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1.
Front Immunol ; 13:919402, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022710

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS) powder on the immune system function and clinical manifestations in patients with COVID-19. We compare the effects of NBS powder on the immune system function and clinical manifestations among two different groups: 1) intervention group receiving standard treatment scheduled according to treatment guidelines plus NBS powder, and 2) control group receiving only the same standard treatment. The serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFNγ, and TNFα were determined after four weeks of treatment by specific ELISA kits according to the manufacturer's instructions. Finally, the level of immune system stimulation and inflammatory markers were compared at baseline and after intervention in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 22). A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was set as significant. A total of 47 patients with COVID-19 (24 patients in the intervention group and 23 patients in the control group) were included in this study. Results showed that the differences in the mean decrease of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α in the intervention group in comparison to the control group were 0.93, 10.28, and 8.11 pg/ml, respectively (P<0.001). On the other hand, there was no difference in IL-17, IFNγ, monocytes, eosinophil, and other inflammatory indices between the intervention and control groups. Although NBS powder was able to significantly decrease the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19, however, it is noteworthy that the course of the disease was to large part unaffected by NBS power and there was a reduction independent of treatment. The present study indicates that NBS powder could provide a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in patients with COVID-19. Hence, NBS in treating patients with COVID-19 shows promise as an adjuvant to the current standard antiviral treatment of such patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.irct.ir, identifier IRCT20200426047206N1.

2.
Journal of Environmental Engineering ; 148(11), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2016999

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend cleaning soiled surfaces with soap and water, followed by use of approved disinfectant. However, data are lacking on the potential efficacy of soapy water alone as a disinfectant for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is relevant to low-resource settings where soapy water is prevalent for handwashing. To our knowledge, no appropriate biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) surrogate has been identified and confirmed for use in studies with soapy water and the highly infectious SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our objectives were to determine the efficacy of soapy water alone as a disinfectant against SARS-CoV-2 and if commonly used BSL-1 bacteriophage surrogates could serve as a surrogate model for testing soapy water as a disinfectant. Overall, results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can be reduced >4 log10 in suspension but only 0.50 log10 on a nonporous surface with 10 min of exposure to 0.5% soapy water. This difference is potentially attributed to less area of exposure on surfaces than in suspension. Phi6 (a verified SARS-CoV-2 surrogate for other disinfectants) was not appropriate for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection with soapy water. Further research is needed to determine an appropriate surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection with soapy water as disinfection of MS2 was similar to SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces only. Our work highlights the importance of confirming surrogates for each disinfectant used. Based on our results, we do not recommend a change to the current WHO and CDC surface disinfection protocols that recommend using soapy water to preclean a surface before applying disinfectant.

3.
52nd International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2021 ; 13219 LNCS:124-133, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013905

ABSTRACT

As part of a Dutch Science Foundation project called T-TRIPP, the authors developed the serious game Cards for Biosafety. The aim of Cards for Biosafety is to let young biotechnology researchers learn more about biosafety. Analyses of workshops with researchers from the biotechnology domain as well as results of interviews with several biosafety officers clearly indicated the need for such a serious game with a focus on educational learning. Cards for Biosafety is a physical (also playable online on Tabletopia) round-based card game and playable with up to eight players. The game itself consists of scenario, risk and measure cards, and the task of the players is to choose risk and measure cards that fit the scenario explained by the facilitator at the beginning of each round. To test the efficiency of Cards for Biosafety as a learning tool, the authors conducted two online-workshops with twelve participants. The results of these sessions have not only shown that Cards for Biosafety is a well-designed game, but also a successful game to achieve the intended learning goal. In addition, the authors recognized that ‘fun’ is an important element in the game which leads to ‘learning’ in a very effective way. Future research should focus on the role of such positive states in serious games and their influence on learning outcomes. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity ; 4(1):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1578204

ABSTRACT

Biological threats, whether naturally occurring or accidentally or deliberately released, have the potential to endanger lives and disrupt economies worldwide. Thus, high-containment protective measures should be implemented when handling bio-agents that can cause serious, highly contagious diseases, otherwise devastating pandemics can occur. In the fields of scientific investigation, healthcare, and product development, high-containment facilities play a critical role in preventing, detecting, and responding promptly and effectively to threats to global health security. In this paper, we present a summary of the main types of high-containment facilities, as well as their applications, challenges, and suggestions for the future.

5.
African Health Sciences ; 22(2):80-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010437

ABSTRACT

Background: Outbreaks are occurring at increasing frequency and they require multisectoral and multi-stakeholder involvement for optimal response. The Global Health Security Agenda is a framework that governments and other stakeholders can use to strengthen countries’ capacities to prevent, detect and respond to outbreaks but there are few examples of academic programs using this approach. Methods: This is a narrative review of contributions of Makerere University through the Global Health Security Program at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI). Information was sourced from peer-reviewed publications and grey literature highlighting work done between 2017-2021. Results: Aligned to GHSA, IDI made contributions to strengthen national and subnational capacities for biosafety and biose-curity, sample collection and transportation, electronic disease surveillance, infection prevention and control, case management prior to COVID-19 that were subsequently used to support response efforts for COVID-19 in Uganda. Conclusion: The IDI Global Health Security program provides a model that can be used by institutions to deliberately develop capacities relevant to outbreak preparedness and response.

6.
Luminescence : the journal of biological and chemical luminescence ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007090

ABSTRACT

Due to their capabilities of immobilizing more bioreceptor parts with reduced volumes, nanomaterials have emerged as potential tools for increasing sensitivity to specific molecules. Furthermore, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, graphene, nano-diamonds and graphene are among the nanomaterials that are under investigation. Due to the fast development of such a field of research, review summarises the classification of biosensors using main receptors, and designing biosensors. Numerous studies have concentrated on the manipulation of Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) in biosensing, cell tracking, bioimaging, and cancer therapy due to the effective removal of the autofluorescence interferences from tissues and the ultra-long near-infrared afterglow emission. As luminescence has a unique optical property, it can be detected without constant external illumination, preventing autofluorescence and light dispersion through tissues. These successes sparked an increasing curiosity in creating novel PLNP kinds with desired superior properties and multiple purposes. In this review, we emphasize the most recent developments in biosensing, imaging, and image-guided therapy while summarizing the research on synthesis methods, bio applications, bio membrane modification and bio-safety of PLNPs. Finally, the remaining issues and difficulties are examined together with prospective future developments in the field of biomedical applications.

7.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:64-65, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006820

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: The objective of the Intra-Action Review (IAR) was to review the Tunisian COVID-19 national preparedness and response best practices and challenges to adjust the response to the crisis and impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health systems. Methods: RIA is an interactive and structured methodology, developed by WHO to identify best practices and challenges in a response to an ongoing crisis. The first RIA on COVID-19 response in Tunisia was carried out, under the Tunisian Ministry of Health in cooperation with the German Biological Safety Program and the Biosecurity Cooperation Project in Tunisia, from March 30 to July 1, 2021. Four pillars of the Covid-19 response were selected for review: coordination, laboratory, points of entry, and logistic support. Results: The RIA identified 24 best practices, 23 challenges and 23 recommendations to improve the current response by adopting appropriate actions for immediate, mid and long-term implementation. The best practices include: availability of a prevention, preparedness, response and resilience plan (2P2R), an Early Warning, Alert and Response System (EWARS);regular weekly teleconference “EPICOV”;trained Rapid Response Teams (RRTs), Field epidemiologist and laboratory staff, decentralization of SARS-CoV-2 testing;and an efficient stock management system. The most important challenges were leadership and coordination mechanism, legal framework, human resources, and genomic-sequencing surveillance capacity. Impact: The RIA was an opportunity to analyze the operational capacity of the Tunisian health system to respond to the pandemic in collaboration with other relevant sectors. The results of the RIA will serve to adjust the national response to Covid-19. Conclusion: The recommendations target a legal framework, a quality assurance management system and an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDRS) system. The RIA recommended also to enhance coordination within and between pillars;and mobilize funds to support 2P2R, EWARS, IDRS and human resources and provide a basis for future joint activities.

8.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:75-76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006816

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: The Africa CDC organized continental training to establish testing capacity in MS. Africa CDC developed and implemented a training dashboard to track all training programs and use for planning and decision making. This study describes the implementation and utility of the laboratory training dashboard in the context of COVID-19 response. Methods: Google Spreadsheets was used to keep track of the training data. A comma-separated values training data file was used to create a training dashboard in Google Data Studio, where it was broken down into metrics and dimensions that could be used in dashboard reports connected between training data and dashboard reports. Data was imported and explored in an excel file, and a dashboard data modelling was created. Using training data KPIs, graphical displays were created, and data was examined.. The reports and visualizations on the developed dashboard are automatically updated in real-time with the most recent data from the datasets. Results: The collection of training data and visualization on a dashboard proved useful for immediate generation of report. As of October 2021, a total of 15,548 laboratory personnel had been trained. Of these, 1,117 (7.7%) received hands-on and virtual training on RT-PCR, 430 (2.9%) on Biosafety and Biosecurity, 137 (0.9%) on LQMS, 78 (0.7%) on COVID- 19 Genome Sequencing, 99 (0.8%) on GeneXpert and 13,627 (87%) on Ag-RDT testing in 55 Member States. Over 50 webinar sessions with total 23,063 participants were held to build the capacity of national and subnational level staff in all countries in the Africa Region. Impact: The dashboard primarily reported training data trends and disaggregated data by country, laboratory disciplines, and maps and graphs to make the data more appealing, shareable, and convertible into a report. By enhancing reporting and promoting timely decision-making, the training dashboard improved laboratory trainings in the context of COVID-19 response efforts. Conclusion: Tracking of all training programs in real time using interactive training dashboard will improve the use of data in subsequent decision making and measuring the progress during outbreak response. The dashboard reports and visualizations are shared with key stakeholders and used for workforce planning and monitoring.

9.
FEBS Open Bio ; 12:194, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1976638

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been devastating human lives since 2019.While each country carries out their vaccination program, many of them also continue to work on vaccine development. Determination of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies offers important information for evaluating immune responses to the virus. Neutralization capacity can contribute to the understanding of subjects such as the immune status of individuals, the need for revaccination, relapse and recovery from the disease, as well as evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Neutralizing antibodies block the virus by preventing the interaction of the virus's S protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with human angiotensin converting enzyme-2(ACE-2). The most commonly used methods for the detection of neutralizing antibody titer are cell culture experiments with the virus such as the plaque neutralization assay. While these tests require biosafety level 3 conditions, ELISA tests can be performed in general laboratory without any sterile environment. Furthermore, while traditional methods take 2-3 days, ELISA stands out with its ease of application and can give results in just 90 minutes. In this study, we developed a prototype ELISA kit which is based on the principle of blocking the protein-protein interaction between RBD-HRP and ACE-2 with a possible neutralizing antibody in serum. For this purpose, the RBD protein was first labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Optimum use concentrations of RBD-HRP protein and human serum in the selected dilution buffer and the amount of ACE-2 protein to be coated on the ELISA plate were determined. As a result of repeated studies with a large scale of serum, the coefficients of variation(CV) for intra/inter-assay were calculated as 10% and 12%, respectively. Preliminary results of accelerated shelf-life studies showed that the ELISA kit maintained its shelf life up to 1 year at +4°C.

10.
Salud UNINORTE ; 37(3): 715-739, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1975430

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En diciembre de 2019 se identificó por primera vez en Wuhan China el SARS-CoV-2, un nuevo tipo de coronavirus de la familia Coronaviridae del género β-CoV. El 11 de marzo del 2020 la OMS lo declara pandemia y hasta el 19 de diciembre de 2021 han sido afectados 192 países con 235 547 850 casos confirmados y 4 811 951 personas fallecidas. El SARS-CoV-2 afecta a los humanos, sin distinción de género, raza o edad, pero las personas con comorbilidades como hipertensión arterial, enfermedades cardiovasculares o diabetes Mellitus tienen peor pronóstico. Entre las rutas de transmisión de persona a persona se describen el contacto directo con mucosas y por inhalación de aerosoles o saliva. Por lo cual solo con guantes, mascarilla quirúrgica y visor como protección, los profesionales con más alto riesgo de contagio son los odontólogos, al estar en contacto directo con el paciente, con instrumental, materiales contaminados de fluidos del paciente y con los aerosoles que se generan en algunos de los procedimientos que realizan. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed, JOMOS, NIH y CDC, analizando los datos encontrados para proponer los cambios más adaptables a nuestro entorno. El objetivo de este trabajo de revisión de información reciente y relevante acerca de la atención odontológica en tiempos de SARS-CoV-2, es proponer cambios estructurales en la atención, para garantizar la bioseguridad de pacientes, personal odontológico y talento humano presente en la consulta odontológica. Teniendo en cuenta la situación ocasionada por la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, es recomendable adaptar e implementar medidas en la atención, pertinentes al comportamiento de este virus.


ABSTRACT In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, a new type of coronavirus of the Coronaviridae family of the β-CoV genes, was identified for the first time in Wuhan, China. On March 11th 2020, WHO declared it a pandemic, and by December 19th 2021, 192 countries have been affected, with 235 547 850 confirmed cases and 4.811.951 deaths. SARS-CoV-2 affects humans, regardless of gender, race or age, but people with comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease or diabetes Mellitus have a worse prognosis. Among the routes of transmission from person to person we find direct contact with mucous membranes, and by inhalation of aerosols or saliva. Therefore, by just using surgical masks, gloves, and protective screens, some of the professionals with the highest risk of contagion are dentists, since in addition to being in direct contact with the patient, most of the time, they are also in direct contact with the materials contaminated with the patient's fluids and aerosols, that are generated in some of the procedures. A bibliographic search was carried out in PubMed, JOMOS, NIH and CDC, to analyze the data found, in order to propose the most adaptable changes to our environment. The objective of this work is to review the most recent and relevant information about the care in dental clinics in times of SARS-CoV-2, and to propose some structural changes in dental care to guarantee the biosecurity of patients, dental staff, and human talent present at the dental clinic. Taking into consideration the health situation in the world caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is advisable to adapt and implement the correct biosafety measures in the dental care according to this virus.

11.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(6):451-455, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969568

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the in vitro cross-neutralization of serum antibodies in human and mice immunized with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against Delta and Beta variants. Methods Human serum samples after a second and a third dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and mouse serum samples after a two-dose vaccination were collected. The neutralizing antibodies in the samples against SARS-CoV-2 strains of prototype, Delta and Beta variants were detected using micro-neutralization assay in biosafety level III laboratory. The seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of antibodies were calculated. Results The seroconversion rates of antibodies in human serum samples against different SARSCoV-2 strains were all above 95%. After two-dose vaccination, the GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against the prototype, Delta and Beta strains were 109, 41 and 15, respectively. The GMTs decreased by 2. 7 folds and 7. 3 folds for the Delta and Beta variants as compared with the prototype strain. After the booster vaccination, the GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against the prototype, Delta and Beta strains were 446,190 and 86, respectively. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against Delta and Beta variants decreased by 2. 3 folds and 5. 2 folds as compared with that against the prototype strain. The seroconversion rates of antibodies against different SARS-CoV-2 strains in mouse serum samples were all 100%. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against the prototype, Delta and Beta strains were 2 037, 862 and 408, respectively. The GMTs decreased by 2.4 folds and 5.0 folds for the Delta and Beta variants. Conclusions Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could induce a certain level of neutralizing antibodies against Delta and Beta variants in both human and mouse models. Moreover, a third dose of vaccine induced higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against Delta and Beta variants in human. This study provided valuable data for the clinical application and protective evaluation of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

12.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology ; 95(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968186

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus prolonged T cell lymphopenia is common but the mechanism for it is still unknown. More importantly, the T cell lymphopenia is associated with more severe diseases. The lymphopenia in COVID-19 is more pronounced in a specialized innate-like T cell population called Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells (MAITs). MAITs are the only T cell population that expresses ACE2 receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses for cell entry. This project aims to decipher the pathogenetic process leading to MAITs depletion in COVID-19. We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 can directly activate MAITs which leads to MAITs overactivation and excessive tissue destruction in the lungs where MAITs comprise a large part of the tissue-resident T cells. To test these hypotheses, we challenged MAITs isolated from healthy blood donors and controls from different age groups with SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in a BSL3 laboratory. We used a combination of multi-colour flow cytometry, RT-PCR and in situ lung immunohistochemistry to evaluate the changes in MAIT cells' functions and activation. We then translated the in vitro findings to in vivo and measured similar MAIT cell activation signatures from actual real-life patient samples obtained during acute COVID-19. Our study shows that human circulation MAIT cells are activated and declined in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infects MAIT cells in a non-direct way.

15.
Revista Estomatologica Herediana ; 32(2):201-202, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928974
16.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927733

ABSTRACT

Rationale: While oxygen therapy is standard for patients with pneumonia, a potential for increased oxidant damage exists. Understanding how oxygen therapy impacts inflammatory lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and related viruses will inform patient management. We investigated the effects of fractional inspired oxygen concentrations (FiO2s) of 30 or 60% in a mouse hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) model of acute lung injury we developed in A/J mice. Methods: MHV-1, a ß-coronavirus like SARS-CoV-2, can be studied at Biosafety Level-2. Intratracheal installation of MHV-1 in our model produces inflammatory lung injury, progressive arterial desaturation, and lethality over 14d, similar to COVID-19. Using this model, we compared outcomes in animals exposed in sealed chambers to atmospheric FiO2s of 21, 30 or 60% beginning 2h after of MHV-1 challenge and continuing for up to 14d. In each of three experiments, MHV-1 challenged animals were randomized to receive FiO2s of 21, 30 or 60% (10 animals per FiO2 group per experiment, 90 animals total). In another experiment, 30 animals challenged with noninfected viral culture medium were randomized to the same three FiO2s. Animals were observed for up to 14d. Results: Compared to FiO2 21%, chambers with FiO2 30 and 60% had similar humidities and temperatures but slightly lower carbon dioxide levels (CO2, p≤0.05) but all chamber CO2s were in the range of 400-2000 ppm. Compared to animals surviving with FiO2 21% in each of the three experiments [#survivors/#total animals (%)] [1/10 (10%);5/10 (50%);4/10 (40%)], and their survival times (Figure-1), survival was reduced in respective experiments with FiO2 30% [1/10 (10%);2/10 (20%);0/10 (0%)] and FiO2 60% [0/10 (0%);0/10 (0%);0/10 (0%)]. Patterns of survival were similar comparing the three experiments for each FiO2 and when combined, there was a significant dose-related difference in survival across the three FiO2's (p<0.0001) (Figure-1). Compared to FiO2 21%, survival decreased with FiO2 30% (p=0.06) and more so with FiO2 60% (p<0.0001) (log-rank test with Dunnett-Hsu adjustment). All animals challenged with noninfected viral culture medium and exposed similarly to FiO2s 21, 30 or 60% (n=10 per group) survived except one 30% animal that died at 12d despite appearing well. Conclusions: FiO2s of 30 and 60% that are considered therapeutic and relatively safe clinically, markedly worsened survival in mice with MHV-1 pneumonia, a ß-coronavirus like SARS-CoV-2. These findings emphasize the need to better understand how oxygen therapy impacts the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in patients.

17.
Advances in Applied Microbiology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926132

ABSTRACT

The term Gain-of-Function (GoF) describes the gain of new functions by organisms through genetic changes, which can naturally occur or by experimental genetic modifications. Gain-of-Function research on viruses is enhancing transmissibility, virus replication, virulence, host range, immune evasion or drug and vaccine resistance to get insights into the viral mechanisms, to create and analyze animal models, to accelerate drug and vaccine development and to improve pandemic preparedness. A subset is the GoF research of concern (GOFROC) on enhanced potentially pandemic pathogens (ePPPs) that could be harmful for humans. A related issue is the military use of research as dual-use research of concern (DURC). Influenza and coronaviruses are main research targets, because they cause pandemics by airborne infections. Two studies on avian influenza viruses initiated a global debate and a temporary GoF pause in the United States which ended with a new regulatory framework in 2017. In the European Union and China, GoF and DURC are mainly covered by the legislation for laboratory safety and genetically modified organisms. After the coronavirus outbreaks, the GoF research made significant advances, including analyses of modified MERS-like and SARS-like viruses and the creation of synthetic SARS-CoV-2 viruses as a platform to generate mutations. The GoF research on viruses will still play an important role in future, but the need to clarify the differences and overlaps between GoF research, GOFROC and DURC and the need for specialized oversight authorities are still debated.

18.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925545

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the impact of a simulated hospital on a neurology clerkship of 5-year medical students during the coronavirus pandemic in Bogota, Colombia. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the disruption of all sectors of the economy including education. According to UNESCO, over 1.37 million young people, including medical students, were affected by the closure of the education system. The main challenge for medical education has consisted in offering clerkships within a biosafety environment. The simulated hospital emerges as a teaching tool that guarantees the development of medical skills in a biosafety environment. Design/Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in a population of 5th-year medical students during their neurology clerkship. Our sample comprised two similar groups, one received a traditional face-to-face format during 2019, whereas the second group received a mixed virtual and simulation-based clerkship in 2020. All students in the pandemic group answered a Likert scale survey regarding their satisfaction with the simulated hospital. To evaluate theoretical knowledge acquisition students of both groups were required to perform a mid-term and a final examination. Results: Most of the students considered the simulated hospital a useful addition that should be incorporated into their medicine curriculum regardless of the pandemic. From the results, it is clear that students perceived that exposure to a simulated hospital facilitated their learning process (93.1%) and allowed greater interaction with the teacher compared to a face-to-face environment (77.3%). The difference in test results was not clinically significant. Conclusions: Our study shows that a simulated hospital is a highly efficient method to acquire clinical skills in trainees with improvement in medical knowledge and satisfaction evidenced by the Likert scales and comparable results in academic evaluations. Our experience indicates that exposure to a simulated hospital should be integrated into the curricular milestones of the medical education program regardless of the pandemic.

19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(6):307-315, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925217

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The new corona virus, also known as COVID-19, is a virus that causes respiratory disease. It was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread to other countries. Corona viruses are large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the viral outbreak a worldwide pandemic. As of September 15, 2021, the virus has infected over 226672138 individuals and killed over 4663045 infected ones. India accounts for 14.7% of infections (more than 33 million) and 9.5% of fatalities (more than 4 million). Aim and Objectives: This hospital-based, retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, SKIMS Soura, Srinagar. We designed this study with the following primary objectives: 1. To estimate and analyze SARS-CoV-2 infection positive rate during first and second covid-19 waveforms. 2. Estimate the pattern of 1st and 2nd Covid-19 waveform. Material and Methods: All pertinent clinical, demographic, and epidemiological data were collected during peak months of COVID-Wave I (Sep-Dec 2020) & COVID-Wave II (April-July 2021).The samples obtained from patients visiting Covid-19 clinic (OPD) and IPD were processed in the bio safety level II lab. A real-time RT-PCR test was utilized in line with the manufacturer's instructions to detect ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2 from VTM’s containing NP/OP swabs from patients suspected of COVID-19. A positive result on a realtime RT-PCR assay of nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swab specimens were defined as a confirmed case of Covid-19. Results: A total of 27851 patients were included in our study in peak months of the1st wave (September to December 2020) of COVID-19 and 31871 patients in the 2nd wave (April to July 2021). The findings of this study demonstrate that during the first and the second-wave, hospitalized patients were majority males, younger in the age group of 19-30 years. The majority of patients during the first wave of COVID-19 reported in the out-patient department, while during the second wave, patients reported through the In-patient department of the hospital. Also, the total number of cases reported and positivity rate during the COVID-19 first wave was less than the second wave. Conclusion: We compared the baseline characteristics of wave II with that of Wave I, in which we found that in COVID wave II more individuals were affected, the younger population was infected, more patients were admitted. We also found that the pattern of the two waves does not show any seasonality. Our data could be used to inform Kashmiri population about the epidemiology and demography of Covid-19 waves so that people understand the nature of the situation and follow all the COVID-19 appropriate behaviours more strictly.

20.
Indian J Med Res ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924409

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Polio, measles, rubella, influenza and rotavirus surveillance programmes are of great public health importance globally. Virus isolation using cell culture is an integral part of such programmes. Possibility of unintended isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from clinical specimens processed in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories during the above-mentioned surveillance programmes, cannot be ruled out. The present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of different cell lines to SARS-CoV-2 used in these programmes. Methods: Replication of SARS-CoV-2 was studied in RD and L20B, Vero/hSLAM, MA-104 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines, used for the isolation of polio, measles, rubella, rotavirus and influenza viruses, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 at 0.01 multiplicity of infection was inoculated and the viral growth was assessed by observation of cytopathic effects followed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Vero CCL-81 cell line was used as a positive control. Results: SARS-CoV-2 replicated in Vero/hSLAM, and MA-104 cells, whereas it did not replicate in L20B, RD and MDCK cells. Vero/hSLAM, and Vero CCL-81 showed rounding, degeneration and detachment of cells; MA-104 cells also showed syncytia formation. In qRT-PCR, Vero/hSLAM and MA-104 showed 106 and Vero CCL-81 showed 107 viral RNA copies per µl. The 50 per cent tissue culture infectious dose titres of Vero/hSLAM, MA-104 and Vero CCL-81 were 105.54, 105.29 and 106.45/ml, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero/hSLAM and MA-104 underscores the possibility of its unintended isolation during surveillance procedures aiming to isolate measles, rubella and rotavirus. This could result in accidental exposure to high titres of SARS-CoV-2, which can result in laboratory acquired infections and community risk, highlighting the need for revisiting biosafety measures in public health laboratories.

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