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1.
Germs ; 12(4):434-443, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245447

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study aimed to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from blood cultures in a tertiary-care hospital and the multiplex PCR assay's ability to detect resistance genes. Methods A total of 388 GNB isolates obtained from hospitalized patients between November 2019 and November 2021 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by VITEK 2 system and broth microdilution method. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex PCR assays, BioFire-Blood Culture Identification 2 (BCID2) panel (bioMerieux, France). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were detected phenotypically with VITEK AST-GN71 card (bioMerieux, France). The isolates of GNB were classified into multidrug-resistant, extensively-drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant categories, and their prevalence and distribution in different wards, including coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) intensive care units (ICU), were calculated. Results Results revealed that all isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were multidrug-resistant as well as 91.6% of Enterobacter cloacae, 80.6% of Proteus mirabilis, and 76.1% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. In fermentative bacteria, blaOXA-48-like (58.1%), blaNDM (16.1%), blaKPC (9.7%) and blaVIM (6.5%) genes were detected. More than half of Enterobacter cloacae (58.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (53.7%) produced ESBLs. Among non-fermenters, the blaNDM gene was carried by 55% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 19.5% of Acinetobacter baumannii. In the COVID-19 ICU, Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common isolate (86.1%). Conclusions This study revealed high proportions of multidrug-resistant blood isolates and various underlying resistance genes in Gram-negative strains. The BCID2 panel seems to be helpful for the detection of the most prevalent resistance genes of fermentative bacteria.Copyright © GERMS 2022.

2.
Current Drug Therapy ; 18(3):211-217, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243552

ABSTRACT

Background: Since patients admitted to the intensive care unit have a compromised im-mune system and are more prone to infection than other patients, timely diagnosis and treatment of corneal ulcers among this group of patients can prevent vision loss. Therefore, it is necessary to treat eye infections and corneal ulcers promptly and economize prohibitive costs. Objective(s): Appropriate treatment with the most effective antibiotic before the answer is available to prevent corneal ulcer complications and blindness. Method(s): This study was conducted from November 2019 to November 2020 and after approval by the ethics committee of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences with the code of ethics: IR.UMSHA.REC.1398.716. First, the corneal secretions of 121 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Sina Hospital are prepared by an ophthalmologist (after anesthetizing the cornea with tetra-caine drops and sterile swabs) and culture in four growth mediums (blood agar, chocolate agar, thio-glycolate, and EMB). Microbial cultures are examined after 48 hours and a fungal culture is examined one week later. Disc diffusions are placed in positive microbial cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility or resistance of the antibiogram was recorded. Other demographic data, including patients' age and sex, are extracted from ICU files. Also, test results and patient identifications are recorded in a checklist designed for this purpose. Result(s): Of all the antibiotics used against common bacteria, vancomycin (84%), colistin (80.43%), cefazolin (80%), and levofloxacin (60%) had the highest sensitivity and gentamicin (93.75%), ceftazidime (86.42%) Erythromycin (85%) had the highest resistance against isolated bacteria. Conclusion(s): The data obtained from this study showed that the most common microorganisms in the age group under the age of 30 years were Acinetobacter Baumannii, in the group of 30-60 years old was Klebsiella pneumonia, and age group over 61 years old was Staphylococcus aureus, and the most sensitive antibiotics in the age group under 30 years were vancomycin and levofloxacin and the age group30-60 were colistin and vancomycin and in the age group over 61 years were vancomycin and cefazolin.Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

3.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(6 Supplement):942-947, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240161

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem administration is an important therapy for nosocomial infections due to MDRO, especially Acinetobacter baumannii. The global increase in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) that causes this pathogen has significantly threatened public health due to the lack of adequate treatment options due to the very few currently available antimicrobial agents that actively fight CRAB. Antimicrobial resistance is a major negative impact of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing. Ineffective empiric treatment (initial antibiotic regimen not sensitive to identified pathogens based on in vitro sensitivity test results) is associated with a higher rate of deaths compared to effective empiric treatment. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between the suitability of empiric and definitive antibiotics and the clinical outcomes of patients with bacteremia due to CRAB treated in the inpatient ward of Dr. Soetomo Tertiary Referral Hospital, Surabaya. There were 227 isolates of bacteremia due to CRAB, consisting of 156 carbapenem-resistant A. baumanni and 71 carbapenem-sensitive A. baumannii. There were 88 isolates that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and all of them were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin. A total of 29.5% of the isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, 3.4% of the isolates were sensitive to tigecycline, and 2.3% of the isolates were sensitive to amikacin, levofloxacin, and cefoperazone sulbactam. Adequate empirical antibiotics and definitive antibiotics (sensitive based on culture sensitivity test) amounted to 12.5% and 27.3%, respectively. There is no significant correlation between the suitability of empiric and definitive therapies with the patients' clinical outcomes (death and length of stay).Copyright © 2022 Phcogj.Com.

4.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 11(1):102-112, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324143

ABSTRACT

Listeriosis is a saprozoonotic infection that occurs when eating foods contaminated with Listeria. Invasive forms of listeriosis can have extremely severe consequences. Respiratory viral diseases predispose to the occurrence of combined viral-bacterial infections. With a mixed infection of listeriosis and COVID-19, a severe course of the disease is observed, which has a serious prognosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of various variants of invasive listeriosis and their outcomes in the period before the COVID-19 pandemic and against the background of its development, as well as to determine the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes isolates. Material and methods. We analyzed 55 cases of invasive listeriosis in patients observed in 2018-2021 in various medical organizations in Moscow. The diagnosis was established on the basis of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data, listeriosis was confirmed by bacteriological and molecular genetic methods, COVID-19 was confirmed by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in an oropharyngeal swab using real-time RT-PCR, as well as computed tomography of the lungs. Results. During the current COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021), the incidence of listeriosis in pregnant women and invasive listeriosis occurring in the form of sepsis and/or lesions of the central nervous system did not differ significantly from similar indicators registered in 2018-2019. Listeria sepsis and/or meningitis/meningoencephalitis in association with severe SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus infection are at high risk of death. During the years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the diversity and range of L. monocytogenes genotypes in invasive listeriosis changed, new genotypes appeared that were not previously characteristic of the Russian Federation. Conclusion. The likelihood of developing listeriosis sepsis and/or meningitis/meningoencephalitis against the background of a severe course of COVID-19, and a high risk of an adverse outcome, require increased awareness of medical workers in the field of diagnosis and treatment of invasive listeriosis in order to conduct the earliest and most adequate antibiotic therapy.Copyright © 2022 Geotar Media Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S135, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321593

ABSTRACT

Intro: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus - A.baumannii complex is an opportunistic pathogen that has emerged as one of the multidrug resistant organism frequently associated with nosocomial infections especially causing ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP). Colistin and Polymyxin B are currently being used as salvage therapy for treating MDR Acinetobacter spp. However, the emergence of resistance of colistin has been reported and treatment is further complicated by poor lung tissue penetration. Thus, we implied to explore on the prevalence of its resistance in our own facility, being the national COVID-19 referral hospital. Method(s): This is a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of MDR Acinetobacter spp. done for isolates of 2019 and 2021. Only clinically significant isolates were sent to Institute of Medical Research (IMR) for colistin susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. The identification of the isolates was performed by Bruker MALDI-ToF. CLSI breakpoints were used to determine susceptibility, applying the change of breakpoints interpretation in year 2020. Finding(s): In 2021, out of 203 isolates, 195 (96%) were Acinetobacter baumannii. Other spp. isolated were A. nosocomialis (6, 3%) and A. proteolyticus (2, 1%). Out of that, 107 (52.7%) were resistant with MIC of >4 ug/ml and 96 (47.3 %) were intermediate with MIC of <2 ug/ml. Pre-pandemic, resistance rates were compared with 2019 and this showed 47% were resistant with MIC of >4 ug/ml and 52% were susceptible with MIC <2 ug/ml. Clinical characteristics of patients were analysed;previous use of carbapenem, ventilation history, length of stay, and outcome (alive or deceased). Most of patients were severely ill with majority of admissions due to Category 4-5 COVID-19 and required ventilation in critical care unit. Previous carbapenem exposure was not significantly associated with colistin resistance (p=0.936). Conclusion(s): Emergence of colistin resistant MDR Acinetobacter spp. is alarming. Infection control measures are crucial and other therapeutic options need to be explored to improve quality of care.Copyright © 2023

6.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 10(3):15-22, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326598

ABSTRACT

Frequency of bacterial co-infections among patients with COVID-19 is not high, and over-prescribing of antibiotics may contribute the selection of resistant strains of enterobacteria and gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria. The aim of the study was to assess the local features of antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae and its genetic mechanisms against background of the COVID-19 infection pandemic. Material and methods. There was selected 37 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains isolated in 2016, 2017 and 2020 from hospitalized patients, including 15 strains, isolated from patients with COVID-19 infection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meropenem and colistin were determined by broth microdilution method. Determination of MICs of eravacycline, ceftazidime/avibactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam was performed using Sensititre diagnostic system on EUMDROXF plates. Susceptibility to 11 combinations of 2 antibiotics was detected by modified method of multiply combination bactericidal testing. For 4 K. pneumoniae strains high-throughput sequencing was performed, followed with the subsequent search for determinants of antibiotic resistance and virulence, assessment of plasmid profiles. Results. All strains were resistant to meropenem (MIC50 32 mg/l, MIC90 128 mg/l) and produced KPC and OXA-48 carbapenemases. Strains isolated in 2016-2017 were susceptible to colistin (MIC <=2 mg/l), in 2020 only 26.7% of the strains retained their susceptibility (MIC50 64 mg/l, MIC90 256 mg/l). Susceptibility to combinations of two antibiotics with colistin included reduced from 84.6-100% in 2016-2017 till 26.6-66.7% in 2020. The strains isolated in 2020 retained their susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam (MIC <=1 mg/l). 5 strains resistant to cefiderocol with a MIC 8 mg/l were identified. Strains 2564 and 3125 isolated in 2020 from sputum of patients with COVID-19 infection belonged to different sequence-types (ST12 and ST23) and contained the blaOXA-48 carbapenemase gene, additionally strain 2564 contained the blaKPC-27carbapenemase gene. Resistance to colistin was caused by inactivation of the mgrB genes due to insertion of IS1 and IS5-like transposons. Conclusion. The performed genetic studies demonstrate a diversity of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae leading to the formation of resistance including to antibiotics that haven't been used in Belarus till now.Copyright © 2021 Geotar Media Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved.

7.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 11(4):47-55, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324703

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause severe nosocomial infections and sepsis, especially in immunocompromised comorbid patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the frequency, clinical course, and the possibility of antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections caused by P. aeruginosa in patients with COVID-19. Material and methods. A retrospective single-center uncontrolled study was performed from October 1, 2020 to September 31, 2021 on the basis of a temporary infectious diseases hospital for patients with COVID-19 at the City Clinical Hospital No. 52, Moscow. During the analyzed period, 16 047 patients were admitted to the infectious diseases hospital. The study included 46 patients over 18 years of age with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by PCR RNA SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (U 07.1) and/or computed tomography (CT) of the lungs (U 07.2). Statistical data processing was carried out using the BioStat, 2009 program (AnalystSoft, USA). Results and discussion. P. aeruginosa has been isolated from the blood of 0.29% of patients with COVID-19. In the structure of bacteremia, P. aeruginosa accounted for 6.1%. In 87% of cases, pathogens were isolated from the blood of patients in the ICU. Most strains are classified as XDR phenotypes - 74% and MDR - 21.7%. The sensitivity of hospital strains of P. aeruginosa was: to colistin - 97%, to amikacin - 39.1%, meropenem - 32.6%. All patients had concomitant diseases: cardiovascular (60%), oncological (27.5%), diabetes mellitus (20%), obesity (22.5%) and others. In 47.5% of cases (19/40), the cause of bloodstream infections was ventilator-associated pneumonia. The mortality rate among patients with COVID-19 with P. aeruginosa bacteremia is 80%. Conclusion. The wide distribution of multidrug-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa limits the number of therapeutic options. In severe bloodstream infections caused by P. aeruginosa XDR, combined antibiotic therapy regimens with the inclusion of polymyxin B are advisable.Copyright © 2022 Tomsk Polytechnic University, Publishing House. All rights reserved.

8.
Critical Care Conference: 42nd International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium ; 27(Supplement 1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318776

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We aimed to describe the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of bacterial and fungal co-infections and superinfections in intensive care patients with COVID-19 in a retrospective observational study. Method(s): A retrospective cohort of intensive care patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed from January to March 2021. This was contrasted to a control group of influenza-positive patients admitted during 2012-2022. Patient demographics, microbiology and clinical outcomes were analysed. Result(s): A total of 70 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included;6 (8.6%) of 70 had early bacterial isolates identified rising to 42 (60%) of 70 throughout admission. Blood cultures, respiratory samples, and urinary samples were obtained from 66 (94.3%), 18 (25.7%) and 61 (87.1%) COVID-19 patients. Positive blood culture was identified in 13 patients (18.6%). Bacteraemia resulting from respiratory infection was confirmed in 3 cases (all ventilator-associated). Line-related bacteraemia was identified in 9 patients (6 Acinetobacter baumannii, 4 Enterococcus spp. and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 Micrococcus lylae). No concomitant pneumococcal, Legionella or influenza co-infection was detected. Invasive fungal infections with Aspergillus spp. were identified in 2 cases. Pneumococcal coinfections (7/68;10.3%) were identified in the control group of confirmed influenza infection;clinically relevant bacteraemias (6/68;8.8%), positive respiratory cultures (15/68;22.1%). The rate of hospital- acquired infections was 51.4% for COVID-19 and 27.9% for influenza. Longer intensive care stay, type 2 diabetes, obesity and hematologic diseases were independent risk factors for superinfections in the COVID-19 cohort. Conclusion(s): Respiratory coinfections occurred in influenza but not in COVID-19 patients. The rate of hospital-acquired infections (51.4% for COVID-19;27.9% for influenza) was unexpectedly high in both groups.

9.
Journal of Medical Sciences (Taiwan) ; 43(2):56-62, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315441

ABSTRACT

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii can reside in humans without causing infection or symptoms but can opportunistically cause community and nosocomial infections. Few studies from Taiwan have used national-level data to investigate antibiotic resistance rates of A. baumannii infections in the intensive care units (ICUs) of medical centers. Aim(s): This study determined the number of infection sites of A. baumannii and the resistance rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections in ICUs in Taiwan, and identified trends over time, variations of infection site, and factors associated with resistance. Method(s): This study used the database provided by Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control. Yearly, Taiwan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Surveys from 2008 to 2019 were analyzed, including data on the site of infection and resistance rates of A. baumannii and patient and hospital characteristics. Result(s): On average, 21 hospitals as medical center/year participated in the survey, and 6803 A. baumannii isolates were identified. All isolates were health care-related infections. The most frequent sites of infection were the urinary tract (50.6%), respiratory tract (19.6%), bloodstream (18.2%), surgical wounds (4.3%), and others (7.4%). Infection rates were the highest in the urinary tract in 2019 (63.6%;P < 0.001). On average, the rate of carbapenem resistance was 66.6% (95% confidence interval: 63.1-70.1) among ICU patients at medical centers. Considerable regional differences were observed, with the highest rates of resistance in the central regions. Higher resistance rates were observed between 2019 and 2020 COVID-19 pandemic (74.2%). Conclusion(s): This is the first report on the prevalence of health care-related A. baumannii infection in Taiwan in 2008-2019. Several invasive diseases, such as urinary tract infections, are associated with higher rates of carbapenem resistance. The resistance rate of CRAB in Taiwan is exceptionally high. The current big-data-derived findings may inform future surveillance and research efforts in Taiwan.Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S51, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes ARGs and their resistance genetic mechanisms among Covid- 19 patients are yet to be identified. The human microbiome is a significant reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. The overprescription of antimicrobials can select multi-resistant bacteria and modify the repertoire of ARGs in the gut. The World Health Organization has reported 148 million hospitalized cases worldwide. Objective(s): The purpose of the current study is to explore the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, furthermore, to review their antibiotic resistance gene occurrence. Methodology 438 Microbiome of clinical hospitalized COVID-19 positive cases with 11 129 isolates were downloaded from the EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute and the NCBI Pathogen Detection using the following keywords AMR, mechanism of resistance, and COVID-19 SARS CoV 2 bacterial Infection.We also have used the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database Card, and RESfinder are used for the metagenomics analysis based on programming languages JavaScript and R (v. 4) for data analysis. Result(s): We explored the AMR diversity among prevalent microbes(n = 410), including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii E. coli, Salmonella, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.We found that Enzyme activation (72.7%) was the most prevalent mechanism due to the fosA gene 54.5%. Then the aadA2 gene (18%) and catA1 gene(9%). Moreover, the Increased efflux mechanisms were detected in Escherichia coli towards Quinolone using the oqxA gene (17.3%). FosA was also intermittently found in Salmonella (9.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.8%). Conclusion(s): We anticipate that FosA homologous is prevalent in Gram-negative bacterial infections among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and it encodes for Fosfomycin resistance. The findings might shed light on controlling Fosfomycin resistance among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

11.
Pharmacia ; 70(1):225-231, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2290506

ABSTRACT

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes confer low resistance to Fluoroquinolones (FQs). This study aims to detect five PMQR genes among FQs-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens. Out of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates, 68 FQs-resistance K. pneumoniae were included in a molecular study. Standard microbiological tests were used for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. For the detection of PMQR genes, conventional polymerase chain reaction was used. A molecular study revealed that (73.5%) of samples harbored PMQR genes, and among them, 58% were co-carriages of PMQR gene variants. Aac (6')-Ib-cr gene was predominant (47.1%) among samples, and qepA had the lowest percentage (11.8%), qnr genes were (32.4%) (29.4%) (20.6%) qnrS, qnrB, and qnrA respectively. Overall, high percentages of PMQR genes were detected, and almost all of samples were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. As well, there was a significant statistical relationship between phenotypically ESBL-producers and qnrB and qepA genes.Copyright © Abdulkareem MM et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

12.
Kliniceskaa Mikrobiologia i Antimikrobnaa Himioterapia ; 23(1):17-25, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2302809

ABSTRACT

Objective. To review a literature published over the past 5 years and our own data on the etiology of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), antimicrobial resistance and its relationships between sepsis and choice of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Materials and methods. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) criteria were used to diagnose LRTI. A review of the articles regarding LRTI from the Russian and international English language journals published over 6 years was performed. Identification of microorganisms was performed by culture over the period of 2003-2013;since 2014, MALDI-TOF MS method was used for this purpose. Results. Despite the ongoing policy to limit the use of antimicrobial therapy in the ICUs, there is an increase in carbapenemase-producing isolates in the ICUs from 2.2% (2018) to 11.7% (2020, 9 months). Along with the trend to increase in carbapenemase-producing pathogens causing LRTI, their variability is also increasing. In particular, it applies to strains producing carbapenemases OXA-48 or combination of OXA- 48 with KPC;with the trend to combined production of carbapenemase beginning at 2019. Conclusions. Carbapenemase producers are becoming more widespread in the ICU settings, including the lower respiratory tract in mechanically ventilated patients. Practitioners didn't get used to associate VAP with the Sepsis-3 criteria. The changes in etiology include the increased rate of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, primarily Acinetobacter spp., in Russia. It's due to improved quality of respiratory support and increased consumption of carbapenems, tigecycline and polymyxins. Significant increase of OXA-48-producing pathogens is likely to be associated with a poor compliance with temporary guidelines on COVID-19 with regard to antibiotic therapy.Copyright © 2021, Interregional Association for Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

13.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2265763

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the impact of COVID-19 admissions during 1st and 2nd surges on bacteriology of ICU respiratory isolates. Method(s): Retrospective time trend analysis of bacterial respiratory isolates from a single centre, tertiary cardiothoracic ICU (CT-ICU) from patients admitted from Jan 2018- June 2021. We compared pre-COVID-19 (January 2018- March 2020) and COVID-19 periods (April 2020- June 2021) and surge periods (surge 1: March 2020- June 2020, surge 2: January- March 2021) to similar time frames in previous years. Chi-square test used to compare proportions. Result(s): 4974 respiratory isolates (Sputum-4230, BAL-563, ET secretions-181) included. During surge 2, culture positivity and gram-negative rates tripled from baseline (20% to 75%;p<0.05). Comparing the pre- pandemic to pandemic period, rates of Klebsiella sp, Acinetobacter sp and Stenotrophomonas sp increased from 12% to 21.3%, 2.4% to 6.2% and 10.5% to 14.3% respectively, while Pseudomonas sp dropped from 30.7% to 23.1% (all p<0.05). MDR Pseudomonas increased significantly from 38.9% to 47.9% (p<0.05), with a non-significant increase in MRSA (5.2% to 9.3%;p=0.34) and MDR enterobacterales (22.6% to 23%;p=0.48). Conclusion(s): This is the first report from a UK CTICU showing a marked epidemiological shift in the bacteriology of respiratory isolates in terms of organism profile, increase in culture positivity and MDR Pseudomonas rates during the pandemic. Analyzing trends on longevity of the findings will help guide changes to infection control and antibiotic policies. This emphasizes the importance of unit specific ecology in choosing appropriate timely antimicrobial therapy and therefore improving patient outcome.

14.
Biomedicine (India) ; 43(1):157-163, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2279150

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces is regulated by several pathogens' virulence factors, and this is thought to be at the root of the bacteria's resistance to antibiotics. We hope to learn how temperature, pH, and iron concentrations influence the development of biofilms in A. baumannii isolated from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 individuals, and which genes are relevant for biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Material(s) and Method(s): Eight strong adherent isolates of A. baumannii from respiratory tract infection Iraqi patients (4 from COVID-19 and the other from non-COVID-19 just respiratory patients) had been used in this study which conducted from 10/1/2021 to 10/2/2022. The antibiotic sensitivity of all isolates was determined using the VITEK-2 system. The biofilm associated genes OXA-51, bap, Chaperone Usher (CsuE) and Integron-1, was detected using PCR. Isolates of A. baumainni were put through a battery of tests to determine whether they possessed the capacity to produce robust biofilms under a wide range of both physical (temperature, pH) and chemical circumstances. Result(s): A. baumannii showed that all isolates were multidrug resistant and positive for the biofilm genes studied. Effect on temperature on biofilm formation showed at 44C biofilm formation was significantly lower than that at 37C (mean differences of 0.178000 (t= 8.355, df:3, P=0.004) and 0.204000 (t=26.521, df:3, P=0.000) respectively). The adhesion factor value in the COVID-19 positive and negative groups decreased significantly because of the pH change. Iron concentration of 60 microM significantly lowered biofilm formation among COVID-19 group and non-COVID-19 group. Conclusion(s): A. baumanni are multidrug resistance isolates with a capacity to form biofilms. The ability to form biofilms by A. baumannii is strongly influenced by physical and chemical factors.Copyright © 2023, Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists. All rights reserved.

15.
Journal of Hypertension ; 41:e234-e235, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2245353

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19, a zoonotic disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a highly transmittable pathogenic viral infection, infecting millions of people globally. Guidelines recommendthe use of empiric antimicrobials based on clinical judgment, patient host factors and local epidemiology in patients suspected or confirmed severe COVID-19. However, current evidence does not support a high rate of bacterial respiratory co-infections in patients with SARSCOV- 2 infection. At present, there is no known study regarding the prevalence of bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 patients in the Philippines Methods: This research is a cross-sectional hospital-based study that utilized hospital electronic and printed medical records, chest radiograph and microbiologic results. All respiratory specimen bacteriologic results for the year 2020 and 2021 were collected from the hospital laboratory unit followed by review of the hospital electronic records, printed medical records and chest radiograph results. Data were analyzed using Two-tailed Z-test for significance test for proportions and Chi-square test. Results: Among 100 subjects, only 22% (n = 22) of the subjects were found to have bacterial isolates. the only demographic that is dependent with presence of bacterial infection is gender. The three most common bacterial isolate among COVID confirmed patients are Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 3). Although the most common bacterial isolate is Klebsiella pneumoniae, the most common bacterial co-infection in patients who died are Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 2, 29%)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2, 29%). Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial co-infection among COVID confirmed patients is relatively low, hence appropriate guidelines regarding antibiotic use should be formed taking into consideration local data on antimicrobial resistance.

16.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ; 24(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2231698

ABSTRACT

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most infectious diseases in the world. In this study, we intended to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis by MIRU-VNTR to define the changes that occur in the transmission of tuberculosis in the region during the COVID-19 era. A total of 120 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients referred to East Azerbaijan Center TB from December 2020 to August 2021. Demographic information such as age, sex, place of birth, previous TB history, and relevant medical data was collected. The proportion method was performed for drug susceptibility testing, and the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR method was applied to identify molecular epidemiology relationships. Result(s): The isolates were collected from 78 male (65%) and 39 female (32.5%) Iranian patients and 3 (2.5%) Azerbaijani patients. Ninety-three distinct patterns were identified including 15 clustered patterns and 36 unique patterns. The largest cluster was composed of seven isolates. Furthermore, one cluster with 5 members, four clusters with 3 members, and nine clusters with 2 members. In MIRU-VNTR typing, 75 clusters belonged to the Tabriz region and just 3 to the Republic of Azerbaijan. All isolates were sensitive to rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol. Conclusion(s): Results of the current study showed COVID-19 pandemic had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Less diagnosis and less clustering can indicate public controls and hygiene, and the use of masks had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, misidentification and less focus on other respiratory infections are expected during the pandemic. Studies on the co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis and the role of mask and sanitization against TB are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2023, The Author(s).

17.
Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi ; 47(1):185-195, 2023.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2229540

ABSTRACT

Objective: In recent years, the rapid spread of resistance caused by the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) among bacteria has increased the importance of K. pneumoniae bacteria. Regular monitoring of antibiotic resistance rates of bacteria is very important for the treatment of infections and new treatment methods that can be developed. In the study, it was aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and ESBL positivity rates of K. pneumoniae isolated from patients who applied to Biruni University Hospital between March 2020 and March 2021, covering the COVID-19 Pandemic. Material(s) and Method(s): In the study, antibiogram test results and ESBL presences of K. pneumoniae bacteria isolated from samples sent from different outpatient clinics and services were evaluated retrospectively. GraphPad InStat V. 3.05 was used for statistical analysis. Result and Discussion: In the study, 423 K. pneumoniae bacteria were isolated from different clinical samples. Of the isolates, 161 (38%) were obtained from the endotracheal aspirate (ETA) sample, and 349 (82.5%) were obtained from the intensive care clinic. In addition, 358 (84.63%) of the isolates were ESBL positive and 65 (15.36%) ESBL negative. It was observed that the majority of the isolates obtained were resistant to ampicillin, and almost all of the ESBL positive isolates were resistant to ceftazidime. Both the studies and the results of the study show that the number of K. pneumoniae strains showing multiple antibiotic resistance has increased over time and this increase continues exponentially. Copyright © 2023 University of Ankara. All rights reserved.

18.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S569, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189834

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 affected the epidemiology ofmany respiratory pathogens including GAS. Assessing genetic heterogeneity (emmtype, antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors) can inform treatment recommendations and targets for potential GAS vaccines. We assessed GAS clinical antibiotic susceptibility and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) among pediatric pharyngeal isolates from 2020-2022. Methods. From 1/2020-3/2022 we collected throat swabs in pediatric clinics and EDs from children aged 3-18 years in Chicago, IL;Atlanta, GA;Portland, OR;and Phoenix, AZ: 1) with acute GAS pharyngitis and 2) among a convenience sample of asymptomatic children to assess for GAS colonization. Swabs were plated on blood agar. E-tests were used to assess clinical susceptibility to erythromycin (ERY) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). emm type and antimicrobial resistance genes (ERY, Clindamycin (CLI), and fluoroquinolones) were assessed by WGS. Results. 1144 pharyngeal swabs were collected: 359/684 (52%) from children with GAS pharyngitis by rapid test and 20/460 (4.3%) from asymptomatic children yielded GAS on culture. Phenotypic resistance: 55/364 (15%) tested isolates were ERY resistant and 5/364 (1.4%) CIP resistant. The proportion of isolates with ERY resistance increased significantly from 2020 (6%) to 2021-2022 (25%) (chi2 = 23.70, p< .00001) (Figure 1). MICs were high among ERY resistant GAS (Table 1). Genotypic resistance: Of 304 sequenced GAS isolates 40/304 (13%) were ERY resistant, 35/304 (11.5%) were both ERY resistant and CLI (inducible or constitutive) resistant, and 4/304 (1.3%) fluoroquinolone resistant. ermB (62%) was the most common gene for ERY resistance and constitutive CLI resistance, followed by ermTR (23%) and ermT (11%) both conferring inducible CLI resistance. Among the 20 isolates from asymptomatic children no ERY, CLI, or CIP resistance occurred, and no resistance genes were identified. emm types 11, 9, 77, 58 and 94 were associated with ERY and CLI resistance. Conclusion. ERY resistance increased from 2020-2022. The high rate of CLI resistance among ERY resistant GAS was associated with erm genes. These results are important to inform treatment recommendations for GAS pharyngitis and targets for vaccine development that can reduce antimicrobial-resistant GAS disease.

19.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189655

ABSTRACT

Background. P. aeruginosa is a cause of hospital-acquired and ventilatorassociated pneumonia. Hypermutator P. aeruginosa strains have been described in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic respiratory infections but are rare in patients with acute P. aeruginosa infection. This case describes a hypermutator strain of P. aeruginosa found in a patient with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods. Serial respiratory and blood cultures were collected. Short-read sequencing libraries were prepared using the Illumina Nextera XT kit, and wholegenome sequencing was performed using the Illumina NextSeq platform. Long-read sequencing libraries were prepared from unsheared genomic DNA using ligation sequencing kit SQK-LSK109 and sequenced on the Oxford MinION platform. Single nucleotide variants were identified by aligning reads from each isolate to the complete genome of the first available clinical isolate. Hypermutator assays were performed by measuring the mutation frequency rate for rifampin resistance. Antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were performed. Growth curves were performed with a starting OD600 of 0.1 with measurements taken every 30 minutes for 24 hours. Results. Seventeen respiratory and five blood isolates were obtained throughout 62 days of hospitalization. Fourteen of the 22 isolates exhibited hypermutator phenotypes by rifampin resistance assays, which demonstrated rapid accumulation of mutations. All five bloodstream isolates were hypermutators. MIC testing noted increased resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and aztreonam in the hypermutator isolates. All bloodstream isolates descended from a single progenitor noted on whole-genome sequencing. Each hypermutator strain contained a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutL, previously associated with the hypermutator phenotype. Genetic Tree of Patient Isolates The genetic tree highlights hypermutator versus non-hypermutator single nucleotide variants Conclusion. This case was notable for multiple isolates of hypermutator P. aeruginosa that persisted over weeks. The patient's COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome may have facilitated persistence of the P. aeruginosa lineage, allowing a hypermutator lineage to emerge.

20.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S200-S201, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189620

ABSTRACT

Background. Coinfections, both bacterial and viral, occur with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but prevalence, risk factors, and associated clinical outcomes are not fully understood. Methods. We used the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance platform to investigate the occurrence of viral and bacterial coinfections among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during March 2020 and February 2022. Patients receiving additional standard of care (SOC) molecular testing for viral pathogens (14 days prior to admission or 7 days after), including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV), influenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and endemic coronaviruses, were included. SOC testing for clinically relevant bacterial pathogens (7 days before admission or 7 days after) from sputum, deep respiratory, and sterile sites were included. The demographic and clinical features of those with and without bacterial infections were compared. Results. Among 2,654 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 and tested for all 7 virus groups, another virus was identified in 3.1% of patients. RV/EV (1.2%) and influenza (0.4%) were the most commonly detected viruses. Half (17,842/35,528, 50.2%) of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 had bacterial cultures taken within 7 days of admission, and 1,092 (6.1%) of these had a clinically relevant bacterial pathogen. A higher percentage of those with a positive culture died compared to those with negative cultures (32.3% vs 13.3%, p< 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate overall;Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the second most common respiratory isolate This figure includes 1,408 bacterial cultures from 1,066 individuals. Deep respiratory sites include endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bronchial washings, pleural fluid, and lung tissue. Commensal organisms were excluded. Conclusion. Consistent with previous studies, a relatively low proportion of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 had concomitantly identified viral or bacterial infections. Identification of a bacterial infection within 7 days of admission is associated with increasedmortality among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Conclusions about the clinical relevance of bacterial infections is limited by the retrospective nature of this study.

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