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1.
Travel Behaviour and Society ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2106033

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which has spread since late 2019, has caused drastic changes in transportation use. A few studies have already addressed the relationships between COVID-19 and transportation mode choice. However, in most cases, the analysis has been based on transit ridership during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, few studies have focused on public bike use before and after COVID-19. This study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the ridership of public bikes and various determining factors of public bike use. An origin-destination (OD) analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used with public bike ridership data from Seoul, Korea. The findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows. First, this study confirms that public parks have significantly influenced the increase in public bike ridership since the COVID-19 outbreak. This finding indicates that outdoor spaces such as riverside parks have played important roles in public bike ridership during the pandemic period. Second, this study finds that accessibility to subway stations strongly impacts the increase in public bike ridership. This means that the demand for public bikes as a connected transportation mode has increased since COVID-19. Third, access to bike lanes has had a significant impact on the increase in public bike ridership. This finding indicates the importance of expanding the public bike infrastructure network. Finally, this study makes policy proposals to promote public bike ridership during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Information Processing & Management ; JOUR(1):103163, 60.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105149

ABSTRACT

Guided by three major theoretical frameworks, this meta-analysis synthesizes 17 empirical studies (15 articles with 18,297 participants, 13 of them are from non-representative samples) and quantifies the effect sizes of a list of antecedents (e.g., cognitive, affective, and social factors) on information avoidance during the COVID-19 context. Findings indicated that information-related factors including channel belief (r = -0.35, p < .01) and information overload (r = 0.23, p < .01) are more important in determining individual's avoidance behaviors toward COVID-19 information. Factors from the psychosocial aspects, however, had low correlations with information avoidance. While informational subjective norms released a negative correlation (r = -0.16, p < .1) which was approaching significant, positive and negative risk responses were not associated with information avoidance. Moderator analysis further revealed that the impacts of several antecedents varied for people with different demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, region of origin), and under certain sampling methods. Theoretically, this meta-analysis may help determine the most dominant factors from a larger landscape, thus providing valuable directions to refine frameworks and approaches in health information behaviors. Findings from moderator analysis have also practically inspired certain audience segmentation strategies to tackle occurrence of information avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; JOUR: 103443,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105063

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused online buying channels to flourish across the globe. However, the extent to which online channels in Pakistan assisted peoples in coping with the pandemic remains unknown. This study aims to examine peoples behavior and perceptions regarding online food purchasing and its impact on different aspects of food security. The data were collected through online surveys of 1067 respondents in Punjab and Sindh provinces during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that peoples access to food was adversely affected by the pandemic. However, people are increasingly purchasing food online, which has improved their accessibility to food. According to the findings, 62.51% of respondents reported to have changed their perception and behavior regarding online food purchasing. In addition, almost 46.40% of peoples reported that online shopping increased their access to food during the pandemic. Using logit regression, economic analysis shows that education, monthly income, and access to basic necessities such as clean drinking water, better sanitation, and better employment are positively related to online buying behavior. For future disaster situations in Pakistan to mitigate the adverse effects on food security, strengthening and promoting the use of online purchasing channels could be an important policy instrument.

4.
Computers & Security ; JOUR: 103008,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104679

ABSTRACT

Many researchers have studied non-expert users’ perspectives of cyber security and privacy aspects of computing devices at home, but their studies are mostly small-scale empirical studies based on online surveys and interviews and limited to one or a few specific types of devices, such as smart speakers. This paper reports our work on an online social media analysis of a large-scale Twitter dataset, covering cyber security and privacy aspects of many different types of computing devices discussed by non-expert users in the real world. We developed two new machine learning based classifiers to automatically create the Twitter dataset with 435,207 tweets posted by 337,604 non-expert users in January and February of 2019, 2020 and 2021. We analyzed the dataset using both quantitative (topic modeling and sentiment analysis) and qualitative analysis methods, leading to various previously unknown findings. For instance, we observed a sharp (more than doubled) increase of non-expert users’ tweets on cyber security and privacy during the pandemic in 2021, compare to in the pre-COVID years (2019 and 2020). Our analysis revealed a diverse range of topics discussed by non-expert users, including VPNs, Wi-Fi, smartphones, laptops, smart home devices, financial security, help-seeking, and roles of different stakeholders. Overall negative sentiment was observed across almost all topics in all the three years. Our results confirm the multi-faceted nature of non-expert users’ perspectives on cyber security and privacy and call for more holistic, comprehensive and nuanced research on their perspectives.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2138047, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107200

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has proven to be the most effective tool in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. While pregnant individuals are considered to be a high-risk population and are more likely to experience adverse effects from COVID-19, vaccination rates among pregnant individuals are significantly lower than in the general population. The Health Belief Model (HBM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), 3C model, 5C model, and 5A model have been used to assess vaccination hesitancy behaviors. In this paper, we review the use of each of these models to address vaccine hesitancy, with a focus on the pregnant population and the COVID-19 vaccine. The HBM, TPB, 3C model, and 5C model have demonstrated great versatility in their ability to evaluate, explain, and modify vaccine hesitancy and behavior. Up to date, the HBM and 3C models appear to be the most effective models to study and address vaccination hesitancy within the pregnant persons.

6.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
7.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e10892, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105013

ABSTRACT

Objective: The incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increased among healthcare workers (HCWs) during the outbreak of COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eating behavior and PTSD, considering the mediation effect of anxiety, depression and sleep. Methods: A total of 101 HCWs completed a survey. The Food-Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) were used to evaluate the diet. A special survey was conducted on the eating time of each shift mode. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Morning-Evening Questionnaire (MEQ) were utilized to assess clinical symptoms. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between the night shift eat midpoint (NEMP) and PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression as significant mediators. The last meal jet lag between night shift and day shift (NDLM) was related to PTSD symptoms significantly, and sleep and anxiety were significant mediators. The relationship between animal-based protein pattern and PTSD symptoms was statistically significant, and anxiety was the significant mediator. Conclusions: The earlier the HCWs eat in the night shift, the lighter the symptoms of PTSD. This is mediated by improving anxiety, depression and sleep disorder. Furthermore, the consumption of animal protein could reduce symptoms of PTSD by improving anxiety.

8.
British Columbia Medical Journal ; JOUR(9):383-389, 64.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2102244

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic amplified the need for community mental health supports--particularly for people with pre-existing health inequities--and social distancing mandates made in-person mental health groups inaccessible. The pandemic forced the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Skills Group program to rapidly transition from in-person to virtual group delivery for the first time. Methods: From March to December 2020, patients with mild to moderate mental health conditions were referred to the virtual groups. Participants completed online self-report measures (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) prior to the first session and after the final session and provided measures of satisfaction and confidence with the skills learned using a 5-point Likert scale. Before and after program results were compared using paired t tests and Cohen's d. A theme analysis of the qualitative data was conducted. Results: In 2020, the virtual program served 1773 participants through 170 groups. High levels of satisfaction with the virtual platform (4.6/5.0) and helpfulness of the program during the pandemic (4.7/5.0) were noted, and the no-attendance rate was 4.7%. Forty-three percent of participants who had previously completed in-person groups preferred the online modality. Conclusions: Virtual groups had equivalent effectiveness, safety, and attendance as prior in-person groups but improved accessibility, equity, and acceptability. Balancing competing values of accessibility, group cohesion, and confidentiality pose ongoing challenges. With the success of the online modality, there is increased accessibility to smaller communities and opportunities for collaboration with care providers across BC. [ FROM AUTHOR]

9.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; JOUR(5):1629-1642, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102185

ABSTRACT

In mid spring 2020, an unprecedented Covid-19 induced switch of learning mode, from face-to-face instruction to online learning, disrupted not only teachers, but also students, both cognitively and emotionally. This study seeks to understand how students felt about their capabilities to succeed in the online learning environment (OLE) and which online learning features (OLF), offered to them by their instructors, positively, negatively, or neutrally impacted their learning. Three research questions guided this study: (1) What online learning features did students perceive as contributing positively, negatively, or neutrally to their learning and how were these perceived contributions related to students' demographics?;(2) How did students feel about their capabilities to succeed in the OLE?;and (3) How did students' feelings change during their online learning experiences and how did these changes relate to students' gender, academic performance, and prior online experience? An online survey was designed and face-validated to solicit information about students' perceptions about online learning features and feelings about their capabilities to succeed in the OLE. The 13-item survey consisted of 10 multiple-choice/multiple-answer and 3 open-ended questions. One thousand two hundred and thirty-seven (N = 1237) students taking 27 different courses, from 6 different institutions participated in the study. Presentation of the qualitative analyses of open-ended survey responses is outside the scope of this paper. Findings suggest that the three most frequent OLFs provided to students were electronic homework submission, recorded video lectures, and electronic exams. While video lectures, homework electronics submission, and downloadable documents or files were reported to be the top three OLFs that contributed positively to students' learning, poor internet performance, online exams, and projects were the top three OLFs that were reported to have contributed negatively to student learning. Changes in students' feelings during the online learning experience were also reported.

10.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(1-B):No Pagination Specified, 84.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2101655

ABSTRACT

Both the HIV pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted underlying racial and socioeconomic health disparities in Louisiana, as well as in the United States. Neighborhood factors, such as community violence and social vulnerability, likely play a significant role in these disparities.The goals of this study were to examine the relationship between community violence exposure and HIV sexual risk behaviors and to examine the impact of neighborhood-level social vulnerability on HIV testing practices and COVID-19 incidence.Data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, the CDC Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Database, and the Louisiana Department of Health were analyzed. The CDC SVI was used to measure neighborhood-level social vulnerability, which comprises four related factors: socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, minority and language, and housing characteristics and transportation.First, the relationship between community violence exposure and HIV sexual risk behaviors was examined among an age-diverse population of heterosexually active adults. A positive association was observed between community violence exposure and HIV sexual risk behaviors. Gender did not modify this relationship.Second, the relationship between neighborhood-level social vulnerability and recent HIV testing history was examined. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic status was the only social vulnerability factor observed to be associated with recent HIV testing, where individuals residing in lower socioeconomic neighborhoods had lower odds of receiving a recent HIV test than those residing in higher socioeconomic neighborhoods. This association diminished as age increased.Third, the relationship between social vulnerability and COVID-19 incidence during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic within Louisiana census tracts was examined. All four factors measuring social vulnerability were found to be associated with COVID-19 incidence;Louisiana census tracts with higher levels of overall social vulnerability exhibited higher levels of COVID-19 incidences. The results of this study provide further evidence that neighborhood characteristics can influence health behaviors (e.g., sexual risk behaviors), access to healthcare (e.g., HIV testing), and health outcomes (e.g., COVID-19 infections). In conclusion, future public health initiatives should focus on identifying and removing barriers to health within identified vulnerable neighborhoods. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2101580

ABSTRACT

The retail industry contributes to the United States economy, and high turnover rates reduce the profitability of businesses, which affects their sustainability. The general problem is millennials employed in retail are not finding adequate leadership support and alignment with their career expectations or social beliefs. This qualitative single case study involved an embedded group of millennials employed as retail managers with at least three years of supervisory experience. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences and expectations involving effective leadership. The study involved using the generational theory, cognitive model of behavior, and servant leadership theory to address how perceptions of leadership are influenced by generational differences and leader behavior. Data collection from 8 semi-structured interviews was affected by the shared societal event of the COVID pandemic. Thematic analysis revealed transitional data from a follower's perspective to a leader's perspective and an emerging millennial leadership style. Millennials' skills and behaviors have evolved from life experiences and they can relate to other generations because of a need to know everything with a fearlessness to ask why. Future research of retail leadership will provide guidance to managers in the retail industry as they determine the style of leadership that fits their environment, culture, and employee needs. Reducing the voluntary turnover rate by putting people before profit in the retail industry will decrease the ripple effect that business closures have on local, state, and federal government sustainability. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
AIMS Mathematics ; JOUR(1):2201-2225, 8.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2099964

ABSTRACT

We develop a mathematical model considering behavioral changes and underreporting to describe the first major COVID-19 wave in Metro Manila, Philippines. Key parameters are fitted to the cumulative cases in the capital from March to September 2020. A bi-objective optimization problem is formulated that allows for the easing of restrictions at an earlier time and minimizes the number of additional beds ensuring sufficient capacity in healthcare facilities. The well-posedness of the model and stability of the disease-free equilibria are established. Simulations show that if the behavior was changed one to four weeks earlier before the easing of restrictions, cumulative cases can be reduced by up to 55% and the peak delayed by up to four weeks. If reporting is increased threefold in the first three months of the estimation period, cumulative cases can be reduced by 61% by September 2020. Among the Pareto optimal solutions, the peak of cases is lowest if strict restrictions were eased on May 20, 2020 and with at least 56 additional beds per day. © 2023 the Author(s).

13.
Ricerche Di Psicologia ; JOUR(2), 45.
Article in Italian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099082

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder refers to a neurodevelopment disorder that is cha ra c t e r i z e d by di f fi cul t i e s with social communication and social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns in behaviors, interests, and activities. During the lockdown, when social isolation and distancing become mandatory for everyone, disruption of daily routines (school, therapy, free time) is a risk factor especially for families with a child with autism disorder, because their children may have a freeze in the progress they had painstakingly achieved up to that point. In this study, we monitored 81 families of children with autism disorder, assessed before the onset of the lockdown and approximately 4 months later, to see which children's behaviors had worsened and which had remained stable or improved. The families were interviewed, in February and July 2020, using standardized rating scales. The results showed an intensification in the children of motor restlessness, difficulty in sleep regulation, while there were no worsening in self-harming or hetero-aggressive behaviors, nor in personal autonomy. It should be considered that all the families involved in the present research were involved in therapeutic paths and did not interrupt the path of psychological support (online), with the specific objective of supporting them in their parental role in the most critical phases experienced by the children, and in making them more active in the processes of consolidation of the competences acquired by the children.

14.
New Media & Society ; JOUR: 1,
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2098248

ABSTRACT

New media literacy (NML) is an emerging construct of great value in a digital age in which information overload threatens the well-being of society. Among the scarcity of available research going beyond a theoretical conceptualization of NML and using structural equational modeling, we explored the influence of NML on media trust, perception of fake news, and fact-checking motivation that underlie the dissemination of unverified information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Challenging the assertion of NML’s absolute effect on mitigating the problem of fake news communication, the components of NML were shown to contribute to the transmission of unverified information among citizens unless the risk of fake news was well understood. The findings suggest that further research is required to fully understand the scope of NML in designing public education, and that the problem of fake news spread may be a social phenomenon that digitalized society must embrace. [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
Policing: An International Journal ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097579

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to augment the police culture and stress literature by empirically examining the impact of features of the internal and external work environment, as well as officer characteristics, on police officer stress. Design/methodology/approach The current empirical inquiry utilized survey data collected from street-level officers in a mid-sized urban police department in a southern region of the United States (n = 349). Findings This study revealed that perceived danger, suspicion of citizens and cynicism toward the public increased police occupational stress, while support from supervisors mitigated it. In addition, Black and Latinx officers reported significantly less stress than their White counterparts. Research limitations/implications While this study demonstrates that patrol officers' perceptions of the external and internal work environments (and race/ethnicity) matter in terms of occupational stress, it is not without limitations. One limitation related to the generalizability of the findings, as results are gleaned from a single large agency serving a metropolitan jurisdiction in the Southeast. Second, this study focused on cultural attitudes and stress, although exact connections to behaviors are more speculative. Finally, the survey took place prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the killing of George Floyd (and others), which radically shook police-community relationships nationwide. Practical implications Police administrators should be cognizant of the importance that views of them have for patrol officer stress levels. Moreover, police trainers and supervisors concerned with occupational stress of their subordinates should work toward altering assignments and socialization patterns so that officers are exposed to a variety of patrol areas, in avoiding prolonged assignments of high social distress. Originality/value The study augmented the police culture and stress literature by empirically uncovering the individual-level sources of patrol officers' job-related stress. This study builds off of Paoline and Gau's (2018) research using data collected some 15 years ago by examining a more contemporary, post-Ferguson, context.

16.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 5(4): e40614, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about the short- and long-term impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children and families. There are no existing studies about feasibility and outcomes using internet-based parent training programs with telephone coaching for disruptive behavioral problems in childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic in clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: This study explored how the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training program, with telephone coaching, provided support during the COVID-19 pandemic at specialist family counseling centers in Helsinki, Finland, when restrictions made face-to-face counseling impossible. This study followed the success of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and its implementation study of the SFSW parent training program by primary care child health clinics. The aim was to improve parenting skills, so that parents could tackle disruptive behavior by developing positive parent-child relationships. It started in May 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its height in Finland. METHODS: In total, 8 family counseling centers in Helsinki identified 50 referrals aged 3-8 years with high levels of parent-reported disruptive behavioral problems. Child psychopathology and functioning and parental skills and well-being were measured at baseline, posttreatment, and 6 months later using a range of tools. The data were extracted from questionnaires completed by the parents. RESULTS: We found that 44 (88%) of the 50 families completed the whole 11-session parent training program. Most of the children (n=48, 96%) had definitive or severe behavioral problems when they were initially screened by the centers, but with those assessed at the 6-month follow-up (n=45, 90%), this dropped to 58% (n=26). There were significant changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up in most of the child psychopathology measures, including the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report Form (CBCL) total score (mean change 16.3, SE 3.0, 95% CI 10.2-22.3; P<.001) and externalizing score (mean change 7.0, SE 1.0, 95% CI 4.9-9.0; P<.001). When parenting skills were measured with the Parenting Scale (PS), they showed significant changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up in total scores (mean change 0.5, SE 0.1, 95% CI 0.4-0.7; P<.001). Parents showed significant change in the stress subscore (mean change 3.9, SE 0.8, 95% CI 2.2-5.6; P<.001). Of the parents who filled in the satisfaction questionnaire (n=45, 90%), 42 (93%) reported high satisfaction in the skills and 44 (98%) in the professionalism of the family coaches. CONCLUSIONS: The program proved to be an effective method for improving parenting skills and child psychopathology and functioning. The parents were satisfied with the program, and the dropout rate was exceptionally low. The study shows that the training program could be implemented in specialist clinical settings and during crisis conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 283, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020 pushed the online health-care communities (OHCs) into the public eye in China. However, OHCs is an emerging service model, which still has many problems such as low patient trust and low patient utilization rate. Patients are the users and recipients of web-based medical services, as well as the core of medical services. Thus, based on cue utilization theory, this paper studies combination effect of influencing factors in patients' purchase of web-based medical services through the qualitative comparative analysis method of fuzzy sets (fsQCA). METHODS: This paper discards statistical methods based on variance theory-based relationships between explanatory and explained variables and uses a construct theory-based fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach to elucidate such complex relationships of patients' online purchasing behavior. We use a crawler to automatically download information from Haodf.com. This study crawled data in August 2020, involving 1210 physicians. RESULTS: Service price, reputation and service quality are the key factors for patients' purchasing behavior. Physician's online reputation, online medical service price, number of published articles, mutual-help group, and appointment registration affect patients' purchasing behavior by means of weighted variation. Only when a high scope of internal attribute-related cue elements and a low scope of external attribute-related cue elements are combined with each other in a specific form, patients will generate purchase behavior. CONCLUSION: This paper clarifies the complex causes that promote to patients' purchasing behavior of web-based medical services, enriches and develops the relevant theories in the field of consumer purchasing behavior and online health-care communities market research, and has implications for governments, platforms, physicians and patients in the event of web-based medical service purchases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Cues , Physician-Patient Relations , China
18.
Journal of Marketing Management ; JOUR(11-12):1043-1071, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096967
19.
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095625

ABSTRACT

Background/objective This paper aimed to summarize the findings of the third (2022) Active Healthy Kids Hong Kong Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents and evaluate the secular trends of physical activity related indicators. Methods Five behavioral indicators (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity, Active Play, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior), three outcome indicators (Physical Fitness, Sleep, and Obesity) and four sources of influence indicators (Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment, and Government) were assigned a letter grade (ranging from A+ to F or incomplete) based on the best available evidence following a harmonized approach developed by the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. Data sources included published journal articles, government reports, manual searches, and personal contacts;and consisted of both pre-COVID-19 and after-COVID-19 evidence. Results Grades for Overall Physical Activity (D−**) and Sedentary Behavior (D) deteriorated compared to the 2018 Report Card. The other three behavioral indicators, Organized Sport and Physical Activity, Active Play, and Active Transportation, were assigned B−, D, and B+, respectively. Physical Fitness (D), Sleep (C−), and Obesity (D−) obtained the same grades as in the 2018 Report Card. School (B) and Government (C+) grades slightly improved, while Community and Environment grade (B) was stable. Family and Peers was not graded due to insufficient evidence. Conclusions Despite slight improvements in influence indicators, physical activity and sedentary behavior have changed unfavorably for children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Strategic investments are needed to improve adoption and implementation of effective interventions.

20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2127561, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097207

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of maternal and newborn morbidity and maternal death. In Kenya, pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were ineligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines until August 2021. How shifts in policy influence vaccine behaviors, such as health worker recommendations and vaccine uptake, is not well documented. We conducted qualitative interviews with PLW, health workers, and policymakers in Kenya to understand how different stakeholders' perceptions of national policy regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy shaped vaccine behaviors and decision-making. Policymakers and health workers described pervasive uncertainty and lack of communication about the national policy, cited vaccine safety as their primary concern for administering COVID-19 vaccines to PLW, and expressed that PLW were inadequately prioritized in the COVID-19 vaccine program. PLW perceived the restrictive policy as indicative of a safety risk, resulting in vaccine hesitancy and potentially exacerbated inequities in vaccine access. These findings support the need for the development and dissemination of effective vaccine communication guidelines and the prioritization of PLW in COVID-19 vaccination policies and campaigns. To ensure PLW do not face the same inequities in future epidemics, data on infectious disease burdens and vaccine uptake should be collected systematically among pregnant women, and PLW should be included in future vaccine trials.

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