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1.
Heart ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088827
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3.
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070691

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous advances in basic understanding of cardiovascular disease pathophysiology, pharmacology, therapeutic procedures, and systems improvement, there hasn't been much decline in heart disease related morality in the US since 2010. Hypertension and diet induced risk continue to be the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity. Even with the excessive mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2020, heart disease remained the leading cause of death. Given the degree of disease burden, morbidity, and mortality, there is an urgent need to redirect medical professionals' focus towards prevention through simple and cost effective lifestyle strategies. However, current practice paradigm and financial compensation systems are mainly centered disease management and not health promotion. For example, the financial value placed on 3-10 min smoking cessation counseling (.24RVUs) is 47-fold lower than an elective PCI (11.21 RVUs). The medical community seems to be enamored with the latest and greatest technology, new devices, and surgical procedures. What if the greatest technology of all was simply the way we live every day? Perhaps when this notion is known by enough, we will switch to this lifestyle medicine technology to prevent disease in the first place.

4.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069472

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation and associated comorbidities pose a risk factor for mortality, morbidity and development of complications in patients admitted for COVID-19. Objectives: To describe the clinical, epidemiological, radiological and analytical characteristics of patients with AF admitted for COVID-19 in Spain. Secondarily, we aim to identify those variables associated with mortality and poor prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with AF. Methods: Retrospective, observational, multicenter, nationwide, retrospective study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1 to October 1, 2020. Data were obtained from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) in which 150 Spanish hospitals participate. Results: Between March 1 and October 1, 2020, data from a total of 16,461 patients were entered into the SEMI-COVID-19 registry. 1,816 (11%) had a history of AF and the number of deaths among AF patients amounted to 738 (41%). Regarding clinical characteristics, deceased patients were admitted with a higher heart rate (88.38 vs 84.95; p > 0.01), with a higher percentage of respiratory failure (67.2% vs 20.1%; p < 0.01) and high tachypnea (58% vs 30%; p < 0.01). The comorbidities that presented statistically significant differences in the deceased group were: age, hypertension and diabetes with target organ involvement. There was also a higher prevalence of a history of cardiovascular disease in the deceased. On multivariate analysis, DOACs treatment had a protective role for mortality (OR:0,597) IC (0,402-0,888 ; p = 0.011). Conclusions: Previous treatment with DOACs and DOACs treatment during admission seem to have a protective role in patients with AF, although this fact should be verified in prospective studies.


Introducción: La fibrilación auricular y las comorbilidades asociadas a ella suponen un factor de riesgo de mortalidad, morbilidad y desarrollo de complicaciones en los pacientes ingresados por COVID-19. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas, radiológicas y analíticas de los pacientes con FA ingresados por COVID-19 en España. De forma secundaria, se pretende identificar aquellas variables que se asocian con mortalidad y mal pronóstico de la COVID-19 en pacientes que presentan FA. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y multicéntrico de ámbito nacional de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 desde el 1 de marzo al 1 de octubre de 2020. Los datos fueron obtenidos del Registro SEMI-COVID-19 de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI) en el que participan 150 hospitales españoles. Resultados: De un total de 16.461 pacientes en el registro SEMI-COVID-19, 1.816 (11%) tenían antecedente de FA y el número de fallecidos entre los pacientes con FA ascendió a 738 (41%). En cuanto a la clínica, los pacientes fallecidos ingresaron con una frecuencia cardíaca mayor (88,38 vs 84,95; p > 0,01), con mayor porcentaje de insuficiencia respiratoria (67,2% vs 20,1%; p < 0,01) y mayor taquipnea (58% vs 30%; p < 0,09). En el análisis multivariante, el tratamiento con ACOD tuvo un papel protector para la mortalidad por infección por COVID 19 (OR:0,597; IC (0,402-0,888; p = 0.011). Conclusiones: El tratamiento previo con ACOD como el tratamiento con ACOD durante el ingreso parecen tener un papel protector en los pacientes con FA, aunque este hecho debería ser comprobado con estudios prospectivos.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):7636-7648, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067318

ABSTRACT

Background:Speckle tracking echocardiography represents an advanced, noninvasive imaging modality that allows a fast and accurate assessment of the global and regional function of both atrial and ventricular chambers, independently from the angle of insonation and in-plane translational motion. STE is based on the interaction between the myocardial tissue and the ultrasound beam that produces particular acoustic markers. Objective:To assess left atrial strain and strain rate in patients recovered from COVID-19.Conclusion:COVID-19 may unmask subclinical Left Atrial (LA) dysfunction or exacerbate preexisting LA dysfunction. Moreover, recent findings suggested that COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure had a high prevalence of increased LVEDP. However, data about the potential effect of COVID-19 on LAcd function are currently lacking.

6.
Hypertension. Conference: American Heart Association's Hypertension ; 79(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064366

ABSTRACT

Objective: Decision-making in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised questions related to the disease progression in hypertensive patients according to their BP control and the presence of comorbidities or target organ involvement. It has been reported that HTN can worse the outcomes of patients infected by COVID-19. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and sociodemographic parameters in this population of hypertensives treated in Primary Care, according to the severity of the disease progression (mild-asymptomatic or those who required hospital admission). Design and Methods: Multicentric, observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and analytical study. The patients were selected through a random sampling in 12 provinces in Spain, among patients older than 18y with treated hypertension and COVID-19 (PCR positive) under the primary care scope (119 investigators). Data collection time was 15 months (IQR= 5), from November 2020 to February 2022, outside the first wave. Result(s): 1372 patients were recruited (51% women, mean age 67yo), smoking 12.5%, obesity 43.9%, diabetes 27.5%, controlled arterial hypertension 55.9% (BP<140/90). The severity of COVID-19 progression was: mild-asymptomatic 971 (71%), hospital admission 401 (29%), admission to ICU 74 (5%), death 48 (4%). Comparing the progression of the covid-19 disease of patients who requires hospital admission vs mild-asymptomatic, statistically significant differences were found between some comorbidities: COPD 21.7% vs 11.9%, p<0.001;Diabetes 33.7% vs 24.9%, p<0.05;Dyslipidemia 64.6% vs 57.9%, p<0.05;CKD 21.5% vs 11.1%, p<0.01;Stroke 9.5% vs 5.5%, p<0.05;Atrial Fibrillation 17.7% vs 7.2%, p<0.001;Heart Failure 17% vs 5.8%, p<0.01;Ischemic Heart Disease 13.2% vs 4.6%, p<0.001. As well as: GFR <60 ml/min 110 (27%) vs 140 (14%), p<0.001;ACR (median, IQR) 72 mg/g (10-118) vs 62 (7-115), p<0.05 . Conclusion(s): Among Spanish hypertensive patients in Primary Care, Covid-19 mortality achieves 4%. Some comorbidities such as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease or dyslipidemia, in which hypertension itself develop obvious vascular organ damage, results in worsening the outcomes of this population.

7.
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention ; 42(4):E50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063031

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a necessary transition from centre-based cardiac rehabilitation to virtual cardiac rehabilitation (VCR) to continue delivery of effective and high-quality care. To enhance risk stratification, an extended duration electrocardiographic (ECG) patch monitor was added to the intake protocol for patient's enrolled in a virtual only cardiac rehabilitation program. Method(s): The objectives of this study were to assess the diagnostic yield of extended ECG patch monitoring (DR400 3-channel monitor, NorthEast Monitoring, Inc., Maynard MA;5-day duration) and the effect on clinical management in a tertiary cardiac rehabilitation population. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients enrolled in VCR at a single site was performed. All patients who were enrolled in VCR and underwent extended ECG patch monitoring as part of their intake assessment were included. Risk was defined by the AACVPR 2020 risk categorization. Extended patch monitor diagnoses were reviewed for accuracy and classified as a new or known diagnosis. Impact on clinical management was defined as any medication adjustment, procedure requirement/recommendation, or exercise prescription modification. Patient characteristics, cardiac testing results, and risk categorization were described using basic descriptive methods including frequency distributions, and means and SDs. Result(s): Two-hundred and sixty-nine patients [mean age 61.7 years (SD 12.0) 63% male] out of 286 patients enrolled in VCR between August 13, 2020 and October 26, 2021 met inclusion criteria (Table 1). Two percent of patients were classified as high risk, 41% as moderate risk, and 57% as low risk. Thirty (11%) new arrythmia diagnoses were obtained from extended ECG patch monitoring. Diagnoses included one patient with atrial flutter and high-grade AV block, one patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and 28 patients with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (4-48 beats;11% symptomatic). Fifty-seven percent (n=17) of diagnoses were evident on the first 24-hours of monitoring and 43% (n=13) required extended duration monitoring for diagnosis. Thirteen patients with known atrial fibrillation or flutter were noted to have this arrhythmia present. Of those with a new diagnosis, 6 (20%) resulted in a change in clinical management (Figure 1). Conclusion(s): Extended duration ECG patch monitoring appears diagnostically and clinically useful when utilized as a component of intake evaluation for VCR. Furthermore, added benefit of extended (i.e., 5 day) versus the initial 24-hour period of monitoring was observed. Further evaluation is required to determine the optimal duration and clinical utility of asynchronous ECG monitoring as a component of risk stratification for VCR programs.

8.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(11): 4299-4301, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061799

ABSTRACT

Although pulmonary veins stenosis (PVS) is a well documented complication of radiofrequency-catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF), simultaneous involvement of multiple PVs is extremely rare. We present the case of a 69 years-old male patient, with prior medical history of persistent AF, who had been treated with RFCA two years ago. After RFCA, he started with shortness of breath and needed hospitalization for bilateral pneumonia. One year after the procedure, he was on home oxygen, but still referred dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed moderate right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction and elevated RV systolic pressure. Dedicated cardiac tomography for PV assessment revealed severe narrowing and pre-stenotic engorgement of all 5 PVs, with subtotal ostial occlusion of both the left lower and right middle PVs. PV angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Only the left and right upper PV were able to be wire-crossed and stented, with substantial reductions in stenosis from 90 % to 10 %. After 3 months of follow-up, the patient improved substantially, and home O2 was withdrawn.

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A2594, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060971

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Pulmonary Vascular Disease Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common form of thromboembolism which has a variable and non-specific presentation that can often be fatal. The Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) which includes hemodynamic parameters of perfusion has been shown to correlate with 30-day mortality in patients with acute PE. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to compare how lactate and sPESI perform in predicting clinical outcomes at our institution with the hopes of developing institutional guidelines for management of patients admitted with an acute PE. METHODS: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a new diagnosis of PE between the years 2016-2021. Patients were identified using ICD-9 CM codes. Exclusion criteria included current or prior positive testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). We performed univariate, multivariate, and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis to assess correlations between all cause mortality, lactate, and sPESI. Both lactate and sPESI were included as continuous variables. Our covariates included age, sex, Body Mass Index, prior or current history emphysema/COPD, smoking, CKD, diabetes, cancer, atrial fibrillation, and CHF. All analysis was carried out using software R version 3.6.3. RESULTS: Of the 161 patients who were included in the study, the mean age was 60 years (SD 17 years) and 38% (61/161) were females. 31 patients (19.3%) were deceased. Mean BMI of study participants was 29.9 kg/m2. Comorbidities included 9.9% (16/161) with emphysema/COPD, 44% (71/161) with active or prior history of smoking, 6% (10/161) with CKD, 12% (20/161) with diabetes, 15% (24/161) with diagnosis of cancer, 15% (24/161) with atrial fibrillation, 15% (24/161) with history of CHF. We found that in univariate analysis, both sPESI (p=3.4*10

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A2508-A2509, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060955

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Cases with Masquerading Pulmonary Symptoms SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: COVID vaccinations have been encouraged by many healthcare providers but many adverse effects have also been reported. The adverse effects of the vaccine can vary based on each individual. Common adverse effects of the vaccine included fatigue, fever, chills, sore throat, muscle pain, headache, rash at injection site. Pleurodynia, also known as Devil's Grip, is a viral myalgia which causes sharp chest pain or the sensation of a grip around one's chest. Pleurodynia treatment is mostly supportive like anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS), pain management, and antibiotics (if bacterial inflammation is suspected). CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case report of a 63-year-old female who presented with complaints of pleuritic chest pain worse with inspiration. She had a history of atrial fibrillation and HTN. Patient had received the Pfizer COVID booster vaccine a few days prior to onset of the pleuritic chest pain. She was obese and had a 40 pack year smoking history. She was on room air saturating 92% with no increased work of breathing. Lung sounds were diminished due to body habitus but clear. Chest x-ray showed low lung volumes with no evidence of acute pulmonary disease. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) chest showed no pulmonary embolism and small left partially loculated pleural effusion with peripheral airspace opacities abutting the pleura. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out and other cardiac workup was negative. COVID PCR was negative. Patient was treated empirically for bacterial infection with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. She was given NSAIDS to decrease inflammation and pain. Patient's symptoms improved significantly with treatment. She was discharged on NSAIDS and advised to follow up outpatient with her primary care and pulmonology. DISCUSSION: Research studies have indicated that the COVID vaccines (like Pfizer) can cause exacerbation of inflammatory or autoimmune conditions. Multiple mechanisms may be responsible for myocarditis, pericarditis, and other inflammatory conditions post vaccines. One mechanism describes that lipid particles of SARS mRNA vaccines can induce inflammation by activating the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome of mRNA which are recognized by toll like receptors and cytosolic inflammasome components leading to inflammation. Another mechanism explains that viral proteins can cause immune cross reactivity with self-antigens expressed in the myocardium leading to an inflammatory process. CONCLUSIONS: As per current literature review there are no case reports about pleurodynia post COVID vaccination but pericarditis and myocarditis have been described. Further research studies are indicated to assess the cause and pathophysiology of pleurodynia post COVID vaccine. Physicians should have a high index of clinical suspicion for pleurodynia when assessing a patient with pleuritic chest pain with a recent history of COVID vaccination. Reference #1: 1. Analysis of COVID 19 Vaccine Type and Adverse Effects Following Vaccination. Beatthy, A;Peyser, N;Butcher, X. AMA Netw Open. 2021;4(12):e2140364. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.40364 Reference #2: 1. Association of Group B Coxsackieviruses with Cases of Pericarditis Myocarditis, or Pleurodynia by Demonstration of Immunoglobulin M Antibody. Schmidt, N;Magoffin, R;& Lennette, E. Infection and Immunty Journal. 1973 Sep;8(3): 341–348. PMCID: PMC422854 Reference #3: 3. Autoimmune phenomena following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Ishay, Y;Kenig, A;Toren, T;Amer, R;et. al. International Journal of Immuno-pharmacology. 2021 Oct;99: 107970. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Olufunmilola Ajala No relevant relationships by Arij Azhar No relevant relationships by Louis Gerolemou No relevant relationships by Wael Kalaji No relevant relationships by Steven Miller No relevant relationships by Kunal Nangrani No relevant relationships by Gaurav Parhar No relevant relationships by iran Zaman

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A2217-A2218, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060912

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Post-Covid-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with either the acute or recovery phase of covid-19 infection affecting multiple organ systems requiring hospitalization. This syndrome has been described in both children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). Several case reports and systematic reviews have reported an association between post-covid-19 MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein report a case of a 27-year-old female with no known chronic medical condition and a non-contributory family history who was diagnosed with post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). She presented with generalized partial thickness erythematous skin ulcerations with tender blistering and painful erosion of her mucus membranes (oral and vaginal mucosa). This was diagnosed as Steven Johnsons syndrome. She was pulsed with intravenous methylprednisone. During this therapy, she progressed to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (fig 1). Bronchoscopy revealed mild pulmonary hemorrhage fig 2a&b). Serological testing heralded a new onset systemic lupus erythematosus in light of positive antinuclear antibodies, anti Ds DNA and anti Smith antibodies. Her course was complicated by significant proteinuria and an active renal cast suggestive of lupus nephritis. This necessitated further treatment for active lupus. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. DISCUSSION: We arrived at the diagnosis of post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) in light of her presenting with fever, hypotension, persistent sinus tachycardia and new onset atrial fibrillation), acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, elevation in transaminases, new onset skin rash, elevated inflammatory markers and a recent history of positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Covid-19 has been reported to induce wide spread vasculitis resulting in MIS-A or MIS-C by triggering type 3 hypersensitivity (1). Also, multiple case reports and systemic reviews have reported a direct association between MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases including SLE, SJS (2). The patient recovered with high dose corticosteroid and supportive therapy indicating her severe ARDS was most likely due associated to SJS, SLE and MIS-A. Clinicians should also keep in mind that SARS-CoV-2 PCR swab may be negative at the time patient presents with symptoms of MIS-A as the infection might have occurred about 4-5weeks prior just as in our patient(3) CONCLUSIONS: We cannot underscore enough the importance of clinicians having a high index of suspicion for this syndrome in patients with acute or recent covid-19 infection, with or without a positive PCR covid-19 test. Early involvement of a multidisciplinary approach and appropriate management is essential to mitigate morbidity and mortality in these patients. Reference #1: Roncati L, Ligabue G, Fabbiani L, Malagoli C, Gallo G, Lusenti B, et al. Type 3 hypersensitivity in COVID-19 vasculitis. Clin Immunol Orlando Fla. 2020 Aug;217:108487. Reference #2: Gracia-Ramos AE, Martin-Nares E, Hernández-Molina G. New Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Following COVID-19 Diagnosis. Cells [Internet]. 2021 Dec 20 [cited 2022 Mar 22];10(12):3592. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700122/ Reference #3: Morris SB. Case Series of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection — United Kingdom and United States, March–August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Mar 22];69. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6940e1.htm DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Isaac Ikwu No relevant relationships by Anthony Lyonga Ngonge No relevant relationships by Alem Mehari No relevant relationships by Noordeep Panesar no disclosure on file for Vis al Poddar;No relevant relationships by Emnet Yibeltal

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1796, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060863

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced Lung Injury Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The most dangerous complication of amiodarone use is amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) (1). AIPT has no pathognomonic findings & is therefore diagnosed based on clinical suspicion & exclusion of other possible pulmonary diseases (2) CASE PRESENTATION: A 91-year-old female with history of CHF & atrial fibrillation on amiodarone 200mg once daily for approximately 10 years, presented for worsening shortness of breath for 3 days. On admission vitals were stable & pulse oximetry revealed a SpO2 of 89% on room air which increased to 96% on 4 litres oxygen. Examination revealed decreased breath sounds at bases, bilateral rales right>left. No clinical signs of fluid overload. Chest x-ray (fig 1) showed increased bilateral airspace opacities and computed tomography (CT) of chest (fig 3) revealed diffuse airspace opacities, right > left. Initial lab work was within normal limits. She was admitted with a working diagnosis of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP) versus COVID-19 pneumonia due to high suspicion based on her clinical picture. She received remdesvir, empiric antibiotics and amiodarone was discontinued. COVID-19 PCR was negative, patient did not spike fevers or had any leukocytosis & pneumonia workup was negative. Therefore we now considered AIPT. Gallium scan for AIPT revealed abnormal uptake involving lungs bilaterally consistent with AIPT. Patient was continued on dexamethasone, after which patient's oxygen requirement subsequently decreased & repeat chest x-ray (fig 2 ) showed a significant decrease in bilateral infiltrates on steroids. She was discharged home on 2 litres oxygen & prednisone taper for 4 months. DISCUSSION: The advent of the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 has made it further essential to diagnose AIPT correctly & to differentiate between these two entities. They have similar & non-specific features which makes this an even a greater challenge. Our elderly patient on long-term amiodarone use represents an at-risk group for AIPT (1). Her clinical picture was non-specific, initially suggesting CAP versus COVID-19 pneumonia. In our case, the consistent gallium scan findings confirmed the diagnosis of AIPT & enabled prompt anti-inflammatory treatment along with cessation of amiodarone which resulted in improved prognosis & outcome. AIPT should be suspected in patients taking amiodarone who have new or worsening symptoms with an insidious onset &/or new infiltrates on chest x-ray. Greater parenchymal activity on gallium scintigraphy scanning & the presence of lung biopsy findings can help further confirm the diagnosis (1) CONCLUSIONS: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes even more challenging to diagnose and differentiate AIPT from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, which can have a similar presentation (3). Early recognition of AIPT is critical to prevent or minimize its potentially devastating pulmonary effects. Reference #1: Martin, W. J., & Howard, D. M. (1985). Amiodarone-induced lung toxicity: In vitro evidence for the direct toxicity of the drug. American Journal of Pathology, 120(3), 344–350. Reference #2: Benassi, F., Molardi, A., Righi, E. et al. ECMO for pulmonary rescue in an adult with amiodarone-induced toxicity. Heart Vessels 30, 410–415 (2015). Reference #3: Macera M, De Angelis G, Sagnelli C, Coppola N, Vanvitelli Covid-Group. Clinical Presentation of COVID-19: Case Series and Review of the Literature. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 14;17(14):5062. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nayaab Bakshi No relevant relationships by Navjot Kaur Grewal No relevant relationships by Talha Munir No relevant relationships by Anusha Singhania

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1582-A1583, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060844

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Using Imaging for Diagnosis Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Point of care ultrasonography (POCUS) uses an ultrasound technique that helps physicians augment physical examination findings and guide clinical decision-making at the bedside. We present a case that became a watershed moment for internal medicine residents at Abington Jefferson Hospital to use POCUS for every patient with atrial flutter/fibrillation with RVR prior to initiating diltiazem drip. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old male presented to the emergency department with complaints of palpitations. He was tachycardic with a heart rate in the 150s, and his rhythm was irregular. His basic labs were normal;an electrocardiogram investigation showed that he was experiencing an atrial flutter with 2:1 and 3:1 blocks. Chest X-ray was clear. He was given IV metoprolol 10 mg twice without achieving rate control and then started on a diltiazem drip, which initially improved his heart rate to 70s with rhythm changing to atrial flutter with 4:1 block. However, he started to become hypoxic, requiring intubation and then hemodynamically unstable, requiring initiation of pressors. Postintubation CXR indicated bilateral diffuse pulmonary edema and vascular congestion. Subsequently, he had Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) arrest. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved after 3 minutes of chest compression and one round of epinephrine injection. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 10%. He had a right heart catheterization which showed a CI of 1.7 and elevated PCWP and RVP. He was started on milrinone for ionotropic support and needed norepinephrine, vasopressin and phenylephrine to sustain his blood pressure. DISCUSSION: Atrial flutter and fibrillation are routinely seen arrhythmias in hospital settings. Patients with irregular rhythm who are in rapid ventricular rate and normotensive are often given IV metoprolol few times and then started on a diltiazem drip if RVR continues. Diltiazem not only decreases heart rate (negative chronotropic) but also decreases ventricular squeeze (negative ionotropic). It is contraindicated in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Patients’ ejection fraction values are not always known, especially if they have never had a transthoracic echocardiogram in the past or prior records are not available. POCUS helps physicians and residents to access and estimate LV function quickly and augments clinical decision making at the bedside. CONCLUSIONS: Internal Medicine Residents at Abington Hospital have made it a part of their protocol to always perform bedside ultrasonography in patients with atrial flutter/fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate before initiating diltiazem drip to prevent further avoidable cardiogenic shocks. Reference #1: Fey H, Jost M, Geise AT, Bertsch T, Christ M. Kardiogener Schock nach bradykardisierender Therapie bei tachykardem Vorhofflimmern : Fallvorstellung einer 89-jährigen Patientin [Cardiogenic shock after drug therapy for atrial fibrillation with tachycardia : Case report of an 89-year-old woman]. Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed. 2016 Jun;111(5):458-62. German. doi: 10.1007/s00063-015-0089-9. Epub 2015 Oct 6. PMID: 26440099. Reference #2: Bitar ZI, Shamsah M, Bamasood OM, Maadarani OS, Alfoudri H. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients in the ICU. J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 Jan;29(1):60-68. doi: 10.4250/jcvi.2020.0138. PMID: 33511802;PMCID: PMC7847790. Reference #3: Murray A, Hutchison H, Popil M, Krebs W. The Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Accurately Measure Cardiac Output in Flight. Air Med J. 2020 May-Jun;39(3):218-220. doi: 10.1016/j.amj.2019.12.008. Epub 2020 Jan 14. PMID: 32540116. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Fnu Aisha No relevant relationships by Lucy Checchio No relevant relationships by Ans Dastgir No relevant relationships by Shravya Ginnaram No relevant relationships by Syeda Hassan No relevant relationships by Chaitra Janga No relev nt relationships by Rameesha Mehreen No relevant relationships by Rahat Ahmed Memon No relevant relationships by Binod Poudel No relevant relationships by Shreeja Shah

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A1167, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060784

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Infections: Issues During and After Hospitalization SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: We present a retrospective study at one of the largest public, safety-net hospitals in the United States to highlight the importance of codifying the impact of COVID-19 disparities in marginalized populations. We used the following metrics to draw conclusions: patient demographics, vaccination status, comorbid conditions, length of stay (LOS), readmission rates, and clinical outcome. METHODS: For this retrospective study, we used Slicer Dicer software (Epic Verona, WI), an Epic self-service reporting tool, to query clinical data and identified a cohort of 9,040 patients ≥ 18 years old diagnosed with COVID-10 at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta from 1/1/21 to 12/31/21. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. RESULTS: Of the 9,040 patients, 54.7% were female (4,942) and 45.3% were male (4,096). The cohort median age was 51 (range 18 – 100) and 80.5% were African American (7,278/9,040). Double-dose vaccination rate was only 24.5% (2,215/9,040). 38.3% of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were admitted (3,467/9,040) and among these patients 3.0% were re-admitted (107/3,467). The most prevalent comorbidities were essential hypertension (45.2%), diabetes (21.7%), and asthma (13.2%). Patients with these comorbidities were more likely to be discharged as opposed to being admitted. Patients with the following comorbidities were more likely to be admitted: Pulmonary hypertension (70% admission rate), COPD (64.9%), heart failure (61.0%), cancer (60.8%), atrial fibrillation (57.1%). Median LOS from admission was 4 days and there was no statistical difference among different comorbidities. We found higher mortality in COVID-19 patients with cancer (12.9%), atrial fibrillation (12.6%), heart failure (11.1%), pulmonary hypertension (10.1%) and COPD (9.1%) compared to patients with diabetes (7.5%), hypertension (6.7%), HIV (4.8%), DVT/PE (4.6%), or asthma (2.7%). When examining overall mortality based on self- reported race, we found that African American patients had a statistically significant higher mortality compared to Caucasian patients (p-value= 0.00454). CONCLUSIONS: Current retrospective study, which included COVID-19 patients with different comorbidities showed that COVID-19 patients with pulmonary hypertension have worse clinical outcomes compared to other comorbid conditions. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of investigating COVID-19 disparities in marginalized populations to better understand the impact in these communities. All individuals should be encouraged to get vaccinated against COVID-19, especially those found to be at high risk of severe illness such as pulmonary hypertension. In this retrospective study, we found higher hospital admission rate and worse outcomes in patients with cancer, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as higher mortality among the African American patient population. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by nicolas bakinde No relevant relationships by Suvrat Chandra No relevant relationships by Michelle Lee no disclosure on file for Mario Ponce;

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A1166, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060783

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Studies on COVID-19 Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Some co-morbidities and racial/ethnic groups are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Is there a statistically significant difference in baseline characteristics and co-morbidities among racial and ethnic groups? This question was explored in a descriptive study among patients admitted to Hartford HealthCare. METHODS: A retrospective review of 7049 patients admitted with COVID-19 within the Hartford HealthCare (HHC) System from Feb 23, 2020 to July 15, 2021 was performed via the COVID-19 Research Registry at HHC (an IRB approved registry of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 within HHC). Racial and ethnic categories were compared using chi-square test and multiple column proportions were compared using Bonferroni method. RESULTS: The cohort was comprised of 52% males with an average age of 65 years (SD=17). 20% were non-survivors. Race was reported as 61% White, 22% Other, 13% African American (AA), 2% Asian, 2% Grouped Races (including American Indian, Pacific Islander, refused or unknown). 23% of the cohort reported their ethnicity as Hispanic. The “Other” racial group is comprised of 87% Hispanic ethnicity. A significantly higher proportion of White was >80 years old (30%) as compared to AA (13%), Asian (11%) and Other (13%) categories. No difference in gender distribution was noted. White had increased proportions of CAD (23%) as compared to Grouped and Other groups (10-20%) and COPD (15%) and atrial fibrillation (19%) as compared to all groups (4-10%). A higher proportion of AA had obesity (15%) as compared to Asian and White groups (4-13%) and hypertension (59%) and heart failure (21%) as compared to Asian, Grouped and Other groups (39-52%, 6-14% respectively). AA also had a higher proportion of CKD (42%) as compared to all groups (18-35%). Those in the Other category (87% Hispanic) had increased proportion of diabetes mellitus (41%) as compared to all groups (23-29%) except AA and asthma (16%) compared to all groups (6-12%). A significantly higher proportion of Asian was on private insurance (42%) as compared to all groups (19-23%) except Grouped Races and had lower proportions or no statistically significant difference in co-morbidities. Highest proportion of Other was on Medicare/Medicaid (80%), followed by White (77%), AA (76%), Grouped Races (66%) then Asian (57%). CONCLUSIONS: This descriptive study found statistically significant differences in age, co-morbidites and insurance status among racial/ethnic groups admitted with COVID-19 at HHC. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Studies have shown disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on minorities. Review of our hospitalized cohort shows that perhaps it is not race itself, but rather a complex interaction between patient factors and social determinants of health that likely plays a an essential role. A more complete study looking at the social determinants of health and its impact on COVID-19 mortality would be helpful to direct community interventions. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jyoti Chhabra No relevant relationships by Jeffrey Mather No relevant relationships by Hnin Hnin Oo No relevant relationships by Oscar Serrano No relevant relationships by Joseph Tortora

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A1163-A1164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060782

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Studies on COVID-19 Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with early versus late mortality in hospitalized patient with COVID-19. METHODS: This observational study analyzed data of patients who died from COVID-19 at Ben Taub Hospital, a tertiary care County teaching hospital, between from March 2020 to February 2022. Demographic, comorbidities, laboratory values as well as COVID-19 treatments were examined. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had early mortality and those with late mortality (death ≤7 days or >7 days of admission, respectively). RESULTS: 212 patients with COVID-19 died during that period. Of these, 46 patients had early mortality and 166 patients had late mortality. 19/46 (41.3%) of the patients in early mortality group died within 72 hours of presentation. There were no differences between the two groups with regards to age, gender, ethnicity, or body mass index. Both groups were similar with regards to history of tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, atrial fibrillation, obstructive airway disease, cancer, liver cirrhosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. There were no differences with regards to COVID vaccination status between the two groups. Peak D dimer, peak C-reactive protein, peak ferritin, peak lactate dehydrogenase and lymphocyte nadir during the hospital course were also similar between the two groups. Patients in the early mortality group had shorter time from symptom onset to admission {3.91 days (SD 5.63) in early vs 6.85 days (SD 8.01) in late}. There were no differences between the two groups regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Patients with late mortality were more likely to have received systemic steroids (90.9% vs 60.9%), anticoagulation (94.6% vs 65.2%), remdesivir (75.3% vs 32.6%), inhaled epoprostenol (50.6% vs 19.6%) compared to early mortality, respectively. In addition to severity of symptoms and clinical condition at the outset of the disease, early death may have been related to not receiving some of these medications.1 CONCLUSIONS: Early mortality in patients with COVID-19 is associated with shorter time to symptoms onset and the lower likelihood to have received systemic steroids, systemic anticoagulation, remdesivir and inhaled epoprostenol. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Early recognition and intervention may prevent early mortality in COVID-19 patients. Reference: Sun, Q., Qiu, H., Huang, M. et al. Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province. Ann. Intensive Care 10, 33 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00650-2 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Muhammad Adrish Advisory Committee Member relationship with AstraZeneca, Genentech, GSK, Mylan, Sanofi Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with AstraZeneca, Genentech, GSK, Mylan, Sanofi Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Consulting fee Advisory Committee Member relationship with Regeneron, Amgen, and Teva Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Regeneron, Amgen, and Teva Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Consulting fee Removed 08/02/2022 by Nicola Hanania Research support relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Novartis Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Grant/Research Support Research support relationship with Sanofi Genzyme and Genentech Please note: 2020-2021 by Nicola Hanania, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Stephanie Stalcup

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A750, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060681

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: There is a growing volume of evidence of extrapulmonary manifestations of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly within the cardiovascular and hematological systems. In this case, we describe a unique manifestation of a COVID-19 presenting with a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade physiology with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old male with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation on warfarin presented to the emergency department with acutely worsening shortness of breath. Upon arrival, he was hypotensive, tachypneic, and hypoxic. Physical exam findings included jugular venous distention and muffled heart sounds. A transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated a large concentric pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology (Figure 1). Pertinent initial laboratory values included an elevated INR of 6.1, a prolonged prothrombin time of 61.2 seconds, and an elevated D-dimer level of 5.34 mg/L (Table 1). The prolonged INR was reversed with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). Emergent pericardiocentesis yielded 1.7L of dark-bloody appearing fluid. Pericardial fluid analysis (Table 1) demonstrated over 2.4 million red blood cells and 3,650 total nucleated cells with 94% lymphocytes. Cultures and cytology were unrevealing. Given the profound lymphocytic component, a COVID-19 nasal swab was obtained and resulted positive. Prior to contracting COVID-19, the patient's weekly INR levels were consistently at goal. DISCUSSION: The global pandemic of the COVID-19 continues to identify extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. A rising number of publications have implicated COVID-19 with causing myocarditis, pericardial effusions, and hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade(1). Hemorrhagic cardiac effusions are typically seen with malignancy, tuberculosis, trauma, recent cardiac procedures, post-myocardial infarction, and are also seen in Coxsackie viral infections. Multiple studies implicate COVID-19 interactions with oral-vitamin K antagonists as the cause of unpredictable INR's which can lead to spontaneous bleeding2. There are fewer than 10 reported instances of hemorrhagic pericardial effusions with tamponade physiology in COVID-19 patients;however, none of the other cases presented with a super-therapeutic INR. We are also the first to demonstrate a primary lymphocytic component of the pericardial fluid suggesting viral etiology. Profound coagulopathies in COVID-19 result in an increased mortality(3). CONCLUSIONS: We propose that based on the increase in publications of case-reports describing COVID-19 viral infections and hemorrhagic pericardial effusions, that SARS-CoV-2 should be added to the list of known viral etiologies. Further, COVID-19 patients who are systemic anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists should be monitored closely for abrupt changes in their INR. Reference #1: 1. Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sehgal K, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nature Medicine. 2020;26(7):1017-1032. Reference #2: 2. Camilleri E, Van Rein N, Van Der Meer FJM, Nierman MC, Lijfering WM, Cannegieter SC. Stability of vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation after COVID-19 diagnosis. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2021;5(7) Reference #3: 3. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2020;18(4):844-847. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Gregory Hicks No relevant relationships by Daniel Kissau No relevant relationships by Andrew Labelle No relevant relationships by Scott Mayer No relevant relationships by Dmitriy Scherbak

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A712-A713, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060673

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Involvement in Critical Care Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition in which the body's natural ability to end an immune or inflammatory response is defective1. COVID-19 also presents with severe inflammation, and like HLH, leads to significantly elevated ferritin2. We present a case that was initially thought to be COVID-19, but the patient was diagnosed with HLH in the setting of S. aureus endocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation, mechanical mitral valve on warfarin, type II diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recently diagnosed COVID-19 presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea. In the emergency department, he was found to be hypoxemic and in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. He had a fever of 39.3°C and his initial laboratory workup revealed hemoglobin of 11.9 g/dL, leukocytes of 5,700, platelets of 83,000, AST 35 U/L, ALT 34 U/L, CRP of 31.89 mg/dL, and ferritin of 1994 ug/L. The patient was admitted and started on dexamethasone 6 mg daily. The following day, the patient's blood work revealed a significant worsening of AST and ALT to 7280 U/L and 3319 U/L, respectively. D-dimer increased to 11861 ng/mL (DDU) and ferritin to 36,470 ug/L. On the third day of admission, his clinical status declined acutely as he became significantly bradycardic, progressing to a cardiac arrest after which he required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, and was transferred to the intensive care unit. A CT scan obtained revealed hepatomegaly of 22 cm and blood cultures were positive for S. aureus requiring vancomycin treatment. The patient was kept on dexamethasone due to concerns for HLH. Ferritin continued to worsen, reaching 50,749 ug/L. His sCD25 came back positive. Unfortunately, the patient expired on his fifth day of hospitalization after discussing with his family their goals for his care and switching his care to comfort only. DISCUSSION: HLH is a challenging condition since diagnosis is difficult and mortality is high. There are a few methods used to diagnose HLH. Usually, 5 of 8 criteria must be met, which was achieved with this patient. However, often the patient only fulfills 4 of 8 since many criteria are difficult to obtain such as bone marrow biopsy, sCD25, and CXCL9. A useful tool is the H-calculator3. Our patient scored a 180 indicating a 50-75% likelihood of HLH. Assessing the likelihood of disease is important since sCD25 and CXCL9 take time and if the patient is clinically deteriorating treatment should not be delayed. CONCLUSIONS: HLH is catastrophic and rare. Physicians should always have it as a differential diagnosis in patients with severe inflammatory states and elevated ferritins to avoid anchoring bias. If suspicion is high based on clinical evaluation and scores, treatment should not be delayed. Reference #1: Filipovich A, McClain K, Grom A. Histiocytic disorders: recent insights into pathophysiology and practical guidelines. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16(1 Suppl):S82-S89. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.11.014 Reference #2: Cheng L, Li H, Li L, et al. Ferritin in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Lab Anal. 2020;34(10):e23618. doi:10.1002/jcla.23618 Reference #3: Fardet L, Galicier L, Lambotte O, et al. Development and validation of the HScore, a score for the diagnosis of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(9):2613-2620. doi:10.1002/art.38690 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Areeka Memon No relevant relationships by Carissa Monterroso No relevant relationships by Carson Oprysko No relevant relationships by Eduardo Padrao No relevant relationships by Mouna Penmetsa

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A698, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060670

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Shock and Sepsis in the ICU Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The Lazarus Phenomenon, also known as auto-resuscitation, is a rare event where cessation of CPR results in a delayed return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The phenomenon was named after the story of Lazarus, who was restored to life four days after death. We present a case of a 78-year-old male who presented to the hospital for septic shock and had intra-hospital cardiac arrest with ROSC after cessation of CPR. CASE PRESENTATION: 78 year old male with a medical history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, stage IIIA NSCLC and COPD, presented for progressive dyspnea. He complains of feeling weak with loss of appetite and had a recent mechanical fall. Initial vital signs were temperature 96F, BP 141/78, HR 75 bpm, RR 18/min, SaO2 100% on 2LNC. Initial labs showed lactic acid 11.6, BUN 55, creatinine 3.7, CO2 9, anion gap 25, AST 2654, ALT 2120, ALP 159, total bilirubin 0.8, troponin <0.1, CK 399, INR 4.2, PTT 36, WBC 16.5, Hb 10.8, and plt 202. COVID-19 testing was negative. CXR demonstrated a retro-cardiac opacity consistent with previous diagnosis of lung cancer versus a dense consolidation. He was started on antibiotics for sepsis and admitted to the ICU for his metabolic status and shock liver. He remained hemodynamically stable for a few hours until a he had sudden onset of unresponsiveness with asystole. Code blue was called. Repeat labs demonstrated lactic acid 15.5, potassium 6.3, CO2 9. He underwent resuscitation for 32 minutes when compressions were stopped. Within 5 minutes post arrest, sinus activity was noted on the cardiac monitor. The patient had a radial pulse on evaluation. Manual blood pressure measurement was 119/71 with a HR of 99. Arterial blood gas after ROSC showed a pH 7.0, pCO2 68, pO2 273, HCO3 16, lactic acid 19. A few hours later, the patient rapidly de-compensated and underwent resuscitation for a second time. Efforts were deemed futile and the patient expired. DISCUSSION: The physiologic description of the Lazarus phenomenon is yet to be fully elucidated. Hypotheses include auto-PEEP due to rapid manual ventilation generating increased intrathoracic pressure and decreased venous return, delayed drug effect and stunned myocardium during active chest compressions (1). Once chest compressions and positive pressure ventilation via manual bag-mask stops, sudden decrease in intrathoracic pressure allows for sudden venous return and re-perfusion of cardiac tissue, resulting in ROSC in some cases. A recent literature review cited 65 published cases over the past 30 years with the most common rhythm being asystole (2). Most cases of auto-resuscitation occurred between 5-10 minutes post stopping of chest compressions (2). Mortality of these cases were 70% post resuscitation (2). CONCLUSIONS: It is important for clinicians to be aware of the Lazarus phenomenon post resuscitative efforts and to observe patients carefully post resuscitation. Reference #1: Adhiyaman V, Adhiyaman S, Sundaram R. The Lazarus phenomenon. J R Soc Med. 2007;100(12):552-557. doi:10.1177/0141076807100012013 Reference #2: Gordon, L., Pasquier, M., Brugger, H. et al. Autoresuscitation (Lazarus phenomenon) after termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - a scoping review. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28, 14 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13049-019-0685-4 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vincent Chan No relevant relationships by Mackenzie Kramer No relevant relationships by Nathaniel Rosal No relevant relationships by Laura Walters No relevant relationships by William Ward

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A628-A629, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060652

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Even though COVID-19 is the largest pandemic of the twenty-first century, little is known about the disease or its management. Remdesivir has demonstrated some activity against severe ARDS associated with COVID-19. There is a dearth of data on the adverse effects of Remdesivir. We report a case of a COVID-19 patient who developed bradycardia following the administration of Remdesivir. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old man, who tested positive for COVID-19, presented with shortness of breath (SOB) for a week. SOB was accompanied by a cough with tan-colored sputum. Past medical history included hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Physical examination showed regular rate and rhythm of the heart and diffusely decreased breath sounds. His blood pressure was 104/60 mmHg and his heart rate was 80 bpm. Oxygen saturation was 58% at room air. Significant lab results showed elevated CRP: 17.13 mg/dl, D-Dimer: 10.16 ug/mL FEU, Lactic acid: 2.5 mg/dl, Creatinine: 1.8 mg/dl, BUN: 60 mg/dl, and AST: 46 U/L. Chest x-ray showed bilateral patchy interstitial airspace opacities. Calculated Well's score of 3 indicated a moderate risk for pulmonary embolism. CT scan showed moderate bilateral diffuse areas of ground-glass lung consolidation concerning diffuse atypical infection. The patient was admitted to the ICU and started on CPAP with PEEP of 12 and FiO2 of 100%. The management included dexamethasone 6 mg oral for 10 days, Remdesivir for 5 days, and Tocilizumab given elevated CRP level. The patient was found to develop asymptomatic bradycardia with a heart rate as low as 40 bpm. An EKG obtained demonstrated sinus bradycardia without any heart block. Echocardiography showed mildly dilated right ventricle & mild aortic regurgitation. Bradycardia resolved after the last dose of Remdesivir. DISCUSSION: Remdesivir is frequently used in severe COVID-19 infections. The commonly reported adverse events affect the gastrointestinal and renal systems. The reported cardiovascular adverse events include hypotension, atrial fibrillation, and cardiac arrest. However, bradycardia is becoming increasingly encountered. Although corticosteroids are known to cause bradycardia, the patient we managed developed bradycardia following remdesivir therapy. The baseline EKG was normal and the history was non-contributory. Given the asymptomatic nature of the finding, cardiac monitoring alone sufficed. The heart rate picked up following the last dose of remdesivir further suggesting its causative role. CONCLUSIONS: Bradycardia is becoming more common with Remdesivir use. If the patient is not exhibiting any symptoms, cardiac monitoring alone should suffice;bradycardia is expected to resolve when the drug is stopped. Reference #1: Elsawah HK, Elsokary MA, Abdallah MS, ElShafie AH. Efficacy and safety of remdesivir in hospitalized Covid-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis including network meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2021;31(4):e2187. Reference #2: Taqi M, Gillani SFUHS, Tariq M, Raza ZA, Haider MZ. Current updates on clinical management of COVID-19 infectees: a narrative review. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2021 Aug;67(8):1198-1203. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.20210582. PMID: 34669870. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by AISHA ADIGUN No relevant relationships by Mobeen Haider No relevant relationships by Yousra Khalid No relevant relationships by Muhammad Hasib Khalil No relevant relationships by Aleena Naeem No relevant relationships by Zarlakhta Zamani

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