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1.
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal ; 26(1):59-72, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045923

ABSTRACT

Home field advantage has been a commonly discussed and researched topic in sports. How much of this advantage is due to the home team's supporters' physical attendance at the game where they might encourage their team, intimidate the opponent, and influence game officials? We utilize the unique natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic and consider the case of American professional (NFL) and collegiate (NCAA) football to examine this question. We measure how typical spreads, relative to home teams, changed in the 2020 season compared to their historical levels, and we determine that roughly half of what football fans and analysts consider to be home field advantage emanates from spectators. Generally, the betting market was rather accurate in its predictions of how football game results would change in 2020, during the pandemic, so that wagering strategies failed when based on the betting market possibly underappreciating or overcorrecting for home field advantage without fans.

2.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

3.
Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics ; 25(7):1291-1306, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001132

ABSTRACT

From March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic influenced elite sport as uncertainty and restrictions came with the crisis. National teams had to implement crisis management. This qualitative case study examines how the leader group led and managed the Norwegian national women's handball team through three phases of the crisis, trying to uphold performance. We found that collective leadership efforts led to new ways to use digital communication tools and flexible management. From a framework of concepts from organisational culture, leadership, and management during a crisis, we argue that the leader group used the pandemic to take advantage of the opportunities. They implemented a focus on improving the players' physical and tactical conditions and their restitution. Furthermore, the leader group draw on robust institutional factors such as trust to handle the crisis. This study contributes to knowledge on leadership and management in a time of crisis and, in particular, on COVID-19.

4.
Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior ; 11(22):20-39, 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1995039

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the corona virus has had a significant impact on the economic situation of sport, and professional football has not been immune to these effects. This article discusses the main effects of this crisis on professional football. To conduct this research, 32 research articles published in 2020 in the list of authoritative publications of the Ministry of Science and Google Scholar database related to the research topic were reviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this analysis indicate 13 categories of effects of this virus in football. These effects were collected in two main categories. The first category includes the negative effects of corona on football, including the effects of corona on players, referees, the right to television broadcasting of clubs and football clubs, and the importance of fans and the impact of empty stadiums on club economies and corona financial losses on football. The next category is the positive effects of the corona virus in football, which also includes the readiness of the clubs, the positive effects of the corona virus on the referees, the environment, the low probability of harm to spectators, innovation, increasing solidarity and entrepreneurship. The study also briefly discusses the effects of the Corona virus on Iranian football.

5.
Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics ; 25(7):1307-1326, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1908632

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created challenges that forced professional sport organizations to adapt to transforming media environments. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the pandemic on sport organizations through dimensions of mediatization: perception, structure, and behavior. Data collection included South Korean and U. S. media outlets (newspapers articles and websites) and participants (three male and two female) who worked in the Departments of New Media and Promotion in the Korean Football and Professional Baseball leagues. Data analyses involved triangulation of evidence from newspapers, websites, and interviews. The findings of the study addressed four themes: disruptions and changes in communication environment, which occurred under an already heightened need for change to enter the global sport market, recognition of the need to develop new media content due to the worldwide impact of the pandemic, development of new media teams, and collaboration for the creation of new media content.

6.
South African Journal of Sports Medicine ; 34(12528), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841732

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 imposed challenges on professional sport, with restrictions leading to the delay in the completion of the South African Premier Soccer League (PSL). Creating a biologically safe environment (BSE) provided a solution enabling the 2019/2020 season to be completed. Objectives: Evaluating the impact that the BSE had on player wellness and what coping mechanisms were used in the BSE.

7.
International Journal of Sport and Health Science ; 19:81-86, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841647

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to explore spectators' worries and attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare them by age group. The survey was conducted with spectators at a home match for Victorina Himeji, a professional women's volleyball club in Japan. Two hundred and seventeen spectators rated their worries about becoming infected with COVID-19 after being in the arena as well as their attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal that spectators visiting the arena had significant levels of worry related to the attendees (e.g., "Gathering crowds of people in the arena" and "Possibility that someone in the arena is infected with COVID-19"). Furthermore, younger people were more worried about COVID-19 infection than other age groups, although no significant difference in attitudes appeared among the age groups. The findings of this study suggest the importance of practicing social distancing in the arena as well as measuring spectators' body temperature before they enter the arena. Furthermore, sport event organizers may need to implement the strategy of infection prevention based on spectators' age groups and other personal attributes.

8.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):120-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839943

ABSTRACT

Research question: This paper examines how displaying fans in the stadium using different types of visual content (pictures and videos) influences media consumers' responses to sport leagues previously unknown to them. Specifically, we investigate how high versus low displays of social atmospherics in pictures and videos affect consumers' cognitive (attributions of attractiveness to the league) and affective (emotional arousal) responses. In addition, we analyze how these responses transfer to intentions to watch future broadcasts. Research methods: The hypotheses are tested in two online experiments using one-factorial (social atmospherics: high versus low) between-subjects designs. The research context is German sport media consumers and promotional material of the Australian Football League (AFL). Results and findings: The findings suggest that displaying high (versus low) social atmospherics in pictures can increase the perceived attractiveness that consumers attribute to a new sport league, while such content in videos increases consumers' emotional arousal. These cognitive and affective processes transfer to intentions to view future broadcasts of the league. Implications Our findings imply that while on-site fans are declining in relative numbers in media-dominated professional team sport markets, these fans are highly relevant for the success of team sport-related media offers and the attraction of new consumers.

9.
International Journal of Sport Finance ; 16:3, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780447

ABSTRACT

This paper examines whether sports betting markets are semi-strong form efficient-i.e., whether new information is rapidly and completely incorporated into betting prices. The researchers use news on ghost games in the top European football leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic as a clean arrival of new public information. Because spectators are absent during ghost games, the home advantage is reduced, and the researchers test whether this information is fully reflected in betting prices. Our results show that bookmakers and betting exchanges systematically overestimated a home team's winning probability during the first period of the ghost games, which suggests that betting markets are, at least temporally, not semi-strong form efficient. Examining different leagues, the researchers find that our main results are driven by the German Bundesliga, which was the first league to resume operations. The researchers exploit a betting strategy that yields a positive net payoff over more than one month.

10.
Managing Sport and Leisure ; 27(1/2):72-78, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1778856

ABSTRACT

This commentary serves to provide a rapid analysis of the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on sporting mass gatherings. The focus of this commentary surrounds sporting mass gatherings and strategies to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, with a particular focus on the UEFA EURO 2020 competition. Further references to the 2020 Olympic Games, and community recreational football are made. The intention is to stimulate discussion, analysis, interest and research on what the initial impact of COVID-19 has on sport. COVID-19 could fundamentally change the way sport operates in the future and requires further analysis. We hope this commentary provides an interesting record and reference point for future research and practice of those operating in sporting organisations. Learning lesson from this crisis, must ensure sport managers and practitioners are better prepared in sport and society for similar events in the future.

11.
Managing Sport and Leisure ; 27(1/2):162-165, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769093

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has had huge ramifications on professional football. This commentary focuses on the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of professional footballers. Specifically, footballers within the English Premier League, English Football League, FA Women's Super League and FA Women's Championship. This commentary considers a holistic approach to mental health, the environment of professional football, and the impact of career transitions and critical moments on mental health. The intention is to stimulate discussion and further research of mental health and wellbeing within professional football. This paper considers the impact of Covid-19 and makes recommendations for professional football clubs to develop a holistic mental health strategy. We recommend that professional clubs increase the level of emotional support for professional footballers, and that this should not be a temporary measure due to the pandemic. Clubs should develop a long-term strategy to encourage players to seek emotional support.

12.
Managing Sport and Leisure ; 27(1/2):119-128, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769089

ABSTRACT

Our aim in this short article is to provide an analysis of the implications of reopening football stadium doors to a group that have not been at the forefront of management consideration - disabled spectators. In order to achieve this aim, we uphold a social model approach to disability to review the current spectator sport situation across English professional football and outline the problems posed for disabled fans. We then provide the context to disabled people's experiences in football fandom which have often been unsatisfactory. This context then underpins a series of implications that will arise from the reopening of stadia in England. To conclude this commentary, we provide several management recommendations that we argue should facilitate a more disability-inclusive restart for spectator sport.

13.
Managing Sport and Leisure ; 27(1/2):102-112, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769088

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has sent a shockwave into society and sport. As result of this, sport and football resuming without spectators - fans or supporters, has brought a number of financial issues that has threatened the sustainability and future of many clubs. This commentary unpicks what has happened and some of the tensions, decision-making and consequences surrounding the return of spectators. The commentary presents the case that spectators are key to the survival of football clubs and that the United Kingdom Government must reverse their decision to not let spectators return. Now more than ever, these words hold substance, meaning and truly matter to clubs and their networked communities, "Football without fans is nothing".

14.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 21(3):350-373, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769044

ABSTRACT

Research question: In this short article, the researchers explore whether highly diversified professional football clubs, from an investor perspective, are better prepared for an unpredictable global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic than undiversified clubs. Research methods: The researchers apply event study methodology to analyze stock returns of football clubs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 21(3):391-405, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769043

ABSTRACT

Research question: This study looks at stadium attendances in elite-level European football, to suggest how people responded to the initial COVID-19 outbreak. This offers insight into how professional sports will emerge from social lockdowns and competition taking place behind closed doors. Research methods: The analysis focuses on the top leagues of England, Italy, France, Spain and Germany. Using panel data methods and exploiting the variation in day-to-day attendances in these leagues, the impacts on implied spectator demand from the news of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths can be quantified. Results and Findings: In Italy, England and Germany, stadium attendances were negatively affected by the previous day's newly confirmed domestic cases or deaths. In Spain and France, there was no attendance response to the early stages of the domestic outbreaks. Implications: COVID-19 was affecting football match spectator demand before European countries enforced lockdowns and other restrictions to suppress the spread of the disease. This suggests that fans significantly responded to the risk of catching the virus. If this risk remains when stadiums reopen, then sports organisations should expect reduced ticket demand. This suggests that managers should adopt more dynamic and creative pricing strategies, and use their stadiums in more innovative ways, if they are to survive financially in a world where COVID-19 remains a threat to public health.

16.
Ovidius University Annals, Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health Series ; 21(2):199-204, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766537

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The issue of correcting the wrongly acquired technical drills is a constant concern for teachers and coaches, as well as for football players. The purpose of this research was to establish the shortcomings that had contributed to the wrong acquisition of the technical drill or drills and the use of a training program in the sports training lessons meant to correct these shortcomings. Method: The investigated sample group consisted of 18 children aged 13-14, football players at Junior Galati Football School. Due to the situation created by the Covid-19 pandemic, the study was conducted during the state of alert, respectively between August and December 2020, when the training was carried out in groups of 3-6 players, according to the protocol imposed by the Romanian Football Federation. The experimental research took place at the Siderurgistul Stadium in Galati, on a standard pitch with synthetic surface. The training program was applied three times a week, with a duration of 60-70 minutes. The assessment of shortcomings and the correction of technical drills were achieved it by applying football-specific tests, approved by the Technical Committee of the Romanian Football Federation, tests applied at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. For the statistical analysis we used IBM SPSS Statistics, version 23. The t test for two pair samples is used to test whether the difference between the average values of the two groups is statistically significant. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) shows whether or not there is any dependence between two phenomena as well as their degree of correlation. The significance threshold considered for the statistical tests is a = 0.05. Results: The results obtained validate the working hypotheses and show the significant progress (p <0.05) for all tests used in assessing the correction of the wrongly learned technical drills. Conclusions: During correction work, the player must be aware of the causes and content of the mistakes and the correct form of execution. The mental representation of the correct execution of the technical drill or drills has an important role for the player.

17.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 21(3):333-349, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1747008

ABSTRACT

Research question: The COVID-19 pandemic created a crisis rife with complexity and ethical dilemmas for sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to examine the decision-making process of one such organization, the National Basketball Association (NBA), during the pandemic. Specifically, the researchers draw from theories on decision-making and business ethics to understand how decisions were made. Research methods: The researchers conducted an inductive qualitative content analysis on NBA media coverage between 21 January and 10 July 2020. A total of 152 articles were identified and included in an analysis from ESPN.com, the most prominent sports news outlet in the United States. Results and findings: Findings suggest that decision-making in the NBA was characterized by the cognitive limits of bounded rationality and the moral limits of bounded morality. The NBA's decision-making process swayed between caution and risk as priorities shifted, with the league, teams, and players focusing on various repercussions to health and safety, finances, and competitive advantage. Implications: This research expands understanding of how crises such as a pandemic impact decision-making in sport organizations. In addition, it highlights how bounded rationality and morality affect decision-making in situations that are complex, time-sensitive, and include moral conflicts, which sport organization leaders may frequently encounter.

18.
The Sport Journal ; 24(27), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743780

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global issue, posing a great risk and challenge to all facets of sport. Such spontaneous societal restrictions and considerations are posing immense challenges to all, including those conducting laboratory-based coaching science experimental studies. This research report details the necessary amendments applied to a study that was designed prior to the onset of the pandemic. The study, entitled 'The Acute Effects of Selected Time Intervals Following Weighted Football Place-Kicks on Ball Velocity of a Standard Gaelic Football Place-Kick', was designed to be conducted in a human performance laboratory. However, due to the pandemic, a multitude of necessary amendments to the experimental set-up and associated procedures were required following a risk assessment of the original experimental design in respect of local, national and international COVID-19 health and safety guidelines. Amendments included remote participant recruitment and the creation of a COVID-19 health screen form. The participant information sheet was updated to enhance understanding of the health and safety requirements, with the number of participants permitted to attend testing sessions reduced to ensure maintenance of social distancing regulations. Data storage procedures were also updated and additional procedures were implemented to ensure safe arrival and exit of participants to and from the testing laboratory. A post-testing session protocol was developed to ensure laboratory sanitization. The purpose of this report is to (i) detail these procedural and methodological amendments that were applied to the original experimental design, and (ii) provide an overview of the implications of these changes as they pertain to the experimental procedure for the duration of data collection. Ultimately, the aim of this report is to provide researchers conducting laboratory-based coaching science studies with considerations pertaining to experimental design that may be impacted by COVID-19 and future pandemics.

19.
The Sport Journal ; 24(28), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743692

ABSTRACT

Athletic conferences worked to lower the cost of delivering athletic programs while operating during the COVID-19 global pandemic. One strategy was the use of concentrated schedules for competitions. For example, the Sun Belt Conference focused on divisional play and a concentrated schedule for women's volleyball for the 2020 season. Schools played three matches in a two-day period against the same team. This practice lowered travel costs and isolated player contact in the event of needed contact tracing as part of player safety protocols. This study evaluates the impact of this scheduling format on player performance and the overall quality of competition. Gathering data from the box scores from all Sun Belt Conference volleyball matches, the impact of player fatigue (daily and cumulative) is not present in the team statistics. Player performance and the overall quality of team play did not decline, even when playing three matches in a two-day period. Conference personnel and university athletic administrators may take comfort that their efforts to lower costs and ensure player safety during a global pandemic did not affect player performance and the overall quality of competition. It remains to be seen if this new scheduling approach will be used in the post-COVID period in women's volleyball and possibly expanded to other sports. The need to control/lower operating costs will not disappear. This constraint may lead to the adoption of new conference scheduling formats in the future.

20.
Staps: Revue Internationale des Sciences du Sport et de l'..ducation Physique ; 42(131 2021/1):5-127, 2021.
Article in English, French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1732988

ABSTRACT

This special 2021 issue on football by and for women is part of a double topicality. On the one hand, it aims to echo the unprecedented media, scientific and sporting dynamics, particularly stimulated by the 8th FIFA Women's World Cup organized in France between June 7 and July 7, 2019;on the other hand, it constitutes an inventory of the social situation of female footballers before the Covid-19 pandemic. Indeed, at the start of 2021, the time is still full of uncertainties and concerns, which contrasts sharply with the apparent success of the World Cup in that it made it possible to embody and augur progress for the feminization of sport: increase in licensees (especially in football where the bar of 200,000 licensees in France was crossed in March 2020, i.e. for the 50th anniversary of the integration of women in this federation), media coverage in full development, awareness inequalities at work in the policies of clubs and/or local authorities, etc.

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