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1.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S365, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244375

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 infected over 150 million people and caused over 1 million deaths in the US. This study evaluates several variables thought to be associated with mortality risk in the COVID-19 population. Method(s): The IQVIA longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases identified 17,682,111 patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020-4/30/2022 from a population of >277 million patients in the US. Patients were linked to Veritas Data Research fact-of-death records (90% complete compared to CDC reporting) and confirmed deaths were flagged. Confirmed mortality rates (CMR) were evaluated by age group, socioeconomic status (SES) using the Area Deprivation Index (v2.0, University of Wisconsin, 2015), co-morbidities and COVID-specific (approved and unapproved) treatments. Result(s): Of the 563,744 patients (3.2%) identified as dead (3.67% in men, 2.85% in women overall), CMR was lowest in patients aged 0-17 (0.08%), highest in age 65-75 (5.92%) and >75 (16.40%). Patients in the lowest 40% of SES had CMR of 4.43% while in the highest 20% was 1.56%. Respiratory failure, pneumonia and sepsis were the most common acute diagnoses accompanying COVID-19 deaths in all SES. In patients with comorbid dementia or Alzheimer's disease, CMR were 21.62% and 23.40% respectively. Additionally, congestive heart failure (15.79%), atrial fibrillation (15.50%), chronic kidney disease (15.30%) and COPD (12.19%) were associated with high CMR. Among patients receiving approved therapies, casirivimab/imdevimab and remdesivir had CMR of 1.41% and 12.63% respectively, while for those receiving unapproved therapies, ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine had CMR of 2.54% and 2.45%. Conclusion(s): Compared to the 1.1% case-mortality rate (Johns Hopkins 2023) among US COVID-19 patients, we found CMR exceeded 3% among those with a medical claim for COVID-19. Advanced age, dementia, and cardio-renal disease were associated with mortality. Patients with the lowest SES had approximately 3 times the confirmed mortality rate compared to those in the highest SES group.Copyright © 2023

2.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 26(4):43-50, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243257

ABSTRACT

The number of people with long-term consequences of COVID-19 is increasing worldwide. The long-term prognosis for patients remains poorly understood. Objective. To study cardiometabolic and psychocognitive features in comorbid elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), de-pending on the presence of post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Material and methods. The observational analytical cohort study included 223 patients with AF and comorbidity (coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus) aged 60-74, who were divided into two groups: group 1 included 123 patients without COVID-19 and group 2 included 110 patients with a history of COVID-19 and the presence of PCS. The study evaluated laboratory and instrumental tests, and a general clinical study assessing psychocognitive disorders using the SPMSQ and HADS questionnaires was conducted. Results and discussion. In COVID-19 survivors, compared with patients of group 1, there were more pronounced atherogenic changes in total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.003), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.001), and triglycerides (p=0.011). Lower dia-stolic blood pressure was found in COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001). In addition, patients in group 2 had higher median pulse pressure (p<0.001) and heart rate (p<0.001). In group 2 patients, a larger ascending aorta diameter was observed (p<0.001). The anx-iety-depressive syndrome was more common in COVID-19 survivors with comorbidities, and a statistically significant difference was found in clinical anxiety (24%, p=0.041) and subclinical depression (21%, p=0.015). When assessing cognitive function, mod-erate cognitive impairment was detected in 22% (p=0.005) of patients with PCS and severe cognitive impairment in 2% (p=0.007). Conclusion. In comorbid elderly patients with the post-COVID syndrome, a high prevalence of psychocognitive disorders and adverse cardiometabolic changes were observed, supporting the need for long-term monitoring of the general clinical condition and psychocognitive status of COVID-19 survivors.Copyright © 2023, Media Sphera Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 4(3):529-532, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242854
4.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):70, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242443

ABSTRACT

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) were approved for use at the end of 2013 and have since been used for indications including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and mantle cell lymphoma. The use of BTKis has increased significantly in the UK since they achieved NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) approval for frontline treatment of CLL in 2021. However, they are associated with significant adverse cardiovascular events. In September 2021 the British Journal of Haematology published good practice guidelines for the management of cardiovascular complications of BTKis. Our aim was to see whether these guidelines had been adhered to for patients taking BTKis. Method(s): Data was collected for all patients being prescribed BTKis (ibrutinib and acalabrutinib) in the South Tees NHS Trust in July 2022. Patients' medical records were used to assess whether their management adhered to the good practice guidelines. Data was collated for 67 patients in total. Result(s): The data showed that although all patients were consented for the risk of atrial fibrillation only 6% were consented for hypertension and only 1.5% for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The guidelines recommend a baseline ECG (electrocardiogram) on commencement of treatment;however, only 7% had this completed and 0% had the minimum monitoring recommendation of 6-monthly ECGs. Thirty patients (45%) had an indication for a baseline echocardiogram;however, only one had this completed. For patients reporting symptoms of syncope, dizziness or palpitations only 50% had an ECG completed. Three patients developed worsening heart failure. The recommendations suggest referral to a cardio-oncologist;however, due to lack of availability of this service the referrals were instead made to the usual cardiologist. Conclusion(s): Although there was a lack of compliance with guideline recommendations, it should be considered that most usual checks were affected by COVID-19 outbreaks and a drop in face-to- face clinics, which were replaced by phone clinics and home delivery of medications. However, the premade consent forms for BTKis need to be updated to include consent for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. There also needs to be routine procedures in place to ensure that regular blood pressure testing and ECG monitoring occurs and that there is prompt recognition of cardiovascular complications. Action and implementation: To ensure improved compliance with these guidelines we plan to update our consent forms and create a proforma for clinic use to ensure that clinicians are aware of the various monitoring criteria required.

5.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S49, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242398

ABSTRACT

Background: Catheter ablation is a cornerstone treatment for symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) with major improvements in safety over time. However, rates of adverse events with use of current techniques in a contemporary quality-focused network remain undefined. Objective(s): Across a large, real-world sample, we sought to describe (1) rates of major, adverse events associated with catheter ablation of AF and (2) patient-level factors associated with complications. Method(s): Utilizing the REAL-AF collaboration, a registry of contemporary AF ablation procedures with granular patient, procedural and follow-up data comprised of cases from over 50 operators across academic and non-academic sites, we evaluated all patients undergoing their first ablation procedure from January 2018 - June 2022. Risk-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between patient factors and complications. Result(s): Among 3144 patients (age 66.1 +/- 11.0 years, 42% female, 67.1% paroxysmal, 32.9% persistent) who underwent AF ablation, procedure-related complications (n =77) were identified in 65 patients (2.1%) with multiple complications occurring in 9 patients (0.2%). Most complications (n=70, 93.5%) occurred in the peri-procedural (within 30 days) period and 6.5% (n=5) after 30 days, the latter of which all represented vascular injuries (Figure). Major complications (18 of 72 peri-procedural complications, 25.0%) are defined, detailed, and associated data reported in the Figure. Unadjusted (16.0% without CHF vs. 33.3% with CHF, p = 0.045) and risk-adjusted (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.03-7.60, p=0.045) analyses indicated history of CHF was associated with a composite outcome of major complications. Analyses of independent complications showed those who suffered from peri-procedural stroke (n=3) were of significantly greater age (77.3 +/- 5.5 years vs. 66.1 +/- 10.9 years, p=0.035). Risk-adjusted analyses showed history of vascular disease (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.02-8.20, p=0.045) was associated with vascular injury (n=18). From 0-695 days post-procedure, 31 deaths occurred (unknown cause: 17, COVID-19 related: 4, heart failure: 2, cardiac arrest: 2). Conclusion(s): Major complications represent rare events among those undergoing AF ablation in current practice. Risk-adjusted analyses suggest a history of CHF is associated with major complications. Similarly, older age and a history of vascular disease are associated with stroke and vascular complications, respectively. [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023

6.
Libri Oncologici ; 51(Supplement 1):30-31, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241174

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Croatian National Cancer Registry of Croatian Institute for Public Health reported that in year 2020 lung cancer was the second most common cancer site diagnosed in men with 16% and the third most common in women with 10% incidence among all cancer sites. Unfortunatelly lung cancer has the highest mortality in both men and women. Haematological malignancies had 7% share in all malignancies in both male and female cances cases. In 2020 190 newly diagnosed cases of lymphatic leukemia in men and 128 cases in women were reporeted, meaning 1.5 and 1.2% of all malignancies, respectively. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) is an advanced age disease and incidence increases with age. Impaired immunity, T and B cell dysfunction in CLL, chromosomal aberations, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and genetic factors can all cause secondary malignancies. Co- occurence of solid tumors and CLL is very rare. Although patiens with CLL have an increased risk of developing second primary malignancies including lung carcinoma, the data about their clinical outcomes are lacking. Parekh et al. retrospectively analyzed patients with simultaneous CLL and lung carcinoma over a 20-year period, and they found that ~2% of patients with CLL actually developed lung carcinoma. The authors claimed that up to 38% of patients will also develop a third neoplasm more likely of the skin (melanoma and basal cell carcinoma), larynx (laryngeal carcinoma) or colon. Currently there are no specific guidelines for concurrent CLL and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treatment. Usually, when the tumors are diagnosed simultaneously, treatment is based to target the most aggressive malignancy, as the clinical outcomes depend on the response of the tumor with the poorest prognosis. For this reason, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. Case report: A patient with history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was diagnosed in 2019 (at the age of 71) with B chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky tumor (inguinal lymph nodes 8x5 cm), stage B according to Binet, intermediate risk. He was treated with 6 cycles of chemoimmunotherapy (rituximab/cyclofosfamid/fludarabine). In 10/2019 remission was confirmed, but MSCT described tumor in the posterior segment of upper right lung lobe measuring 20x17 mm and bilateral metastases up to 11 mm. Bronchoscopy and biopsy were performed, and EGFR neg, ALK neg, ROS 1 neg, PD-L1>50% adenocarcinoma was confirmed. He was referred to Clinical Hospital Center Osijek where monotherapy with pembrolizumab in a standard dose of 200 mg intravenously was started in 01/2020. Partial remission was confirmed in October 2020. Immunotherapy was discontinued due to development of pneumonitis, dysphagia and severe weight loss (20kg), but without radiologically confirmed disease progression. At that time he was referred to our hospital for further treatment. Gastroscopy has shown erosive gastritis with active duodenal ulcus, Forrest III. Supportive therapy and proton pump inhibitor were introduced. After complete regression of pneumonitis, improvement of general condition and resolution of dysphagia, no signs of lung cancer progression were found and pembrolizumab was reintroduced in 12/2021. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 01/2021 and levothyroxine replacement ther apy was started. In 03/2021 he underwent surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma of skin on the right temporal region with lobe reconstruction. From 02/2021, when pembrolizumab was reintroduced, regression in tumor size was continously confirmed with complete recovery of general condition. He was hospitalized for COVID 19 infection in 09/2021, and due to complications pembrolizumab was discontinued till 11/2021. Lung cancer immunotherapy proceeded till 11/2022, when Multidisciplinary team decided to finish pembrolizumab because of CLL relapse. CLL was in remission till August 2022 when due to B symptoms, lymphcytosis, anemia and generalized lymphadenopathy, hematological workup including biopsy of cervical lymph node was performed and CLL/SLL relapse was confirmed. Initially chlorambucil was introduced, but disease was refractory. Based on cytogenetic test results (IGHV unmutated, negative TP53) and due to cardiovascular comorbidity (contraindication for BTK inhibitors) venetoclax and rituximab were started in 01/2023. After just 1 cycle of treatment normal blood count as well as regression of B symptoms and peripheral lymphadenopathy occured, indicating the probability of complete disease remission. In our patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma excellent disease control is achieved during 41 month of treatment in first line setting. Furthermore, relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL is currently in confirmed remission. Conclusion(s): Successful treatment of patients with multiple primary malignancies is based on multidisciplinarity, early recognition and management of side effects, treatment of comorbidities with the aim of prolonging life, controlling symptoms of disease and preserving quality of life.

7.
Neuromodulation ; 26(4 Supplement):S188, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238016

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with cardiac comorbidities present unique challenges for undergoing interventional pain procedures. Consensus guidelines on safe anticoagulation management are categorized by procedure, patient specific bleeding risk factors, and class of anticoagulation (Table 1, Table 2).1 Specifically, some procedures occur in close proximity to the spinal cord, require large gauge needles and styletted leads, while others are in compressible locations with minimal tissue disruption. Further, pain-induced hypercoagulation increases the risk of thrombo-vascular events.1 This accentuates the importance of interdisciplinary perioperative coordination with the prescribing cardiologist. Case: A 71-year-old male with past-medical-history of CABG, bilateral femoral-popliteal bypass, atrial fibrillation on apixaban and ticagrelor, and multiple cardiac stents presented with intermittent shooting axial back pain radiating to right buttock, lateral thigh, and calf, worsened with activity. MRI demonstrated thoracic myelomalacia, multi-level lumbar disc herniation, and moderate central canal stenosis. An initial multi-model treatment approach utilizing pharmacologic agents, physical therapy, ESI's, and RFA failed to alleviate symptoms. After extensive discussion with his cardiologist, he was scheduled for a three-day SCS trial. Ticagrelor and apixaban were held throughout the 3-day trial and for 5 and 3 days prior, respectively, while ASA was maintained. Successful trial with tip placement at T6 significantly improved function and pain scores (Figure 1). Upon planned percutaneous implant, the cardiologist recommended against surgical implantation and holding anticoagulation. Alternatively, the patient underwent bilateral lumbar medial branch PNS implant with sustained improvement in lower back symptoms. However, he contracted COVID, resulting in delayed lead explanation (>60 days) without complication. Conclusion(s): Interventional pain practice advisories are well established for anticoagulation use in the perioperative period.1,2 However, there is limited high-quality research on the appropriate length to hold anticoagulation prior to surgery for high thrombotic risk patients. Collegial decision making with the cardiologist was required to avoid deleterious procedural complications. However, they may be unfamiliar with the nuances between interventions or between trial and implant. Prospective studies have shown that low risk procedures, such as the PNS, may not require holding anticoagulants.3 Other case data has demonstrated post-SCS epidural hematoma with ASA use after being held for 1-week prior to surgery. Our patient was unable to undergo SCS implant and instead elected for a lower risk procedure with excellent efficacy. 4 However, delayed PNS lead extraction due to COVID19 hospitalization presented further risk of infection and lead fracture.5 PNS may prove to be an appropriate treatment option for patients who are anticoagulated and are not SCS candidates. Disclosure: Elliot Klein, MD,MPH: None, Clarence Kong, MD: None, Shawn Sidharthan, MD: None, Peter Lascarides, DO: None, Yili Huang, DO: NoneCopyright © 2023

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S301, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235510

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the United States. Concomitant Covid-19 infection and the outcomes of AF are unknown. Objective(s): The study's goals were to analyze the outcomes of AF during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method(s): We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the 2020 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of Adults (>18 years) hospitalized for AF as the primary admitting diagnosis based on the ICD-10 codes and stratified these groups into concomitant covid-19 infection vs. non-covid-19 infection. All-cause mortality was our primary outcome, while the rate of ICU admission, length of stay, hospital charges were our secondary outcomes. Temporal trends were assessed using logistic regression. Result(s): In 2020, there were 1,994,985 admissions for atrial fibrillation, out of whom 104,495 (5.3%) had concomitant Covid-19. In the 104,495 AF admissions with covid-19, the mean age was 75y and 56.8% were males. Our results, image 1, showed AF with and without concomitant Covid-19 had similar rates of comorbid conditions including HTN, DM, OSA, CAD. HFrEF, and ESRD. AF patients with Covid-19 infection had a lower prevalence of smoking (31.83% vs. 39.4%, p<.001) and alcohol use (2% vs. 4.2%, p<.001). AF patients from both groups had similar rates of stroke (1.6% vs. 1.0%, p<.001). New AF patients with concomitant Covid-19 had worsening in-hospital outcomes such as shock (12.8% vs. 3.7%, p<.001), admission to the ICU (18.1% vs. 6.4%, p<0.001), higher all-cause mortality (21.8% vs. 3.9%, p<0.001), a longer length of stay (9.96 days vs 6.08 days, p<.001), and total hospital costs ($114,387 vs. $85,830, p<.0001). The incidence of AF catheter ablation on initial hospital admission for AF Covid-19 was lower compared to the AF non-covid-19 patients (.08% vs. 1.39%, p<.001). Conclusion(s): In 2020, Covid-19 infection was an independent predictor of higher all-cause mortality, length of stay, and costs in patients admitted for atrial fibrillation. In addition, these patients were less likely to get catheter ablation on hospital admission. [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023

9.
Heart ; 109(Suppl 3):A119, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234976

ABSTRACT

106 Table 13 MonthsRhythmAmiodarone (n=159)No Amiodarone (n=223)SR126141AF3382 106 Table 212 MonthsRhythmAmiodarone (n=113)No Amiodarone (n=125)SR5934AF5491Conflict of InterestNil

10.
REC: CardioClinics ; 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232947

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objectives: To analyze the evolution of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes in the mid-term follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic and to describe its impact on this population. Method(s): Multicenter and prospective registry that included patients with AF and diabetes attended in cardiology clinics. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the variables associated with the occurrence of clinical events and mortality. Recruitment was performed in February-December 2019. Result(s): The evolution of 633 patients, 96,2% of those included in the REFADI registry with a median follow-up of 835 days was analyzed (mean age 73.8 +/- 8.5 years, 54.3% male, CHA2DS2-VASc 4,34 +/- 1,4, HAS-BLED 2,47 +/- 0,96) were analyzed. The proportion of anticoagulated patients remained constant (95.6% vs 94.5%;P = .24). There was a decrease in the prescription of vitamin K antagonists (from 31.4% to 19.7%;P < .01), and an increase in the use of direct anticoagulants (from 62.0% to 70.3%;P < .01). During the follow-up there was an increase in the prescription of SGLT2 inhibitors (from 20.0% to 25.5%;P < .01) and GLP1 agonists (from 4.2% to 9.1%;P < .01). During this period, 17.2% of patients died, the majority from cardiovascular causes, 6.4% from COVID-19, 2.8% from stroke, and 1.8% from hemorrhage. Older age, lower ejection fraction, lower hemoglobin levels, and especially lower direct anticoagulants prescription were associated with mortality. Conclusion(s): Patients with AF and diabetes have a high thromboembolic risk and a high risk of developing complications, especially of cardiovascular origin.Copyright © 2023 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia

11.
Journal of Indian College of Cardiology ; 13(1):16-22, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231965

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac arrhythias had a significant association with the increased mortality rate in COVID-19 patients in hospitals. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of supraventricular arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients and to assess the echocardiographic parameters and inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19 patients who developed supraventricular arrhythmias. Method(s): This cross-sectional study enrolled 196 patients, 33 of them developed supraventricular arrhythmias during hospitalization in Zagazig University isolation hospital. Result(s): There was a statistically significant association between the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and both oxygen saturation and lymphocyte percentage, which was significantly lower in those with AF. There was a statistically significant association between the occurrence of AF and CORADS, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6, which were significantly higher in those with AF. Younger age and higher oxygen saturation decreased the risk of supraventricular tachycardia among the studied patients. Increasing oxygen saturation decreased the risk of AF among the studied patients, while higher CRP significantly increased risk by 1.045 folds. Conclusion(s): Atrial arrhythmias, especially with AF considered prevalent in cases with COVID-19. The atrial arrhythmias were correlated with higher cardiac injury and inflammatory markers and elevated severe COVID-19 clinical manifestations. Regarding mortality in-hospital, the association between COVID-19 and atrial arrhythmias was independent. 2023 Journal of Indian College of Cardiology.Copyright © 2023 Intervention, Journal of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Conflict Affected Areas.

12.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 21(6): 437-451, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune myocarditis may develop due to heterogeneous causes. Myocarditis is often caused by viral infections, but it can also be caused by systemic autoimmune diseases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and virus vaccines induce immune activation, and they can cause the development of myocarditis, as well as several immune-related adverse events. The development of myocarditis is dependent on the genetic factors of the host, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be an important determinant of the type and severity of the disease. However, non-MHC immunoregulatory genes may also play a role in determining susceptibility. AREA COVERED: This review summarizes the current knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune myocarditis with a particular focus on viral infection, autoimmunity, and biomarkers of myocarditis. EXPERT OPINION: An endomyocardial biopsy may not be the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is useful in diagnosing autoimmune myocarditis. Recently identified biomarkers of inflammation and myocyte injury are promising for the diagnosis of myocarditis when measured simultaneously. Future treatments should focus on the appropriate diagnosis of the etiologic agent, as well as on the specific stage of the evolution of immune and inflammatory processes.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Autoimmunity , Inflammation , Biopsy , Biomarkers
13.
Herz ; 48(3): 212-217, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238203

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmic manifestations of COVID-19 include atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, sinus node dysfunction, atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, sudden cardiac arrest, and cardiovascular dysautonomias including the so-called long COVID syndrome. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been implicated, such as direct viral invasion, hypoxemia, local and systemic inflammation, changes in ion channel physiology, immune activation, and autonomic dysregulation. The development of atrial or ventricular arrhythmias in hospitalized COVID-19 patients has been shown to portend a higher risk of in-hospital death. Management of these arrhythmias should be based on published evidence-based guidelines, with special consideration of the acuity of COVID-19 infection, concomitant use of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs, and the transient nature of some rhythm disorders. In view of new SARS-CoV­2 variants that may evolve, the development and use of newer antiviral and immunomodulator drugs, and the increasing adoption of vaccination, clinicians must remain vigilant for other arrhythmic manifestations that may occur in association with this novel but potentially deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
14.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241042

ABSTRACT

Recent studies show that hospitalized COVID-19 patients have an increased incidence of arrhythmia, especially atrial fibrillation (AF). This single-center study included 383 hospitalized patients with positive polymerase chain reaction tests for COVID-19 from March 2020 to April 2021. Patient characteristics were documented, and data were analyzed for episodes of AF on admission or during the hospital stay, intrahospital mortality, need for intensive care and/or invasive ventilation, inflammatory parameters (hs-CRP, IL-6, and procalcitonin), and differential blood count. We demonstrated that in the setting of hospitalized cases of COVID-19 infection, there is an incidence of 9.8% (n = 36) for the occurrence of new-onset AF. Furthermore, it was shown that a total of 21% (n = 77) had a history of episodes of paroxysmal/persistent AF. However, only about one-third of patients with pre-existing AF had relevant documented tachycardic episodes during the hospital stay. Patients with new-onset AF had a significantly increased intrahospital mortality compared to the control and the pre-existing AF without rapid ventricular rate (RVR) group. Patients with new-onset AF required intensive care and invasive ventilation more frequently. Further analysis examined patients with episodes of RVR and demonstrated that they had significantly elevated CRP (p < 0.05) and PCT (p < 0.05) levels on the day of hospital admission compared to patients without RVR.

15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231180865, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, management of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) was simplified to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) followed by oral anticoagulation, mainly owing to the risk of drug-drug interactions. However, not all oral anticoagulants carry the same risk. METHODS: Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study that consecutively included hospitalized patients with AF anticoagulated with LMWH followed by oral anticoagulation or edoxaban concomitantly with empirical COVID-19 therapy. Time-to-event (mortality, total bleeds, and admissions to ICU) curves, using an unadjusted Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model adjusted for potential confounders were constructed. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were included (80.3 ± 7.7 years, 50.0% men, CHA2DS2-VASc 4.1 ± 1.4; HAS-BLED 2.6 ± 1.0). During hospitalization, patients were taking azithromycin (98.7%), hydroxychloroquine (89.7%), and ritonavir/lopinavir (81.5%). The mean length of hospital stay was 14.6 ± 7.2 days, and total follow-up was 31.6 ± 13.4 days; 12.9% of patients required admission to ICU, 18.5% died, and 9.9% had a bleeding complication (34.8% major bleeding). Length of hospital stay was longer in patients taking LMWH (16.0 ± 7.7 vs 13.3 ± 6.5 days; P = .005), but mortality and total bleeds were similar in patients treated with edoxaban and those treated with LMWH followed by oral anticoagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications, and bleeds did not significantly differ between AF patients receiving anticoagulation therapy with edoxaban or LMWH followed by oral anticoagulation. However, the duration of hospitalization was significantly lower with edoxaban. Edoxaban had a similar therapeutic profile to LMWH followed by oral anticoagulation and may provide additional benefits.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Male , Humans , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Heparin
16.
Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia ; 39(1):395-400, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323069

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac complication commonly associated with COVID-19 infection, especially in severe cases. The sedative agent dexmedetomidine is known to cause bradycardia. In this study, we are testing whether dexmedetomidine could reduce the occurrence of AF in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Method(s): This prospective trial included 144 patients who were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group C patients were sedated with propofol and fentanyl. Group D patients were sedated with the same medications in addition to dexmedetomidine infusion. Result(s): Demographic, clinical, and cardiac characteristics of all patients did not significantly differ between the two groups. The duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was comparable between the two groups. However, both propofol and fentanyl consumption significantly declined in Group D. The number of AF attacks showed a significant decline in association with dexmedetomidine administration (mean = 12.5% in Group D vs. 29.2% in Group C). Dexmedetomidine also reduced the amount of required electrical cardioversion episodes. Additionally, antiarrhythmic medication needed reduced significantly in Group D. Mortality rates did not differ between the two study groups (58.3% and 63.8% in Groups D and C, respectively). Conclusion(s): Dexmedetomidine is associated with a significant reduction in the burden of AF in patients with severe COVID-19 infection, manifested by fewer AF attacks, the need for electrical cardioversion shocks, and the consumption of antiarrhythmic medication without impact on mortality.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

17.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; - (1):116-122, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322413

ABSTRACT

The aim of the work is to form the principles of a personalized approach to the management of patients with COVID-19 with a complicated comorbid background. Material and methods. The article describes a clinical case of successful recovery of an 87-year-old patient from a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, complicated by pneumonia involving 36% of the lung parenchyma area. Along with age, the situation was aggravated by the comorbid status of the patient: the presence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypertension, mechanical prostheses of the mitral and aortic valves, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, stage 4 CKD, anemic syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism. Results. The C-reactive protein level at admission was 114.46 mg/L. The patient refused hospitalization. Baricitinib 4 mg, favipiravir according to the scheme, vitamin D 2000 units were prescribed for the previously taken therapy. Already after 3 days, C-reactive protein decreased by 4.6 times, and by the 8th day by 15.5 times and amounted to 7.38 mg/ml. The temperature returned to normal on day 2 from the start of baricitinib. In dynamics, a decrease in creatinine level to 177.0 mumol/l was noted, the glomerular filtration rate increased to 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, which corresponded to stage 3b of CKD (a pronounced decrease in glomerular filtration rate). Conclusion. Despite the age of the patient, many comorbidities, each of which could be fatal, the timely use of baricitinib on an outpatient basis made it possible to stop the progressive course of the disease.Copyright © Eco-Vector, 2023. All rights reserved.

18.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S666-S667, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321976

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have suggested that myocardial damage due to severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2), commonly referred to as COVID-19, may increase the risk of arrhythmias. Objective(s): To compare the one-year incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with COVID-19 as compared to patients with non-COVID-19 acute upper respiratory infection (AURI). Method(s): The Optum Clinformatics database, an administrative claims databaseof commercially insured beneficiaries in the United States (US), was used for study purposes. Three cohorts of patients were identified: patients with COVID-19 diagnosis in any setting (April 2020-June 2021);patients with AURI in the pandemic period (April 2020-June 2021);and patients with AURI in the pre-pandemic period (January 2018-December 2018). Patients with prior AF diagnosis were excluded from each cohort. Three sets of analysis comparing AF incidence were performed: COVID-19 cohort vs AURI pandemic cohort;COVID-19 cohort vs AURI pre-pandemic cohort;and AURI pandemic cohort vs AURI pre-pandemic cohort. For each of the three comparisons, a matching weight method was used to help ensure balance among groups on baseline socio-demographic and clinical comorbidities. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of 1-year incident AF among matched patients. Result(s): When comparing the matched COVID-19 (n=102,227) and AURI pandemic (n=102,101) cohorts, one-year incidence of AF was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort (2.2% vs 1.2%;p<0.001), who were 83% more likely to develop AF (odds ratio [OR] 1.83;95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-1.95) as compared to the AURI group. COVID-19 patients were also observed to have significantly higher risk of incident AF as compared to AURI pre-pandemic cohort (2.7% vs 1.6%;p<0.001;OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.63-1.78). No significant difference was observed in AF incidence among the AURI pandemic versus AURI pre-pandemic cohort (1.1% vs 1.2%;p=0.133;OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-1.01). Figure 1 depicts differences in AF incidence across the comparator cohorts. Conclusion(s): Patients with COVID-19 were observed to have a higher incidence of AF as compared to those with upper respiratory infections. Awareness amongst clinicians of an increased AF incidence in COVID-19 affected patients appears warranted. [Formula presented] French language not detected for EMBFRA articles source xmlCopyright © 2023

19.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S669-S670, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321546

ABSTRACT

Background: Viruses are the most common cause of myocarditis. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of myocarditis have been reported in COVID-19 positive patients. Such patients may also experience a variety of arrhythmias that can provoke death. Objective(s): To evaluate the presence of various cardiac arrhythmias among COVID-19 positive myocarditis patients and understand their impact on mortality. Method(s): COVID-19 positive patients, admitted between April 1st 2020 to December 31st 2020, were recruited from the 2020 National Inpatient Sample. The presence of myocarditis and various cardiac arrhythmias were also identified via their respective ICD-10 codes. Logistic regression models were used to identify the odds of mortality in the presence of myocarditis. We further proceeded to estimate the odds of mortality among myocarditis patients who had various arrhythmias. Result(s): Our study found 6135 (0.4%) patients with myocarditis among 1628110 cases of COVID-19 recorded in the United States between April to December 2020. Age ranged between 0 - 90 years with a mean of 58 years. Multiple cardiac arrhythmias were also observed among myocarditis patients as 310 (5.1%) recorded supraventricular tachycardia, 520 (8.5%) had ventricular tachycardia, 120 (2.0%) had ventricular fibrillation, 520 (8.5%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 165 (2.7%) had atrial flutter, and 20 (0.3%) had long QT syndrome. The presence of myocarditis was linked with higher odds of mortality among all COVID-19 patients (aOR 2.551, 95% CI 2.405-2.706, p<0.01). Various cardiac arrhythmias were also potential predictors of mortality among myocarditis cases in COVID-19 patients, such as supraventricular tachycardia (aOR 1.346, 95% CI 1.041-1.74, p=0.023), ventricular tachycardia (aOR 1.896, 95% CI 1.557-2.308, p<0.01), ventricular fibrillation (aOR 4.161, 95% CI 2.74-6.319, p<0.01), and atrial flutter (aOR 1.485, 95% CI 1.047-2.106, p=0.026). Conclusion(s): Myocarditis was associated with higher mortality among COVID-19 admissions. Arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and atrial flutter were predictive of higher mortality in these patients. Continued caution is advised among health-care providers encountering these arrhythmias in myocarditis patients who are COVID-19 positive. [Formula presented] French language not detected for EMBFRA articles source xmlCopyright © 2023

20.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S295, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321469

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation and/or flutter is a common comorbidity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Objective(s): We aimed to assess the effect of atrial fibrillation and/or flutter on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients in a nationally representative sample. Method(s): We conducted a population-based analysis utilizing data from the national inpatient sample database. Hospitalized adults >= 18 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 during the year 2020 were included. We used multivariate logistic regression models to investigate the outcomes in patients who had atrial fibrillation or flutter. Result(s): Among 1,018,115 (Nationally weighted sample) admissions with COVID-19, 154795 cases (15.2%) had atrial fibrillation and/or flutter. Patients with atrial fibrillation and/or flutter had significantly higher adjusted odds of all-cause in-hospital mortality (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.78 [confidence interval (CI), 1.75-1.80]), acute stroke (OR, 1.96 [CI, 1.85-2.07]), acute coronary syndrome (OR, 1.43 [CI, 1.37-1.48]), acute heart failure (OR, 4.24 [CI, 4.15-4.34]), cardiogenic shock (OR, 3.07 [CI, 2.85-3.30]), need for vasopressors (OR, 2.14 [CI, 2.06-2.22]), cardiac arrest (OR, 1.95 [CI, 1.89-2.02]), need for mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.79 [CI, 1.77-1.82]), acute kidney injury (OR, 1.25 [CI, 1.23-1.27]), major bleeding (OR, 1.82 [CI, 1.73-1.92]) compared to those patients without atrial fibrillation or flutter. On subgroup analysis, the risk for mortality was highest among atrial flutter (OR, 2.91), followed by atrial flutter and fibrillation group (OR, 2.38), followed by only atrial fibrillation group (OR, 1.71) (P value <0.001 for all) when compared to non-atrial fibrillation, non-atrial flutter in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion(s): Atrial fibrillation and flutter are associated with higher inpatient mortality and worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023

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