athletes. The databases used for the review were PubMed, VHL, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 1,116 articles were found, of which 33 were selected using the PRISMA approach. The quality of the articles was obtained by applying the CASP scale. The following results were obtained: 1) symptoms of anxiety, depression, fear, bad mood, insomnia, eating disorders, lack of optimism and lack of motivation to train affected the athletes;2) demographic, age, gender, practice time and alternative training conditions influenced athletes' behaviors and emotional content during the pandemic;3) social support, resilience and emotional intelligence proved to be elements of attenuation of negative emotions and behaviors. It is concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic can be a negative predictor in the behavioral and psychic reactions of high performance athletes and these effects are influenced by age, gender, type of modality and the quality of the alternative training programs proposed.

8.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1103-1115, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067012

ABSTRACT

Ramadan intermittent fasting during the COVID-19 lockdown (RIFL) may present unique demands. We investigated training practices (i.e., training load and training times) of athletes, using pre-defined survey criteria/questions, during the 'first' COVID-19 lockdown, comparing RIFL to lockdown-alone (LD) in Muslim athletes. Specifically, a within-subject, survey-based study saw athletes (n = 5,529; from 110 countries/territories) training practices (comparing RIFL to LD) explored by comparative variables of: sex; age; continent; athlete classification (e.g., world-class); sport classification (e.g., endurance); athlete status (e.g., professional); and level of training knowledge and beliefs/attitudes (ranked as: good/moderate/poor). During RIFL (compared to LD), athlete perceptions (ranges presented given variety of comparative variables) of their training load decreased (46-62%), were maintained (31-48%) or increased (2-13%). Decreases (≥ 5%, p < 0.05) affected more athletes aged 30-39 years than those 18-29 years (60 vs 55%); more national than international athletes (59 vs 51%); more team sports than precision sports (59 vs 46%); more North American than European athletes (62 vs 53%); more semi-professional than professional athletes (60 vs 54%); more athletes who rated their beliefs/attitudes 'good' compared to 'poor' and 'moderate' (61 vs 54 and 53%, respectively); and more athletes with 'moderate' than 'poor' knowledge (58 vs 53%). During RIFL, athletes had different strategies for training times, with 13-29% training twice a day (i.e., afternoon and night), 12-26% at night only, and 18-36% in the afternoon only, with ranges depending on the comparative variables. Training loads and activities were altered negatively during RIFL compared to LD. It would be prudent for decision-makers responsible for RIFL athletes to develop programs to support athletes during such challenges.

9.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1095-1102, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067011

ABSTRACT

This article aims to summarize the effects of home training performed during the COVID-19 lockdown on physical performance and perceptual responses among team-sport athletes. Studies with comparison of pre-post lockdown results of physical performance and perceptual responses were considered. A search was made in PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. The PICO criteria were used for the keywords "athlete" AND "home-based training" AND "performance" OR "mental health", with their respective entry terms. The multistage process of selection followed the PRISMA 2020 recommendations. Of 586 records identified, 9 articles were available for the final process. Physical performance was evaluated for 8 studies with the VO2max change ranging from 5.7% to -9%; an increase in the duration of sprint test ranging from 0.4% to 36%; an increase of agility duration of 12.4%; a decrease in maximal repetition load of 2.9%; and changes in countermovement jump height ranging from -4.7% to +15.4% after home training. Regarding the perceptual responses, no significant changes in wellbeing and mental index and a significant decrease in motivation and perceived effort were reported during the home training in lockdown. Based on the articles selected, home training programmes performed by athletes from team sports during the COVID-19 lockdown presented inconsistent results in physical performance, decreasing by up to 36%, and maintaining the wellbeing and mental index, but with a significant drop in training motivation and perceived effort. Caution should be taken considering the small number of articles included in the study.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065989

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The aim was to explore the impact of adaptive responses (resilience factors) on student-athletes' behaviors during a stressful period of life during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic of 2020 and 2021. (2) Methods: A constructivist-based grounded theory (CGT) was used guided by a biopsychosocial approach. Based on purposeful sampling, 22 male and female student-athletes were divided into four focus group interviews (FGI) seven months after the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic (October 2020) and 18 of these were followed up by FGI seven months later (May 2021). The mean age was 17.65 and they represented golf and handball. (3) Results: The CGT contained four main categories seven months after the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic outbreak: Social support, Self-discipline, Physical practice and recovery and Management of everyday life. Fourteen months after the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic outbreak, four additional main categories emerged: More extensive social support, Belief in the future, Self-awareness and Responsibility and problem-solving. (4) Conclusions: The CTG suggests that student-athletes' favorable adaptations to the stressful SARS-CoV-2-pandemic period 2020-2021 are based on a gradually developed ability to take responsibility for one's own actions, insight into the importance of deepened social interaction, belief in a positive post-COVID future and increased awareness of physical activity and its relation to perceived health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Athletes/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology
11.
Psicol Reflex Crit ; 35(1): 33, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064865

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pandemic-induced lockdowns disrupted sport training and competition. We aimed to identify the impact on the mental health of high-level athletes and clarify whether the effects differ for team-based and individual athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey, stratified by sex and sport type, collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 274 Brazilian high-performance athletes (142 from team sports and 132 from individual sports) involved with the Brazilian Olympic Committee program for the Tokyo Olympics 2021. Depression, disturbed sleep, and anxiety were assessed by the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-Item Insomnia Severity Index, and 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale respectively. Responses were analyzed dichotomously according to published threshold values, characterizing the relative frequency distribution of prevalence (PCRS) or non-prevalence of clinically relevant symptoms (NPCRS). RESULTS: Out of all participants, 47 [17.1%], Z(274) = 15.38, p = .001, 32 [11.7%], Z(274) = 17.94, p = .001, and 49 [17.9%], Z(274) = 15.04, p = .001 had PCRS of anxiety, insomnia, and depression, respectively. There were no significant differences in the PCRS among genders. Compared with individual sport athletes, team sport athletes were more likely to report PCRS of insomnia (12 [37.5%] vs 20 [62.5%], Z(274) = -2.00, p = .046), and depression (18 [36.7%] vs 31 [63.3%], Z(274) = -2.63, p = .009) but not for anxiety. CONCLUSION: Athletes reported high levels of mental health problems during the lockdown. Team sport athletes reported worse symptoms of insomnia and depression than individual sport athletes, possibly due to the impact of unaccustomed social isolation and lack of social team activity. Therefore, it becomes relevant to consider psychological support to team sport athletes who for some reason, such as a pandemic, enduring crisis even injury rehabilitation needs to be isolated.

13.
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences ; 13(2):52-69, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057232

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of the candidate students in the Faculty of Sports Sciences, based on their gender, whether they are athletes or non-athletes, and whether they are individual athletes or team athletes. The study included 1083 candidate students, including 364 females and 719 males. The Social Distancing Scale and the COVID-19 Impact on Quality of Life Scale were used to collect data. The results showed that the degree of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures between athletes and non-athletes was also discovered to differ in favor of non-athletes;and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of athletes and non-athletes was similar, being below the average. The level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures in individual or team athletes was higher, and the negative impact of COVID-19 on the quality of life of both groups was below the average. There was no relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of athletes, and there was a weak negative relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the quality of life of non-athletes. Because these findings show that people who engage in movement and sports are less affected by COVID-19-related negatives, it is essential not to restrict people's movement and sports activities while taking precautions for COVID-19 and similar emergencies.

14.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 943402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055112

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Mental health consequences and behavior change has been described in elite athletes following the vast impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world of sports. However, most study samples have been of limited size, and few studies have assessed student-athletes. This study aimed to analyze perceived mental health impact, measured as clinical degree of depression and anxiety, worry about one's sport and about one's career, and behavioral change with respect to video gaming behavior, in high-school athletes in Sweden. Methods: Data on anxiety and depression as well as on perceived behavioral changes during COVID-19 were collected from students at sports high schools in Sweden (N = 7,025) in February 2021, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Sixteen and 14% met criteria of moderate/severe depression and anxiety, respectively. Many respondents reported feeling mentally worse during the pandemic (66%), and were worried about the future of their sport (45%) or about their own future in sports (45%). Increased gaming behavior during COVID-19 was reported by 29%. All mental health variables were significantly more common in women, except increased gaming (more common in men). Being worried about one's career was less common in winter sports, more common in team sports and more common in older student-athletes, and associated with both depression and anxiety in regression analyses. Discussion: Self-reported mental health impact of COVID-19 is substantial in student-athletes, and even more so in women and in team sports. The lower impact in winter athletes suggests a moderating effect of the seasons in which the COVID-19 outbreak occurred.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2096-2099, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054893

ABSTRACT

We performed prospective studies on respiratory viral infections among Team Finland participants during the 2021 Oberstdorf World Ski Championships and the 2022 Beijing Olympic Games. We enrolled 73 athletes and 110 staff members. Compared with similar studies we conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic, illnesses and virus detections dropped by 10-fold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the awareness of the volunteer pharmacy workforce of medication use and their satisfaction with the pharmacy services of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games from a pharmacist's perspective. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed from related articles in published peer-reviewed journals and modified prior to distribution to the whole population of pharmacists serving at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Validity tests were conducted based on expert opinions and Cronbach's alpha (0.79). The questionnaire consisted of demographics (11 questions), knowledge of medication use in sports (8 questions) and satisfaction on the provision of the service (5 questions). Responses using a 5-point-Likert scale, from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1), and two free text questions were analysed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The response rate was 86% (n=32/37). Overall, the pharmacists reported a high awareness of medication use. Specifically, questions on the prohibited list of medications (mean 4.0±SD 0.7), COVID-19 policy (3.8±0.9), use of alternative non-prohibited medications (3.6±1.0) and therapeutic use exemptions (3.5±0.9). Moreover, they rated high satisfaction with the pharmacy service they provided. However, rates were ≤3 for knowledge of the International Olympic Committee Needle Policy (2.6±1.0), Medication Importation Declaration (2.9±1.0) and communication skills (3.0±1.0). CONCLUSION: Pharmacists were confident and satisfied with the pharmacy service at the games. The study confirms the importance of prior training and education. Game-specific policies and strategies to improve communication skills should be included in the pharmacy education for future Games.

18.
CBU Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi ; 17(1):29-41, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040679

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic, which affected the whole world in the same time period, also deeply affected the perception and behavior patterns of sports participants. People have been subjected to great anxiety and fear with the epidemic. This situation has caused people to become alienated from each other and their surroundings. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports. The universe of the research consists of hockey athletes participating in the U15 Women-Men Democracy and National Union Turkey Hockey Championship, which is in the annual activity program of the Turkish Hockey. The sample group consists of a total of 165 hockey athletes, including 68 women and 97 men, who have agreed to participate in the study entirely on a voluntary basis from among these athletes. Descriptive statistics were conducted to determine the level of fear of Covid-19 and alienation of hockey athletes in sports. The homogeneity of the data was checked, the Independent Samples t test was used for binary comparisons, One-Way Anova was used for multiple comparisons, and the Tukey tests were used to determine the source of the difference. In the context of the relational model, the correlation method was applied We express the findings reached as a result of the research.;It was found that there were no significant differences between the fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports according to age and sports experience variables, there were significant changes in the level of fear of Covid-19 in the gender variable of hockey players and athletes had an average score near the intermediate level on both scales. As a result, it has been determined that there is no correlation dec fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports in this research.

19.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

20.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 18(4): 248-255, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030352

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of coping strategies among female track-and-field students of the first-third study years with different aggressiveness levels on the back of the coronavirus disease 2019-provoked self-isolation. The total sample of respondents comprised 360 female students majoring in Physical Education and Sports. All of them were enrolled in an online survey using the Anxiety, Frustration, Aggressiveness, and Rigidity methodology and Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced inventory. The study revealed that first-year students with high levels of aggressiveness focused on emotions and their expression under stress more often than first-years with moderate aggressiveness levels. Similarly, an increased concentration on negative emotions display was inherent to respondents of the second study year. The transition from the first to the third study year was marked with consolidation and strengthening of negative coping strategies used by female track-and-field athletes. This represents one of the central reasons for the deterioration of their psycho-emotional state during the quarantine. The most widely applied stress response tactics of female students of all 3 study years were associated with positive thinking, active coping, and planning (P≤0.05 with other coping strategies). Resort to psychoactive substances was noted less frequently (P≤0.01 with other strategies). As for the emotional component, increased attention to emotions' expression and seeking of instrumental and emotional support were also chosen relatively often. The problematic issue needs further investigation in order to analyze whether stressful conditions persist or have decreased.

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