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1.
Aging ; : 577-585, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041390

ABSTRACT

Immunosenescence and inflammaging are two fundamental age-related changes substantially paving the way to accelerated aging, multidimensional frailty, and poor outcomes of several illnesses including COVID-19. A common misbelief is that immunosenescence and inflammaging, like other age-related changes, are exclusively detrimental. However, they are inserted in a highly complex landscape of physiological changes occurring with increasing age at the biomolecular, organismal, psychosocial, and functional level. The understanding of this complex picture is fundamental to develop strategies aimed at maintaining robustness. Groundbreaking descriptions of frailty paved the way to successful interventions to maintain and restore robustness. To date, frailty is well established as the very core of geriatric medicine, going far beyond multimorbidity and chronological age.

2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 70-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673249

ABSTRACT

For many years, it was believed that the aging process was inevitable and that age-related diseases could not be prevented or reversed. The geroscience hypothesis, however, posits that aging is, in fact, malleable and, by targeting the hallmarks of biological aging, it is indeed possible to alleviate age-related diseases and dysfunction and extend longevity. This field of geroscience thus aims to prevent the development of multiple disorders with age, thereby extending healthspan, with the reduction of morbidity toward the end of life. Experts in the field have made remarkable advancements in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological aging and identified ways to target aging pathways using both novel agents and repurposed therapies. While geroscience researchers currently face significant barriers in bringing therapies through clinical development, proof-of-concept studies, as well as early-stage clinical trials, are underway to assess the feasibility of drug evaluation and lay a regulatory foundation for future FDA approvals in the future.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Congresses as Topic/trends , Longevity/physiology , Research Report , Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolomics/trends , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/trends
3.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334999

ABSTRACT

In an epidemic, it is important to have methods for reliable and rapid assessment of risk groups for severe forms of the disease for their priority vaccination and for the application of preventive lockdown measures. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for severe forms of COVID-19 in adults using indicators of biological and subjective aging. Longitudinal studies evaluated the severity of the disease and the number of cases. Respondents (447) were divided into "working group" and "risk group" (retirees with chronic diseases). During the lockdown period (in mid-2020), accelerated aging was observed in the group of workers (by 3.9-8 years for men and an increase at the tendency level for women). However, the respondents began to feel subjectively younger (by 3.3-7.2 years). In the risk group, there were no deviations from the expected biopsychological aging. The number of cases at the end of 2020 was 31% in workers and 0% in the risk group. Reasonably, the risk group followed the quarantine rules more strictly by 1.5 times. In working men, indicators of relative biological and relative subjective aging (measured in both 2019 and mid-2020) significantly influenced the incidence at the end of 2020. In women, only the indicators obtained in mid-2020 had a significant impact. The relative biological aging of an individual tested in the middle of 2020 had a direct impact on the risk of infection (p < 0.05) and on the probability of death (p < 0.0001). On the contrary, an increase in the relative subjective (psychological) aging index reduced the risk of infection (at the tendency level, p = 0.06) and the risk of death (p < 0.0001). Both the risk of infection and the risk of death increased with calendar age at the tendency level. Conclusions: Indicators of individual relative biological and subjective aging affect the probability of getting COVID-19 and its severity. The combination of high indicators of biological aging and underestimated indicators of subjective aging is associated with increased chances of developing severe forms of the disease.

4.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): e117-e126, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronological age (CA) is a predictor of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes; however, CA alone does not capture individual responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we evaluated the influence of aging metrics PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel to predict adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Furthermore, we sought to model adaptive metabolic and inflammatory responses to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection using individual PhenoAge components. METHOD: In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed cases admitted to a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico City. PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel were estimated using laboratory values at admission. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate risk for COVID-19 lethality and adverse outcomes (intensive care unit admission, intubation, or death). To explore reproducible patterns which model adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we used k-means clustering using PhenoAge components. RESULTS: We included 1068 subjects of whom 222 presented critical illness and 218 died. PhenoAge was a better predictor of adverse outcomes and lethality compared to CA and SpO2 and its predictive capacity was sustained for all age groups. Patients with responses associated to PhenoAgeAccel >0 had higher risk of death and critical illness compared to those with lower values (log-rank p < .001). Using unsupervised clustering, we identified 4 adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection: (i) inflammaging associated with CA, (ii) metabolic dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities, (iii) unfavorable hematological response, and (iv) response associated with favorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptive responses related to accelerated aging metrics are linked to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and have unique and distinguishable features. PhenoAge is a better predictor of adverse outcomes compared to CA.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Inflammation/physiopathology , Metabolism/physiology , Models, Statistical , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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