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1.
Advanced Functional Materials ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2003585

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials has accelerated their entry into aquatic environment, which in turn can adversely affect aquatic organisms and humans, especially in the COVID-19 outbreak and the post-pandemic era. For early detection and intervention of adverse effects, this study develops a new carbon nanoprobe (CNP) that can reveal the adverse effects of trace amount triclosan (TCS), a commonly used broad-spectrum antimicrobial (BSA), through a direct visualization method. CNP has excellent fluorescent properties and strong positive charges, which can be applied as fluorescent indicator and trapped in mitochondria by electrostatic attraction. The highly sensitive responsiveness of CNP to mitochondrial membrane potential ensures the visualization method can be used for monitoring the adverse effects of TCS. The trace amount TCS monitoring is achieved according to the decrease of fluorescence signal in mitochondria and the change of mitochondrial morphological structure from lines to dots. Moreover, monitoring TCS level in aquatic organisms of zebrafish is further realized. Compared with the morphological toxicity test, this visualizing strategy reveals the adverse effects in organisms under low-dose TCS exposure more sensitively. This developed highly sensitive nanoprobe is cruical for direct BSA monitoring and thus prevents the harm of BSA to aquatic organisms and humans.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(15)2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994101

ABSTRACT

The choice of suitable materials and new designs in oral implantology and the subsequent enhancement of the characteristics of the dental implant developed is an important research topic with wide scope. The present work aims to develop a new multifunctional zirconia-ceria/alumina (Ce-TZP/Al2O3) composite with an antimicrobial glass-based coating to be used in multi-unit abutments compatible with commercially available Ti implants for peri-implantitis prevention. An airbrush spraying technique was effectively applied to coat the sintered ceramic composite starting from a glass powder suspension. This deposition technique was appropriate for obtaining continuous antimicrobial glass-based coatings with homogenous thickness (~35 µm) on ceramic dental implant components. The dental implant systems with the antimicrobial glassy coating were subjected to a mechanical integrity test following ISO 14801 to determine their long-term stability. The tested implant-coating structure seems to be stable under in vitro conditions with ultimate applied forces exceeding the maximum physiological occlusal loading force. This paper also presents a pilot clinical case report that shows peri-implant tissue around the mechanically stable glass coating with no signs of inflammation 1 year after implant insertion. This result is a preliminary probe of the durability and biological tolerance of the glassy material by the gingiva, as well as the antimicrobial effect on the peri-implant microbiota displayed by the coating.

3.
Environnement Risques & Sante ; 21(3):241-246, 2022.
Article in French | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928340

ABSTRACT

Disinfectant use is rapidly increasing, due in particular to the Covid-19 pandemic. Its negative consequences, including toxicity, emergence of "tolerant" or resistant bacterial strains and antimicrobial resistance, have now been clearly demonstrated for both human and environmental health. One of the objectives of the European Biocides Directive, which now regulates their marketing authorization, is to encourage reasonable use of disinfectants as part of the "One health" approach. Adequate training is required for prescribers, together with information for consumers and users who also must know when and when not to use them.

4.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(SUPPL 1):25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915453

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study provides an overview of the number and type of calls received by the Belgian Poison Centre (BPC) in 2020. Methods: Data of all calls to the BPC (1 January to 31 December 2020) were collected and analyzed using appropriate statistics (SAS). Results: The BPC received 65,308 calls in 2020 (60,668 in 2019, p<0.05), of which 56,106 (86%) (involving 57,523 victims) were due to an exposure, and 9,202 (14%) were an information request. Despite a minor decrease of 2.3% (21,151 in 2019 versus 20,666 in 2020, p>0.05), the vast majority (35.9%) of exposures were drug-related, of which paracetamol represented 8.2%. Drugs within the category “nervous system” (e.g. antipsychotics, antidepressants, etc.) were most frequently involved (39.6%). There were 11,836 in 2019 versus 12,247 in 2020 (p>0.05). Relating to chemical household products, in the battle against the coronavirus, people bought large quantities and often highly concentrated products, especially products for personal hygiene and cleaning. Poured into smaller containers such as water or soft drink bottles, this led to accidents in which people accidentally drank from the drink container. In an effort to improving cleaning or disinfection, people also started (accidentally) combining or mixing products, with the risk of releasing irritating vapours. Irritation of the mucous membranes and severe shortness of breath were not uncommon. The BPC received 46.1% more calls for bleach and bleach-containing products than in 2019 (835 calls in 2019 compared to 1,220 calls in 2020, p<0.05). A 12.3% increase of cosmetic- and food-related exposures was noted (8,291 in 2019 versus 9,308 in 2020, p<0.05), of which a stable number of exposures (877 in 2019 versus 876 in 2020, p>0.05) were due to essential oils. Exposures to type 1 biocides significantly increased from 322 in 2019 to 1,676 in 2020 (p<0.05), and exposures to type 2 biocides from 406 to 902 (p<0.05). Finally, a 28.2% increase in exposures related to the group “plants, mushrooms and animals” was observed, with 3,256 in 2019 and 4,175 in 2020 (p<0.05). Conclusion: In its history, the BPC has never received as many calls as in 2020, demonstrating its added value in today's and future healthcare. Trends in both, number and type of exposures were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(SUPPL 1):93, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915452

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study provides an overview of the number and type of calls to the Belgian Poison Centre (BPC), and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: Data of all calls to the BPC (1 January - 31 December 2020) were collected and analysed using appropriate statistics (SAS). Results: The BPC received 65,308 calls in 2020 (60,668 in 2019, p<0.05). The vast majority (35.9%) of exposures were drugrelated (21,151 in 2019 versus 20,666 in 2020, p>0.05), followed by the use of chemical household products (11,836 in 2019 versus 12,247 in 2020 (p>0.05)). A 12.3% increase in the number of cosmetic- and food-related exposures was noted (8,291 in 2019 versus 9,308 in 2020, p<0.05). Within this group, a stable number of exposures (877 in 2019 versus 876 in 2020, p>0.05) due to essential oil exposures were observed. Partly due to the impact of the COVID-19 [1] pandemic, exposures to biocides doubled (104.9%) from 1,964 in 2019 to 4,024 in 2020 (p<0.05). Exposures to type 1 biocides (i.e. human hygiene products, which include alcohol-based hand sanitisers (ABHS)) significantly increased from 322 in 2019 to 1,676 in 2020 (p<0.05), and exposures to type 2 biocides (i.e. disinfectants and algaecides not intended for direct application to humans or animals) from 406 to 902 (p<0.05). In 2020 the BPC received a five-fold increase in the number of calls involving ABHS incidents (both liquid and gel-based, as well as ethanol and isopropanol products) compared to 2019 (1,676 versus 323 in 2019 versus 1,676 in 2020 calls, p<0.05), accounting for 2.6% of all calls in 2020. In 71% of exposures, ingestion was the primary route (1,195/1,676), followed by 28.6% accidental ocular exposures (480/1,676) of which more than half of the incidents involved children (257/480, p<0.05), primarily young children aged 1-4 years (136/257, p<0.05). Finally, as people went into the garden and nature to relax during lockdown, a 28.2% increase in exposures related to the group 'plants, mushrooms and animals' was found, with 3,256 exposures in 2019 and 4,175 in 2020 (p<0.05). Conclusion: In its history, the BPC has never received as many calls as in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to a significant number of additional exposures, and requests for toxicologic advice.

6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875459

ABSTRACT

Despite the wide-spread use of antiseptics in dental practice and oral care products, there is little public awareness of potential risks associated with antiseptic resistance and potentially concomitant cross-resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential phenotypic adaptation in 177 clinical isolates of early colonizers of dental plaque (Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Rothia and Veillonella spp.) upon repeated exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) over 10 passages using a modified microdilution method. Stability of phenotypic adaptation was re-evaluated after culture in antiseptic-free nutrient broth for 24 or 72 h. Strains showing 8-fold minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-increase were further examined regarding their biofilm formation capacity, phenotypic antibiotic resistance and presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Eight-fold MIC-increases to CHX were detected in four Streptococcus isolates. These strains mostly exhibited significantly increased biofilm formation capacity compared to their respective wild-type strains. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance was detected to tetracycline and erythromycin, consistent with the detected ARGs. In conclusion, this study shows that clinical isolates of early colonizers of dental plaque can phenotypically adapt toward antiseptics such as CHX upon repeated exposure. The underlying mechanisms at genomic and transcriptomic levels need to be investigated in future studies.

7.
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience ; 17(1):297-314, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821664

ABSTRACT

A simple low-cost one-pot photodeposition synthesis with no hazardous reactants or products is used to make silver nanoparticles-activated carbon composite (SNPs@AC). The SNPs are homogenously and photodeposited and absorbed into the activated carbon matrix. Both SNPs and SNPs@AC composite have particle sizes around 10 nm and 100 nm, respectively. The SNPs@AC composite showed good antiviral activity to VERO (ATCC ccl-81) cells. Zeta potential of SNPs@AC composite is −25 mV, showing that this colloidal system is electrically stable and resistant to coagulation. For many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the SNPs@AC composite demonstrated strong antibacterial efficacy. The SNPs@AC composite has 75.72 percent anti-inflammatory effect at concentration 500 µg/mL. This composite has a maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC) of 78.125 g/mL, which corresponds to antiviral activity of up to 96.7 percent against hepatitis A. virus (HAV). It is suggested as a candidate for pharmaceutical formulations, such as integration into the manufacture of N95 masks for COVID-19 infection protection. Concentration 160 μg/mL SNPs@AC composite has antioxidant activity 42.74% percent. The SNPs@AC composite exhibited selective catalytic activity for the organosynthesis hydrazination reaction of 4-chloro-3, 5-di-nitro-benzo-triflouride, giving 1-hydroxy-4-nitro-6-trifluoro-methyl benzotriazole, a common antiviral drug for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SNPs@composite's well-defined pores provide suitable active sites for binding reactants: 4-Cl-3, 5-di-NO2-benzotriflouride, and hydrazine, which react to create 1-hydroxy-4-nitro-6-trifluoromethyl benzotriazole, which diffuses into solution away from the catalyst surface, leaving the catalyst surface unaffected.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 847313, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785372

ABSTRACT

High-touch environmental surfaces are acknowledged as potential sources of pathogen transmission, particularly in health care settings where infectious agents may be readily abundant. Methods of disinfecting these surfaces often include direct application of a chemical disinfectant or simply wiping the surface with a disinfectant pre-soaked wipe (DPW). In this study, we examine the ability of four disinfectants, ethanol (EtOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and potassium monopersulfate (KMPS), to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 on a hard, non-porous surface, assessing the effects of concentration and contact time. The efficacy of DPWs to decontaminate carriers spiked with SARS-CoV-2, as well as the transferability of the virus from used DPWs to clean surfaces, is also assessed. Stainless steel carriers inoculated with approximately 6 logs of SARS-CoV-2 prepared in a soil load were disinfected within 5 min through exposure to 66.5% EtOH, 0.5% NaOCl, and 1% KMPS. The addition of mechanical wiping using DPWs impregnated with these biocides rendered the virus inactive almost immediately, with no viral transfer from the used DPW to adjacent surfaces. Carriers treated with 100 ppm of ClO2 showed a significant amount of viable virus remaining after 10 min of biocide exposure, while the virus was only completely inactivated after 10 min of treatment with 500 ppm of ClO2. Wiping SARS-CoV-2-spiked carriers with DPWs containing either concentration of ClO2 for 5 s left significant amounts of viable virus on the carriers. Furthermore, higher titers of infectious virus retained on the ClO2-infused DPWs were transferred to uninoculated carriers immediately after wiping. Overall, 66.5% EtOH, 0.5% NaOCl, and 1% KMPS appear to be highly effective biocidal agents against SARS-CoV-2, while ClO2 formulations are much less efficacious.

9.
APMIS ; 130(6): 330-337, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784596

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter baumannii is known to be an opportunistic pathogen frequently responsible for outbreaks in health-care facilities, particularly in Intensive Care Units (ICU). It can easily survive in the hospital setting for long periods and can be transmitted throughout the hospital in a variety of ways, explored in this review. It can also easily acquire antibiotic resistance determinants rendering several antibiotic drugs useless. In 2019, the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) considered the organism as an urgent threat. The aim of this review was to raise the awareness of the medical community about the relevance of this pathogen and discuss how it may impact seriously the healthcare institutions particularly in the aftermath of the recent COVID-19 pandemic. PubMed was searched, and articles that met inclusion criteria were reviewed. We conclude by the need to raise awareness to this pathogen's relevance and to encourage the implementation of preventive measures in order to mitigate its consequences namely the triage of specific high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 25(6): 301-316, 2021 12 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611118

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic viruses for human, such as Ebolavirus, Lassa virus, variola virus and Coronavirus, can persist several days on inert surfaces. Although their transmission via contaminated surfaces is not clearly demonstrated, it cannot be excluded. Thus, decontamination of these surfaces is necessary to reduce the risk of infection and limit the spread of these viruses. This review summarizes the published data regarding the effectiveness of frequently used virucides on viruses highly pathogenic for human. The data available are rather heterogeneous and therefore difficult to compare. Biocides based on alcohol, aldehyde, iodine, chlorine, peroxide and quaternary ammonium, which are frequently used for directed and zonal decontaminations, are effective. However, their effectiveness depends on many parameters such as formulation of the biocide, the virus concentration, the matrix in which the viral particles are present, the viral strain and the type of contaminated surface. Thus, a biocide should be chosen based on its final use, rather than on its effectiveness compared to other biocides.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Ebolavirus , Viruses , Alcohols , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Lassa virus
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3147-3155, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296235

ABSTRACT

Biocides are widely added to personal care products and enter the environment through sewage treatment plant (STP) discharge, which affects ecological health. This paper evaluated the pollution characteristics of triclosan and triclocarban in a river network during the COVID-19 epidemic. Moreover, a continuous dynamic river network model coupling a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model and four-level fugacity model was established to address the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of pollutants in the river network migration process; then, this model was applied to evaluate two biocides in the Shima River Basin. The model passed calibration and in-field concentration verification tests and yielded satisfactory simulation results. The results of the study showed that the concentration of biocides in the river network during the new crown epidemic was twice that of the non-epidemic period. The concentration of triclosan and triclocarban in the river channel first increased and then decreased with the increase of the river migration distance after STP discharge. The time variation characteristics of the concentrations were affected by the river flow. The biocide concentration in the river network of the low flow upstream area first increased and then decreased, gradually stabilizing in about 20 h. The pollution concentration in the high flow downstream area was increased, and the concentration did not stabilize at 24 h. These results indicate the necessity of evaluating the temporal and spatial characteristics of migration of typical biocides in the river network by stages and time on the premise of distinguishing the flow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Disinfectants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
13.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244086

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest dangers to public health of the 21st century, threatening the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases globally. Disinfection, the elimination of microbial species via the application of biocidal chemicals, is essential to control infectious diseases and safeguard animal and human health. In an era of antimicrobial resistance and emerging disease, the effective application of biocidal control measures is vital to protect public health. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of the increasing demand for effective biocidal solutions to reduce and eliminate disease transmission. However, there is increasing recognition into the relationship between biocide use and the proliferation of Antimicrobial Resistance species, particularly multidrug-resistant pathogens. The One Health approach and WHO action plan to combat AMR require active surveillance and monitoring of AMR species; however, biocidal resistance is often overlooked. ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens and numerous fungal species have demonstrated drug and biocidal resistance where increased patient mortality is a risk. Currently, there is a lack of information on the impact of biocide application on environmental habitats and ecosystems. Undoubtedly, the excessive application of disinfectants and AMR will merge to result in secondary disasters relating to soil infertility, loss of biodiversity and destruction of ecosystems.

15.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125729

ABSTRACT

The net effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the response to it on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance is yet unknown. Positive impacts on the spread of multiresistant pathogens and infections in general may be observed with the implementation of general preventative measures for the spread of infectious disease such as social distancing, reduced travel and increased personal hygiene. This pandemic has accelerated the development of novel technologies, such as mRNA vaccines, that may be used to fight other diseases. These should be capitalized upon to manage the ongoing antimicrobial resistance pandemic in the background. However, it is likely that the COVID-19 pandemic is fueling the emergence of antimicrobial resistance due to high rates of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing, the high use of biocides and the interruption of treatment for other conditions. Clinical uncertainty driven by the lack of effective diagnostics and practice of telemedicine may have driven the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. As pathogens know no borders, increased focus is needed for infectious diseases still threatening low- and middle-income countries such as tuberculosis. Stewardship measures for future outbreaks should stress the importance of social distancing and hand washing but discourage the overuse of disinfectants and antimicrobials that are not proven effective.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1351, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853958

ABSTRACT

In December, 2019, a highly infectious and rapidly spreading new pneumonia of unknown cause was reported to the Chinese WHO Country Office. A cluster of these cases had appeared in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. These infections were found to be caused by a new coronavirus which was given the name "2019 novel coronavirus" (2019-nCoV). It was later renamed "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2," or SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses on February 11, 2020. It was named SARS-CoV-2 due to its close genetic similarity to the coronavirus which caused the SARS outbreak in 2002 (SARS-CoV-1). The aim of this review is to provide information, primarily to the food industry, regarding a range of biocides effective in eliminating or reducing the presence of coronaviruses from fomites, skin, oral/nasal mucosa, air, and food contact surfaces. As several EPA approved sanitizers against SARS-CoV-2 are commonly used by food processors, these compounds are primarily discussed as much of the industry already has them on site and is familiar with their application and use. Specifically, we focused on the effects of alcohols, povidone iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peroxyacetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide, ozone, ultraviolet light, metals, and plant-based antimicrobials. This review highlights the differences in the resistance or susceptibility of different strains of coronaviruses, or similar viruses, to these antimicrobial agents.

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