Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816899

ABSTRACT

Background Patients with cancer appear to have poor outcomes with COVID-19 infection. Cohort analyses of short-term outcomes of COVID-19 (C19)-infected cancer patients (pts) have reported mortality rates ranging from 10 to 30%. Little is known about the long-term outcomes of cancer pts infected with C19. Here, we present an analysis of long-term outcomes of a cohort of active cancer pts with C19 infection. Methods This was a single center retrospective analysis of active cancer pts who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 virus between 3/1/20- 9/30/20. Key inclusion criteria included a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and an active cancer diagnosis within 90 days of a positive C19 test. We examined the rates of hospitalization for C19 infection, readmission, and C19-related mortality at 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-day follow-up. Rates of persistent symptoms and systemic complications of C19 infection were described. Results We identified 81 active cancer pts with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among this cohort, the median age was 55 years (range: 19- 89). 77% (N=62) had solid tumors and 23% (N=19) had a hematologic malignancy. 75% (N=61) were receiving an anti-cancer therapy at the time of C19 diagnosis. Median follow-up time from C19 diagnosis to last follow-up was 4.8 months (range: 0.1-9.0 mos). 32% (N=26) of the cohort required hospitalization for C19-related complications within 30 days of C19 diagnosis. Among those hospitalized, 35% (N=9/26) died from C19-related complications. Of the 17 pts who were discharged, 2 pts required readmission with a median time to readmission of 37 days. For these 2 pts, readmission was due to persistent dyspnea and hypoxia and both were treated for pneumonia with presumed bacterial superinfection. There were no additional hospitalizations for C19-related complications at 60-, 90-, and 120-day follow-up. At 90- day follow-up, 6 pts (7.4%) had been diagnosed with PE/DVT. No long-term cardiac, neurologic, or renal complications were observed. With regards to C19-related mortality, 30-day mortality was 8.6% (N=7) and 90-day mortality was 11.1% (N=9). No further C19-related deaths were observed after 90 days. All pts who died were hospitalized within 30 days of initial C19 diagnosis and remained hospitalized at the time of death. Persistent C19-related symptoms were noted in 8.2% (N=6/73) of the cohort at 60-days and 2.8% (N=2/71) at 90-day follow-up. Dyspnea was the most common symptom. Conclusions Among a cohort of active cancer pts with C19 infection, these data suggest that much of the morbidity and mortality associated with C19 infection appears to occur early, with decreased incidence of late complications beyond 30 days. Cancer pts who do not require hospitalization early in their infection course appear to have a decreased rate of late complications. Readmissions for C19-related complications were low, but this analysis was limited by a low number of pts. Achieving a better understanding of long-term outcomes of C19 pts with cancer will help us to better approach oncologic care as the pandemic continues.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S194-S195, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746725

ABSTRACT

Background. Increased antibiotic prescribing rates during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic have been widely reported. We previously reported that while both antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) and total days present (DP) declined in the first 5 months of 2020 at Veterans Affairs (VA) acute care facilities nationwide relative to the comparable period in 2019, antibiotic DOT per 1000 DP increased by 11.3%, largely reversing declines in VA antimicrobial utilization from 2015 - 2019. We now evaluate whether these changes in antibiotic use persisted throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Data on antibacterial use, patient days present, and COVID-19 care for acute inpatient care units in 108 VA level 1 and 2 facilities were extracted through the VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure;level 3 facilities which provide limited acute inpatient services were excluded. DOT per 1000 DP were calculated and stratified by CDC-defined antibiotic classes. Results. From 1/2020 to 2/2021, care for 34,096 COVID-19 patients accounted for 13% of all acute inpatient days of care in the VA. Following the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, monthly total acute care antibiotic use increased from 533 DOT/1000 DP in 1/2020 to a peak of 583 DOT/1000 DP in 4/2020;during that month COVID-19 patients accounted for 13% of all DP (Figure). In subsequent months, total antibiotic use declined such that for the full year the change of antibiotic use from 2019 to 2020 (a decrease of 18 DOT/1000 DP) was similar to the rate of decline from 2015 to 2019 (mean decrease of 13 DOT/1000 DP;Table). The decreased DOT/1000 DP from 5/2020 to 2/2021 occurred even as the percentage of all DP due to COVID-19 peaked at 14 - 24% from 11/2020 to 2/2021. Conclusion. Although rates of antibiotic use increased within the VA during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, rates subsequently decreased to below previous baseline levels even as the proportion of COVID-19 DP spiked between 11/2020 and 02/2021. Although the degree to which the initial increase in antibiotic use is attributable to concerns of bacterial superinfection versus changes in case-mix (e.g., decreased elective admission) remains to be assessed, these data support the continued effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship programs in the VA.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S203, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746723

ABSTRACT

Background. The aim of this work were to investigate the rate and aetiology of bloodstream infection collected from COVID and non-COVID patients admitted in the ICU Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on PCR Covid-19 positive patients admitted in the ICU from 20th March to 30th April 2020. Corresponding data from the same period in 2019 collected of all consecutive patients admitted in the same ICU were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of microbiologically documented bloodstream infections at least 8 hours after admission. All patients in the cohort study were on mechanical ventilation, or at some point during their ICU admission required mechanical ventilation. Results. We identified a total of 19 (38%) BSIs in the COVID-19 group and 10 (12%) BSI in the non-COVID-19 group (p= 0,8). COVID-19 patients had an increased probability to develop ICU-BSI, at a median of 8 days of ICU admission as opposed to 6 in the non-COVID-19 group. Patients were comparable in terms of age, and APACHE II score. Out of 19 BSI CoVID-19 patients, 14 (73%) were male vs 5 (50%) in the non-CoVID-19 BSI patients (p=0.0007). Of all BSI-CoVID-19 patients, 7 cases (37%), 3 (16%), and 3(16%) had underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity vs 1(9%), 0(0%), and 0 (0%) in the BSI-non CoVID-19 patients statistically significant at p=0.004, p=0.05, and p=0.05, respectively. ICU-acquired BSIs were mostly due to multi-drug-resistant pathogens. Clinical outcomes were statistically significantly different between patients with CoVid-19 BSI 7(37% ) and 2(20%)in BSInon-CoVID-19 pneumonia (p=0.02). Conclusion. Our findings emphasize that although the incidence of BSI in CoVID-19 positive ICU admitted patients slightly increased their impact on overall outcome was significantly worse. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial superinfections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S274, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746654

ABSTRACT

Background. SOTs (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 are considered to be at high risk of severe clinical outcomes. Several descriptive studies have reported a high frequency of intensive care unit admission and death rates. There is a lack of evidence regarding the best approach for immunosuppressive therapy in SOT recipients with COVID-19. Methods. We performed a single-centered, retrospective, observational study of all SOT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swab specimens who were admitted to the emergency department from March 25 to September 1, 2020. Glucocorticoid therapy was administered according to the criteria of the attending physician. We classified glucocorticoid dose as low dose therapy if the patient received dexamethasone 6 mg/day or methylprednisolone 40 mg/day, and a high dose if the patient received methylprednisolone 80-160 mg/day. Specimens collected within the first 48 hours were defined coinfection, while specimens collected after 48 hours were defined as hospital-acquired superinfection. Results. Of a total of 43 SOT recipients with COVID-19, 17 (39%) required intensive care unit admission. 32 (74.4%) required glucocorticoid therapy: 13 received low dose and 19 high dose. 15 (34.8%) had secondary infections. A total of 12 (27.9%) presented hospital-acquired bacterial superinfections, mostly caused by P. aeruginosa, most of isolations were from respiratory tract cultures. The median time from hospital admission to superinfection diagnosis was 9 (7-13) days. Community-acquired co-infection at COVID-19 diagnosis was documented only in 3 (6.9%) patients, mostly caused by K. Pneumoniae, all isolations were from urine culture. Glucocorticoid therapy was indicated in 32 (80%) patients, 19 received high dose and 13 low doses. Overall hospital mortality was 17.5%. ICU mortality was 41%. Overall mortality in the high dose steroids group was 37 % vs . 0% in the low dose group. Conclusion. Our results showed a higher frequency of superinfection in SOT recipients with COVID-19 compared to previous reports, and higher ICU mortality. Further studies are needed to establish the best approach for glucocorticoid therapy in SOT recipients with COVID-19.

5.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S65-S66, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734492

ABSTRACT

Background:Bacterial co-pathogens are commonly identified in viral respiratory tract infections such as influenza and are an im- portant cause of morbidity and mortality, necessitating timely diagnosis and antibacterial therapy1-3. The prevalence, incidence and characteristics of bacterial infection in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV-2) is not well understood and has been raised as an important knowledge gap. Methods:This observational study was performed in the department of Microbiology, Tata memorial Hospital, Mumbai. All cancer patients admitted in ICU with COVID-19 for ≥48 hours between April 2020 to July 2020 were included in the study. Results:A total of 9595 cancer patients were tested for SARS Coronavirus 2 between April 2020 to July 2020 in the department of Microbiology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. Out of these 2380 (24.80%) were COVID- 19 positive. 30 (1.26%) of the patients tested positive for COVID 19 required ICU admission. Squamous cell carcinona (3), Pancreatic Cancer (3) and Breast Cancer (3) were most com- monly involved cancer types. 20/30 of these patients had bacterial super infections while 10/30 had co infections. NDBAL 22 (31.88%) constituted the major source of infection, followed by BILE 10 (14.49%), PUS, PUS SWAB & WOUND SWAB 9 (13.04%). Most common- ly isolated organisms was E. coli 20 (23.25%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19 (22.09%), Acinetobacter spp. 15 (17.44%) and Klebseilla pneumoniae 14(16.27%) respec- tively. E. coli & K. pneumoniae were most commonly sensitive to Amikacin (63.63%) and Tigecycline (57.57%). Ps. aeruginosa was moderately sensitive to commonly used antibi- otics like Piperacillin – tazobactum, Ceftazidime, Cefoperazone sulbactam (42.85%) and Ciprofloxacin, Tobramycin (38.09%) [Formula presented] Conclusions:Understanding the proportion of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory bacterial co-infection, and the culprit pathogens, is crucial for treating patients with COVID- 19 and to help ensure responsible use of antibiotics and to minimize negative consequenc- es of overuse.

6.
Cell Biosci ; 12(1): 14, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia has caused huge impact on the health of infected patients and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Shift in the lung microbial ecology upon such viral infection often worsens the disease and increases host susceptibility to superinfections. Bacterial superinfection contributes to the aggravation of COVID-19 and poses a great challenge to clinical treatments. An in-depth investigation on superinfecting bacteria in COVID-19 patients might facilitate understanding of lung microenvironment post virus infections and superinfection mechanism. RESULTS: We analyzed the adaptation of two pairs of P. aeruginosa strains with the same MLST type isolated from two critical COVID-19 patients by combining sequencing analysis and phenotypic assays. Both P. aeruginosa strains were found to turn on alginate biosynthesis and attenuate type VI secretion system (T6SS) during short-term colonization in the COVID-19 patients, which results in excessive biofilm formation and virulence reduction-two distinct markers for chronic infections. The macrophage cytotoxicity test and intracellular reactive oxygen species measurement confirmed that the adapted P. aeruginosa strains reduced their virulence towards host cells and are better to escape from host immune clearance than their ancestors. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection can create a lung environment that allow rapid adaptive evolution of bacterial pathogens with genetic traits suitable for chronic infections.

7.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617060

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute bronchiolitis. The peak of the infection is historically described in the autumn/winter season. The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic seems to have modified the seasonality of some respiratory viruses. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed in Portugal was in March 2020. School closure and the use of masks are some of the pointed reasons for a decreased number of RSV infections observed in the autumn/winter season post the beginning of the pandemic. Interestingly, there are now a few studies from around the globe showing the resurgence of RSV infections in the spring/summer season that followed. Aim: To characterize the population of RSV infected infants admitted to a tertiary hospital before and after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, study was performed. All the RSV infected infants who were admitted to a Portuguese tertiary hospital from January 2017 to August 2021 were evaluated. The diagnosis of RSV infection was made through polymerase chain reaction of nasal secretions. Data such as age, gender, reason for admission, comorbidities, viral coinfection, bacterial superinfection, oxygen therapy, admission at Intensive Care Unit, ventilatory support and length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results: The data of a total of 354 patients was analyzed. The median age was 4 months (min 9 days, max 4 years), 50% were male. Before the COVID-19 pandemics (between 2017 and 2019), the peak of RSV infections used to occur in the months of December and January (medium of 25 and 28 cases per month, respectively). However, in December 2020 and January 2021 there was no detection of RSV. Nonetheless, a peak of RSV infection was verified in July and August 2021 (18 and 15 cases per month, respectively). The number of patients admitted for non-respiratory motifs, but in whom RSV was detected during the course of hospital stay, increased in 2021 (39%), comparing to 2017 (0%), 2018 (3%), 2019 (8%) or 2020 (3%), p<0,05. The number of viral coinfections was higher in 2021 (50%) comparing to 2017 (29%), 2019 (19%) or 2020 (18%), p<0,05. The patients admitted in 2021 were older (12 months average) than patients admitted in 2017 (5 months average) or 2018 (6 months average), p<0,05. Conclusions: RSV seasonality was modified by the COVID-19 pandemic, with an increase of the hospital admissions being registered in the summer of 2021. Our tertiary hospital's numbers reproduce what is being described in other places of the world. Subsequent studies are needed to verify the behavior of RSV infections in the next seasons, to understand if RSV infections are becoming more or less severe and to analyze the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the virulence of RSV.

8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 69, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 illness which can progress to severe pneumonia. Empiric antibacterials are often employed though frequency of bacterial coinfection superinfection is debated and concerns raised about selection of bacterial antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated sputum bacterial and fungal growth from 165 intubated COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Objectives were to determine frequency of culture positivity, risk factors for and outcomes of positive cultures, and timing of antimicrobial resistance development. METHODS: Retrospective reviews were conducted of COVID-19 pneumonia patients requiring intubation admitted to a 1058-bed four community hospital system on the east coast United States, March 1 to May 1, 2020. Length of stay (LOS) was expressed as mean (standard deviation); 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was computed for overall mortality rate using the exact binomial method, and overall mortality was compared across each level of a potential risk factor using a Chi-Square Test of Independence. All tests were two-sided, and significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: Average patient age was 68.7 years and LOS 19.9 days. Eighty-three patients (50.3% of total) originated from home, 10 from group homes (6.1% of total), and 72 from nursing facilities (43.6% of total). Mortality was 62.4%, highest for nursing home residents (80.6%). Findings from 253 sputum cultures overall did not suggest acute bacterial or fungal infection in 73 (45%) of 165 individuals sampled within 24 h of intubation. Cultures ≥ 1 week following intubation did grow potential pathogens in 72 (64.9%) of 111 cases with 70.8% consistent with late pneumonia and 29.2% suggesting colonization. Twelve (10.8% of total) of these late post-intubation cultures revealed worsened antimicrobial resistance predominantly in Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, or Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, a radiographic ground glass interstitial pattern and lack of purulent sputum prior to/around the time of intubation correlated with no culture growth or recovery of normal oral flora ± yeast. Discontinuation of empiric antibacterials should be considered in these patients aided by other clinical findings, history of prior antimicrobials, laboratory testing, and overall clinical course. Continuing longterm hospitalisation and antibiotics are associated with sputum cultures reflective of hospital-acquired microbes and increasing antimicrobial resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable as this was a retrospective chart review study without interventional arm.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/complications , Fungi/drug effects , Mycoses/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Sputum/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , Female , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 683409, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370984

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the presence of bacteria and fungi in bronchial aspirate (BA) samples from 43 mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Methods: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 was performed using Allplex 2019-nCoV assay kits. Isolation and characterisation of bacteria and fungi were carried out in BA specimens treated with 1X dithiothreitol 1% for 30 min at room temperature, using standard culture procedures. Results: Bacterial and/or fungal superinfection was detected in 25 out of 43 mechanically ventilated patients, generally after 7 days of hospitalisation in an intensive care unit (ICU). Microbial colonisation (colony forming units (CFU) <1000 colonies/ml) in BA samples was observed in 11 out of 43 patients, whereas only 7 patients did not show any signs of bacterial or fungal growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 17 patients. Interestingly, 11 out of these 17 isolates also showed carbapenem resistance. The molecular analysis demonstrated that resistance to carbapenems was primarily related to OprD mutation or deletion. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the second most isolated pathogen found in 13 samples, of which 8 were carbapenemase-producer strains. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the detection of bacterial superinfection and antimicrobial resistance in severe SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and suggest that bacteria may play an important role in COVID-19 evolution. A prospective study is needed to verify the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections and their influence on the health outcomes of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Superinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/drug therapy
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100229, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129218

ABSTRACT

The impact of secondary bacterial infections (superinfections) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not well understood. In this prospective, monocentric cohort study, we aim to investigate the impact of superinfections in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients are assessed for concomitant microbial infections by longitudinal analysis of tracheobronchial secretions, bronchoalveolar lavages, and blood cultures. In 45 critically ill patients, we identify 19 patients with superinfections (42.2%). Superinfections are detected on day 10 after intensive care admission. The proportion of participants alive and off invasive mechanical ventilation at study day 28 (ventilator-free days [VFDs] at 28 days) is substantially lower in patients with superinfection (subhazard ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.90; p = 0.028). Patients with pulmonary superinfections have a higher incidence of bacteremia, virus reactivations, yeast colonization, and required intensive care treatment for a longer time. Superinfections are frequent and associated with reduced VFDs at 28 days despite a high rate of empirical antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Superinfection/diagnosis , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Superinfection/complications , Superinfection/epidemiology , Time Factors
11.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(1): 24-29, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091814

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute respiratory illness is the leading cause of hospitalization for young children. Current guidelines recommend against testing to identify specific viruses due to a lack of data on the benefit of such testing. This study was designed to characterize epidemiology, hospital course, and outcomes of the various common virus -related hospitalization in children. METHOD: Single-center retrospective chart review. All patients who had respiratory viral panel sent within 48 h of admission. Comparative demographic and outcome analysis. Statistical analysis using ANOVA and multivariable regression. RESULT: 1831 patients met the study criteria. Rhinovirus was the most common virus (55.9%). Coronavirus had the highest proportion of infants (61.2%), while influenza had the least (17.8%). Positive urine culture identified in 8.1% of patients, with blood and urine positivity at 2% each. Rhinovirus and parainfluenza were spread throughout the year, while Corona, RSV, and influenza were more predominant in winter months. Overall PICU admission rate 22.8% and was highest for RSV (28.0%) and lowest for adenovirus (13.5%). No difference in ICU length of stay among different virus. Intubation rate was 5.6% with a median duration of 5 days. Median hospital length of stay was 2 days and differ significantly with different virus (maximum four RSV and metapneumo virus). Mortality in the study population was 0.3%. CONCLUSION: The difference in the disease course of different viruses may justify the resources required to test for the respiratory viral panel. This study data can serve as a benchmark for comparison of disease course of COVID-19 compared to other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Symptom Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL