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2.
Animals ; 12(24) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199666

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate annual changes in BoRVA strains by examining the VP4 and VP7 genes of rotaviruses in Korean calves. Between 2014 and 2018, 35 out of 138 samples of calf diarrhea feces collected nationwide were positive for BoRVA. Further genetic characterization of the VP7 and VP4 genes of 35 BoRVA isolates identified three different G-genotypes (G6, G8, and G10) and two different P genotypes (P[5] and P[11]). The G6 genotype was most common (94.3%) in BoRVA-positive calves, followed by the P[5] genotype (82.9%). Four genotypes comprised combinations of VP4 and VP7: 80% were G6P[5], 14.2% were G6P[11], 2.9% were G8P[5], and 2.9% were G10P[11]. Susceptibility to infection was highest in calves aged < 10 days (35%) and lowest in calves aged 30-50 days (15.4%). The data presented herein suggest that the G6P[5] genotype is the main causative agent of diarrhea in Korean calves. In addition, it is predicted that G6P[5] will continue to act as a major cause of diarrhea in Korean calves. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

3.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199547

ABSTRACT

BackgroundResearch has shown that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffered high levels of stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and faced poor family quality of life (FQOL). However, little is known about the inherent dynamic interaction between pandemic stress and FQOL, especially in the Chinese cultural context. AimsThis study provides preliminary evidence by examining the relationships among pandemic stress, parental involvement, and FQOL for children with autism in mainland China. MethodA total of 709 parents of children with autism completed measures of FQOL, parental involvement, and pandemic stress. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the interrelations among these variables. ResultsPandemic stress has direct effect and indirect effect mediated by parental involvement on FQOL. Two dimensions of pandemic stress had a direct effect on FQOL (beta 1 = 0.11;beta 2 = -0.55) and three dimensions had an indirect effect on FQOL through parental involvement (beta 1 = -0.097;beta 2 = 0.257;beta 3 = 0.114). ConclusionStress related to the COVID-19 pandemic affects family quality of life for children with autism in complex ways. Policies may be developed to enhance parental pragmatic hopefulness in the anti-epidemic victory and alleviate negative physical and mental reactions caused by the pandemic.

4.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199422

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic may affect the screen time of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to examine the screen time of children and adolescents with ASD during a discrete lockdown period in France and identify risk factors for excessive screen time. MethodsThe study sample consisted of 249 ASD subjects, 3-17 years of age, enrolled in the ELENA cohort. Information about the screen time was collected using the COVID-19 questionnaire specially created for this study. The clinical, socio-demographic and familial characteristics were collected from the last ELENA follow-up visit. ResultsMore than one third of subjects exceeded recommended levels of screen time and almost half of parents reported that their child spent more time using screen since COVID-19 pandemic beginning. Excessive screen time was significantly related to age with higher screen time in adolescents. Risk factors for excessive screen time were high withdrawn behaviors and low socioeconomic status for children, and older age and male gender for adolescents. ConclusionThese results imply to adapt the recommendations already formulated in general population concerning the good use of screens in youth with ASD. Specific recommendations and suitable guidance are needed to help children and adolescents with ASD and their parents implement the more optimal use of screen time activities for educational, therapeutic and social goals.

5.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199403

ABSTRACT

Providing treatment to children with autism is a global health priority, and research demonstrates that caregivers can be trained in techniques to promote their child's social interaction, communication, play, positive behavior and skills. These caregiver-mediated interventions have been shown to promote a number of positive outcomes in children with autism, as well as their caregivers. When provided by telehealth, data indicate that caregiver training is acceptable and feasible, and associated with similar positive outcomes as live face-to-face training. Telehealth innovations, which have accelerated during the COVID-19 era, have demonstrated advantages over in-person delivery of services in terms of cost effectiveness and increased accessibility, however, more research is needed on feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness for different populations in different contexts. This brief review will highlight recent caregiver skills training interventions for autism that have been successfully adapted or designed for telehealth delivery. Telehealth interventions that are scalable, adaptable, caregiver-mediated, open-access, and delivered as part of a stepped care model, have the potential to address the global treatment gap for families of children with autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Considerations relevant to the global scale-up of caregiver-mediated interventions will also be discussed.

6.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199081

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a valuable opportunity to carry out cohort studies that allow us to advance our knowledge on pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases. One of these opportunities is the study of the relationships between inflammation, brain development and an increased risk of suffering neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on the hypothesis that neuroinflammation during early stages of life is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and confers a greater risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders, we propose a cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women and their newborns. The main objective of SIGNATURE project is to explore how the presence of prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection and other non-infectious stressors generates an abnormal inflammatory activity in the newborn. The cohort of women during the COVID-19 pandemic will be psychological and biological monitored during their pregnancy, delivery, childbirth and postpartum. The biological information of the umbilical cord (foetus blood) and peripheral blood from the mother will be obtained after childbirth. These samples and the clinical characterisation of the cohort of mothers and newborns, are tremendously valuable at this time. This is a protocol report and no analyses have been conducted yet, being currently at, our study is in the recruitment process step. At the time of this publication, we have identified 1,060 SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers and all have already given birth. From the total of identified mothers, we have recruited 537 SARS-COV-2 infected women and all of them have completed the mental health assessment during pregnancy. We have collected biological samples from 119 mothers and babies. Additionally, we have recruited 390 non-infected pregnant women.

7.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2199039

ABSTRACT

There are a number of key features which make olfaction difficult to study;highly diverse odour feature space, subjective processes of odour detection, discrimination and identification, and individualistic odour hedonic perception and associated odour memories. In this systematic review we explore the role fNIRS has played in understanding olfactory perception in humans. fNIRS is an optical neuroimaging technique able to measure changes in brain hemodynamics and oxygenation related to neural electrical activity. Normal adult healthy populations were used, with some clinical studies observing autism, ADHD, PTSD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dysosmia and covid-19 related cases. fNIRS coverage heavily favoured the prefrontal cortex in particular, as well as temporal and parietal regions. This review finds that odour induced cortical activation is dependent on multiple factors, such as odourant type, gender and population type. Generally, the majority of studies involving healthy adult subjects observed increased activity in response to odours.

8.
Frontiers in Genetics ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198787

ABSTRACT

Metabolomics research has recently gained popularity because it enables the study of biological traits at the biochemical level and, as a result, can directly reveal what occurs in a cell or a tissue based on health or disease status, complementing other omics such as genomics and transcriptomics. Like other high-throughput biological experiments, metabolomics produces vast volumes of complex data. The application of machine learning (ML) to analyze data, recognize patterns, and build models is expanding across multiple fields. In the same way, ML methods are utilized for the classification, regression, or clustering of highly complex metabolomic data. This review discusses how disease modeling and diagnosis can be enhanced via deep and comprehensive metabolomic profiling using ML. We discuss the general layout of a metabolic workflow and the fundamental ML techniques used to analyze metabolomic data, including support vector machines (SVM), decision trees, random forests (RF), neural networks (NN), and deep learning (DL). Finally, we present the advantages and disadvantages of various ML methods and provide suggestions for different metabolic data analysis scenarios. Copyright © 2022 Galal, Talal and Moustafa.

9.
Injury Epidemiology ; 9(Supplement 1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196500
10.
Clinical Case Studies ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2195295

ABSTRACT

We report a case with a 7-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety disorder who had severe restrictive eating leading to various medical concerns raised by her pediatrician. Following medical consultation and a descriptive functional assessment, a therapist implemented behavioral intervention consisting of a visual cue, choice, and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors. The intervention was focused on both in-home meals and telehealth consultation during mealtimes, as the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated moving to remote consultation for continued treatment. The success of this study has long-standing implications for the benefits of positive feeding interventions and telehealth as well as parental training strategies.

11.
Autism ; : 13623613221138642, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2195216

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has traditionally been made through in-person evaluation. While the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted access to ASD services, there has been remarkable growth in research focused on novel ASD diagnostic practices, including the use of telemedicine. We implemented a standard ASD tele-assessment evaluation procedure, including use of a novel remote clinician-coached, caregiver-delivered ASD assessment tool (TELE-ASD-PEDS;TAP), with the goal of continuing to provide diagnostic services to young children and their families during the pandemic. We examined the relationship between child characteristics and diagnostic outcome for 335 children, ages 14-78 months, who received ASD tele-assessment conducted by psychologists and pediatricians in an outpatient clinic of a Midwestern academic medical center. We found that clinicians could make a determination about ASD diagnosis for most children (85%) evaluated using tele-assessment. Child clinical characteristics, including TAP scores and clinician ratings of ASD symptoms, were related to diagnostic outcome (i.e. diagnosis of ASD, no ASD, and Unsure about ASD). When all clinical characteristics were examined together, the presence of specific repetitive behaviors predicted ASD diagnosis. We also found that the TAP is effective for making an ASD diagnosis when used as part of comprehensive tele-assessment evaluation in children ⩾ 36 months of age with delayed language. Our study adds to an increasing body of research supporting use of tele-assessment for diagnosis of ASD. Although further research is needed, telemedicine may help families from different backgrounds and geographic locations to access high-quality diagnostic services.

12.
Journal of Early Intervention ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2195042

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a worldwide disruption of education service systems. A significant gap has emerged in understanding the impact of these changes to both educational services and child development. The current qualitative study presents interviews with early childhood educators and parents to capture their experiences with educational service delivery for young children with disabilities during the pandemic. The study included nine early childhood educators and nine parents with children between the ages of 3 and 6 who received preschool special education services during the pandemic. Themes that emerged from the interviews include changes to the modality and intensity of services, barriers and challenges related to service delivery, and benefits resulting from shifts to educational services. All findings will be discussed with an eye toward informing future practice related to family-centered services.

13.
Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2192174

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, students have endured drastic changes in educational routines. Such disruptions can be especially challenging for students who struggle with executive functioning, self-regulation and emotion regulation, such as students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder. Using a framework of trauma-informed instruction, the authors supported classroom teachers in implementing sensory spaces for students with ASD, ADHD and bipolar disorder. The project included professional development and funding for teachers to develop, procure and offer sensory tools and strategies to assist students in recognising and managing emotions. The authors collected data on the effectiveness of the sensory supports, combining teacher surveys and student behaviour data. Results indicated increased teacher knowledge on trauma-informed instruction and use of sensory supports to promote executive functioning and self-regulation and decreased target behaviours in students based on structured observation and anecdotal teacher feedback.

14.
2022 10th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (Acii) ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191676

ABSTRACT

In this COVID-19 pandemic era, students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are struggling to adapt to classes in the online environment using Google Meet or Zoom. Failing to keep sustained attention in the class is a common problem for students with ASD. In face-to-face classes, teachers can track a student's behavior and activity to infer the student's attentiveness level and act accordingly. However, it becomes difficult for a teacher to monitor the attentiveness level of multiple students simultaneously on online platforms like Zoom. Detecting the attentiveness level of a student and notifying the teacher in an automated way can play a crucial role in improving the learning outcome. In this paper, we propose the first deep learning based attentiveness level prediction technique for students with ASD. Our model detects the behavior (e.g., unusual movement, gaze etc.) and activities from real-time videos and uses them as features to classify the attentiveness level as low, mid and high. Existing state-of-the-art techniques to detect the attentiveness level of typically developed students using gaze or facial expression cannot be trivially extended for students with ASD as they do not exhibit regular and consistent behavior. We collect video data belonging to different classes covering various types of activities over a long period, train our classifier, and run extensive experiments to validate the prediction performance. Our solution outperforms existing baselines by a large margin.

15.
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) ; 27(Supplement 3):e23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood is a stressful time for caregivers of children and youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Anecdotally, we know that cultural perspectives can directly influence decisions made around ASD diagnosis, treatment, and transition to adulthood. However, there is a paucity of research into these cultural perspectives and how they may affect illness trajectories. OBJECTIVE(S): 1.Through open-ended responses, identify cultural values that play a role in decision making around health care and life course planning during transition to adulthood in ASD. 2.Identify criteria for success in adulthood from parents of children and youth with ASD in a culturally diverse population. 3.Identify systemic barriers that prevent families from accessing culturally sensitive care 4.Educate health care workers on any unique cultural perspective that may impact transition planning. DESIGN/METHODS: In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with caregivers (i.e., parents/guardians) of children and youth with autism. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using deductive and inductive coding methods by two independent coders, with inter-rater reliability confirmed by Cohen's kappa coefficient. RESULT(S): A total of 12 IDIs were conducted. The main themes that were discussed included caregivers' understanding of adulthood for their child with ASD, barriers to accessing services, the importance of culture and religion/spirituality to their child's future, recommendations to improve current services and programming and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on decision-making. Caregivers expressed their desire for their child to be independent as they transition to adulthood. They also described how cultural or religious/spiritual practices are integrated into their child's life and the importance of maintaining their cultural identity. Caregivers emphasized the lack of culturally tailored resources as their child transitions to adulthood to maintain that sense of community. CONCLUSION(S): Caregivers' cultural perspectives are an integral part of their identity and an important aspect of their environment that should be taken into consideration as children and youth with ASD transition to adulthood.

16.
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) ; 27(Supplement 3):e20, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses has caused an increased number of community practitioners to care for this population. However, community practitioners report a lack of knowledge and confidence in treating these patients, resulting in unmet healthcare needs. The Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) Autism model aims to address this through case-based and didactic learning to help guide community practitioners in providing comprehensive, best-practice care for ASD screening, diagnosis, and management of co-occurring conditions. Each ECHO session involves a case presentation followed by a list of recommendations generated by community participants and an interdisciplinary 'hub' team. While ECHO Autism has been shown to improve physicians' abilities to care for children with ASD in their practices, recommendations stemming from ECHO cases have yet to be characterized and may help guide future care. OBJECTIVE(S): To quantify and characterize the common categories within ECHO Autism Ontario case recommendations. DESIGN/METHODS: A content analysis of 422 recommendations from 61 ECHO cases was conducted to identify categories of recommendations and their frequencies. Three researchers independently coded recommendations from five ECHO cases, from which an original coding guide was developed. The researchers then independently coded the remaining cases and met regularly with the ECHO lead to modify and consolidate the codes and coding guide. From there, categories and sub-categories from the various codes were identified. Finally, the frequencies of each code and category were calculated. RESULT(S): Fifty-seven codes were included in the final coding guide and grouped into eight broad categories. Categories included: 1) diagnosis;2) concurrent mental and physical health conditions;3) referrals to allied health providers and other specialists;4) accessing community resources, such as parent and sibling support groups;5) providing education and guidance to physicians, patients, and families;6) management strategies such as nutrition, physical activity, and social skills;and 7) patient and family-centered care. A COVID-19 category was added, as many of the later recommendations were adapted to online service delivery. An analysis of the frequency of codes found that 1,384 total in-text codes were distributed amongst the various categories. The three highest frequencies of categories were providing general guidance and education (22%), accessing resources (16%), and referrals (15%). CONCLUSION(S): This is the first time recommendations from ECHO Autism have been characterized and quantified. Our results, particularly the most common category of providing general guidance and education about ASD, show there is still important work to be done with educating clinicians and families about aspects of ASD. Furthermore, findings from this study should inform Pediatrics residency programs about real-world knowledge gaps in ASD care, and may help create more tailored ASD training programs and educational materials.

17.
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) ; 27(Supplement 3):e18-e19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 testing for symptomatic individuals is a key public health measure for infection prevention and control. However, COVID-19 testing can be uncomfortable without appropriate supports and can lead to testing hesitancy amongst certain populations such as children with medical complexity (CMC) and those with underlying neurological and respiratory conditions. To support COVID-19 testing, a specialized initiative was developed for CMC and their families onsite at The Hospital for Sick Children to enhance testing uptake, reduce barriers to access, and support a safe and accommodated testing environment for families. Multiple modalities of testing were involved and could be completed in their personal vehicle, with specialized support from nurses and child life if needed. OBJECTIVE(S): The objectives of our study were to investigate the characteristics of CMC and their families who underwent COVID-19 testing through our program, evaluate indications for testing, and collect case positivity rates. DESIGN/METHODS: Prospective data, including testing and population characteristics, were collected from December 2020-August 2021 through a centralized system, and was analyzed using descriptive methods. RESULT(S): 335 children (Table 1) with medical complexity came to the COVID-19 Assessment Center for testing. Of those who were tested 88% (294) had neurodevelopmental conditions with highly challenging behaviours (e.g. autism, developmental delay), and 12% (28) were classified as CMC (i.e. those with active use of medical technology e.g. tracheostomy, G-tube etc.). Of those tested, 6% (21) tested positive for COVID-19. Sixty percent (199) were tested due to having symptoms consistent with COVID-19, 27% (90) had a COVID-19 exposure, 8% (26) were exposed and tested as part of outbreak management and 5% were of an unknown criteria. The majority of completed tests (74%) were nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, 18% completed saliva tests and 6% completed anterior nares/throat swab tests. Thirteen percent (43) of families requested additional supports such as extra nurses, child life specialists or other accommodations. All patients had a dedicated paediatric nurse and received testing in their personal vehicle. CONCLUSION(S): CMC and their families face unique barriers to COVID-19 testing. A specialized testing centre for CMC was able to support families by providing unique opportunities for testing, revealing a 6% COVID-19 positivity rate. NP swabs that can be painful were supported through in-vehicle testing with dedicated pediatric nurses. Robust health and safety measures, including a coordinated testing approach, are necessary to ensure accessible testing opportunities for CMC and their families. Further research is needed to be able to support this unique population.

18.
J Music Ther ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2189235

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, music therapists transitioned services from in-person to telehealth due to health and safety concerns. Though online delivery of music therapy services for autistic individuals occurred prior to 2020, the number of North American music therapists using telehealth with autistic clients rose substantially during the pandemic. The current paper's objective was to delineate music therapists' perceptions regarding factors that helped or hindered autistic persons' engagement in online music therapy sessions. In total, 192 participants completed the survey. Qualitative content analysis of an open-ended question identified seven overarching themes regarding the benefits and challenges of telehealth music therapy for autistic clients. Findings were used to create a screening tool to help music therapists evaluate autistic persons' suitability for telehealth and meet the needs of those who can benefit from telehealth music therapy.

19.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 47(Supplement 1):127-128, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2185744

ABSTRACT

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is common (~2.3% of children) and lacks specific pharmacologic treatments. Anecdotal reports and one placebo-controlled trial (of a 20:1 ratio of cannabidiol (CBD) and THC;Aran et al., Molecular Autism, 2021) suggest CBD may be helpful for some autistic children. CBD has been approved by the US FDA to treat refractory seizure syndromes in children and was well tolerated. We undertook an ongoing open trial of pharmacologic grade FDA-approved CBD without THC in children and adolescents without seizures and at least average intellectual ability as a basis for hypothesis generation and selection of dose and outcomes in future controlled trials. CBD is being provided at no cost by JAZZ Pharmaceuticals, which has had no had a role in designing the study, nor in analyzing or reporting results. Method(s): Nineteen youth, ages 7-17 (M = 11.3 +/- 2.9) with ASD completed an ongoing, 6-week Phase 2 open trial of 98% CBD (100 mg/mL) at 3, 6 or 9 mg/kg/d;target N = 30 [NCT03900923]. Dose was determined per a Bayesian optimal interval design starting at the 6 mg/kg/d dose with an initial expectation of 60% response rate. Inclusion criteria were a confirmed ASD diagnosis, verbal fluency, IQ >= 80, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) Total T-score >= 66, and Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S) score >= 4 on an individualized target symptom domain identified at baseline by clinician consensus from informant report, rating scales, and clinical observation. Response was defined as CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) score <= 2 in the target domain. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed at weeks 2, 4 and 6 by clinician administered UKU Side Effects Rating Scale - Patient Version-5 to dyads, and at weeks 1, 3, 5 by coordinator phone calls to parents. Clinician consensus determined relatedness of AEs to treatment. In response to COVID-19, all screening procedures and assessments (excluding physical exams and blood testing to monitor safety) were conducted via secure virtual teleconferencing. Surveys were administered securely via REDCap software. Plasma CBD levels and clinical labs were obtained at the last session. Result(s): Demographics: We enrolled 18 males and 1 female. Full-scale IQ scores ranged from 81 to 136 (M = 104 +/- 17). Seventeen had co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses: ADHD-Combined (n = 12), ADHD-Inattentive (n = 4), OCD (n = 4), Anxiety (n = 3), and Other-Specified Disruptive and Impulse Control Disorder (n = 2). Participants' racial and ethnic identities included white (n = 12), white/Hispanic (n = 5), Asian (n = 2), Black/African American (n = 1), multiracial (n = 2), unknown race/Hispanic (n = 1), and unknown race/ethnicity (n = 1). All 19 enrolled participants completed the trial;overall, eight were classified as responders (42%);response rate was related to dose, ranging from 17% at 3 mg/kg/d (n = 6), to 44% on 6 mg/kg/ d (n= 9) and 75% on 9 mg/kg/d (n = 4;this phase is ongoing). Dose correlated with CGI-I (r(18)=-0.43, p = .05). CGI-S scores improved significantly from pre-(M = 4.68 +/- 0.48) to posttreatment (M = 3.95 +/- 0.78), paired t(18)=3.98, p = <.001;Cohen's d = 0.92;95% CI [0.37, 1.44]. In a post-hoc analysis, we noted that none of the five participants taking stimulants for ADHD responded to CBD, while 8 of 11 (73%) who have ADHD but were not being treated with a stimulant responded (Fisher exact p = 0.013). A total of 83 AEs were reported;79 were considered mild, 3 mild-moderate, and 1 moderate. Of 30 AEs judged by clinician consensus to be related to CBD, none were both related and unexpected. There were 17 unexpected AEs, all deemed unrelated. Liver function lab tests and complete blood counts were unaffected by CBD. Plasma CBD levels after 6-week treatment ranged widely from 2.4 ng/ml to 430.6 ng/ml and were related to dose (r(18)=0.46, p = 0.05) but not to CGII (r(18)=-0.19). Conclusion(s): CBD is well tolerated and seems to be beneficial for autistic youth although with a lower overall response rate than expected. We speculate placebo effects may hav diminished based on informal tests conducted by families, facilitated by CBD legalization, although mean CBD doses in the community are 2 to 3 mg/kg/day (DiLiberto et al., 2022). Our experience suggests that higher doses are more likely to be beneficial and that benefits, when they emerge, do so over several weeks. Unexpectedly, we observed a high response rate (73%) in youth with comorbid ADHD not being treated with stimulants. These results resonate with Seeman' 2016 observation (in Translational Psychiatry) that CBD has partial agonist properties at striatal D2 receptors, comparable to aripiprazole, one of two atypical neuroleptics approved to treat irritability in pediatric autism. We plan to continue enrollment until our IRB-approved accrual of 30 is reached, with a focus on ASD + ADHD comorbidity in the remaining participants.

20.
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2185567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the virus, SARS-CoV-2, and it can affect individuals differently. Some people may experience mild symptoms while others may experience severe illness or death. Vaccines that are authorized to protect against COVID-19 help the human body develop immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the risk of COVID-19 and its potentially serious complications. We evaluated the effects of graduated exposure and differential reinforcement to teach individuals with autism to comply with the administration of a COVID-19 vaccine. All three participants had a history of engaging in challenging behavior during previous vaccination procedures. Following the intervention, all participants successfully received two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine. The results of this study support previous research on graduated exposure and differential reinforcement as a treatment for increasing compliance with medical procedures for individuals with autism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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