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1.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(6):129-139, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026898

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown no signs of stopping. On the other hand, the pandemic has negative impacts on human life, one of which is related to stress levels caused by an inactive lifestyle, leading to obesity, hypertension, and other health problems. Exercising is one way to overcome this. As a result, in the COVID-19 era, innovative methods are needed to improve physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the content of the self-body weight training exercise method. This research is developmental with qualitative and quantitative analysis. Participants were seven experts with doctor degrees who were competent in physical fitness and exercise programs. The data collection technique is Delphi and 1-5 Likert scale questionnaire, data analysis using Aiken Validity. The results showed that the 10 question items had a V value of 0.857 to 1,000, indicating that this method had a high validity of the content. In conclusion, the method of self-body weight training exercises can be feasible. In addition, the fragrance in this research is that the models and exercise programs compiled are easy to apply and adjust to the level of fatigue in adolescents to adults.

2.
Healthline, Journal of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine ; 13(1):83-89, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026834

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 caused by SARS coronavirus two has halted life across the globe since its emergence in December 2019. Most of the infected persons are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Serosurvey is vital for the estimation of the burden of infection. In this context, our study objective is to estimate the Seroprevalence of SARS CoV 2 IgG among the first-year medical students after the first wave in February 2021. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the first-year medical students of Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. All the students were enrolled, and their data & serum sample was collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Anti-Spike IgG. Data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests.

3.
Telehealth and Medicine Today ; 6(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026479

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Like other areas of care affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth (both audio and video) was rapidly adopted in the obstetric setting. We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record (EHR) data to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with telehealth utilization among patients who received prenatal care. Materials and Methods: The study period covered March 23rd, 2020 to July 2nd, 2020, during which time 2,521 patients received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. We applied a generalized logistic regression to measure the relationship between the patients’ sociodemographic factors (in terms of age, race, ethnicity, urbanization level, and insurance type), pregnancy complications (namely, type 2 diabetes, chronic hypertension, and fetal growth restriction), and telehealth usage, as documented in the EHR. Results: During the study period, 2,521 patients had 16,516 prenatal care visits. 938 (37.2%) of the patients participated in at least one of 1,934 virtual prenatal care visits. Prenatal visits were more likely to be conducted through telehealth for patients who were older than 25 years old and lived in rural areas. In addition, patients who were with type 2 diabetes were more likely to use telehealth in their prenatal care (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 7.247 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 4.244 – 12.933]). By contrast, patients from racial and ethnic minority groups were less likely to have a telehealth encounter compared to white or non-Hispanic patients (aOR 0.603 [95% CI 0.465 – 0.778] and aOR 0.663 [95% CI 0.471 – 0.927], respectively). Additionally, patients who were on state-level Medicaid were less likely to use telehealth (aOR 0.495 [95% CI 0.402 – 0.608]). Discussion: Disparities in telehealth use for prenatal care suggest further investigations into access barriers. Hispanic patients who had low English language proficiency may not willing to see doctors via virtual care. Availability of high-speed internet and/or hardware may hold these patients who were insured through state-level Medicaid back due to poverty. Future work is advised to minimize access barriers to telehealth in its implementation. Conclusions: While telehealth expanded prenatal care access for childbearing women during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study suggested that there were non-trivial differences in the demographics of patients who utilized such settings.

4.
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi ; 16(2):E87-E94, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025181

ABSTRACT

Multivariant analysis showed low lymphocyte (OR 0.072) and WBC count (OR 0.085), high dNLR (OR 2.14) and MPV (OR 2.35) indexes were the most valuable parameters to predict disease severity, ROC curve analysis revealed lymphocyte count has superior predictive value (<1.55 /mm3 has 84.6% sensitivity, 70.9% specificity) than other CBC parameters have. Complete blood count (BC-6800, Mindray, Shenzhen, China), serum biochemistry (Cobas 6000 systems (c501 + e601), Roche Diagnostics Mannheim, Germany), coagulation tests (STA Compact Max, Stago, Asnieres-sur-Seine, France), and D-dimer test (BCSXP, Simens Healthcare Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany) were obtained from medical records. The CBC parameters including leucocyte (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil count, hemoglobin (Hg), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet, mean platelet volume (MPV), and combined ratio of these parameters named as inflammatory indexes including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR, N/(WBC-N), platelet mass index (MPR, mean platelet volume divided by platelet count), systemic inflammatory index (SII, platelet ·N/L) were compared between two patient groups in order to determine their value in predicting COVID-19 severity. Additionally, other inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin and fibrinogen were higher, albumin level was lower in severe group.

5.
Toxics ; 10(8):487, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024235

ABSTRACT

There is evidence that PM2.5 could be obesogenic. Lima is one of the most polluted cities in South America, with an increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between PM2.5 exposure of children aged 6 to 59 months and being overweight or obese (O/O) in a significant dataset survey. Cases were defined when weight for height Z-score (WHZ) was >2 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, for each sex. A control was defined when WHZ was between ±2 SD. We used a conditional logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) between extrauterine and intrauterine PM2.5 exposure and O/O. Extrauterine PM2.5 exposure was evaluated as a 6-month PM2.5 mean prior to the survey. We found a significant association between O/O and extrauterine (OR: 1.57, 1.51–1.63) and intrauterine (OR: 1.99, 1.88–2.12) PM2.5 exposure for an increment of 10 μg/m3. The ORs increased as the quartile increased in both exposures. We observed a higher association in children aged 6–11 months (OR: 3.07, 2.84–3.31). In conclusion, higher levels of PM2.5 in Lima and Callao were associated with cases of O/O in children from 6 to 59 months, with the association higher for prenatal exposure.

6.
Sensors ; 22(16):6052, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024040

ABSTRACT

As obesity is a serious problem in the human population, overloading of the horse’s thoracolumbar region often affects sport and school horses. The advances in using infrared thermography (IRT) to assess the horse’s back overload will shortly integrate the IRT-based rider-horse fit into everyday equine practice. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of entropy measures to select the most informative measures and color components, and the accuracy of rider:horse bodyweight ratio detection. Twelve horses were ridden by each of the six riders assigned to the light, moderate, and heavy groups. Thermal images were taken pre- and post-exercise. For each thermal image, two-dimensional sample (SampEn), fuzzy (FuzzEn), permutation (PermEn), dispersion (DispEn), and distribution (DistEn) entropies were measured in the withers and the thoracic spine areas. Among 40 returned measures, 30 entropy measures were exercise-dependent, whereas 8 entropy measures were bodyweight ratio-dependent. Moreover, three entropy measures demonstrated similarities to entropy-related gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features, confirming the higher irregularity and complexity of thermal image texture when horses worked under heavy riders. An application of DispEn to red color components enables identification of the light and heavy rider groups with higher accuracy than the previously used entropy-related GLCM texture features.

7.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):10965, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023715

ABSTRACT

Emotional Eating (EE) patterns have been shown to play a relevant role in the development of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to analyze the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ) in university students from Huelva. The EEQ was administered to 1282 students (age 22.00 (±5.10), BMI 23.59 (±6.74)), belonging to the University of Huelva. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out. The internal structure of the questionnaire, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were analyzed. Principal component analysis of the questionnaire showed two dimensions, explaining 56% of the variance. Internal consistency showed a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.859 globally, and of 0.841–0.855 if the items were removed. The corrected item-total correlation yielded values of 0.444–0.687. The test-retest stability was ICC = 0.924 (p < 0.001). The data showed significant correlations between EEQ and the rest of the variables, and a Spearman’s Coefficient ranging from −0.367 to 0.400. The fit indexes were good for the confirmatory factor analysis. The results obtained with this structure found an adequate reliability and validity of the questionnaire in comparison with previous studies.

8.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):10529, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023685

ABSTRACT

Knee pain is an early sign of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and a risk factor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). Early prevention is vital, and more research is needed to understand health-promoting activities for individuals with knee pain from a patient perspective. This study aimed to explore how individuals with knee pain experienced health-promoting activities. Explorative qualitative design with inductive approach was applied to explore the experiences of 22 individuals (13 women, 9 men;median age: 52). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using latent qualitative content analysis. The results revealed health-promoting activities in individuals with knee pain and were interpreted in the overall theme, striving for balance in everyday life. Two categories explored the content in health-promoting activities: (1) Caring for the body—being physically active, having a healthy diet, and utilising support;and (2) Managing life stressors—allowing for recovery, promoting vitality, and safeguarding healthy relationships. In conclusion, individuals with knee pain described various health-promoting activities. They strived for balance in everyday life by caring for the body and managing life stressors. We suggest that a broader approach to everyday life can be helpful in treatment plans and health promotion to manage and prevent KOA and CWP, while striving for a healthy lifestyle.

9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(16):10339, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023669

ABSTRACT

Limited studies have focused on maternal early-life risk factors and the later development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to estimate the GDM prevalence and examine the associations of maternal early-life risk factors, namely: maternal birthweight, parental smoking at birth, childhood urbanicity, ever-breastfed, parental education attainment, parental history of diabetes, childhood overall health, childhood body size, and childhood height, with later GDM. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the UAE Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS) baseline data (February 2016 to April 2022) on 702 ever-married women aged 18 to 67 years. We fitted a Poisson regression to estimate the risk ratio (RR) for later GDM and its 95% confidence interval (CI). The GDM prevalence was 5.1%. In the fully adjusted model, females with low birthweight were four times more likely (RR 4.04, 95% CI 1.36–12.0) and females with a parental history of diabetes were nearly three times more likely (RR 2.86, 95% CI 1.10–7.43) to report later GDM. In conclusion, maternal birthweight and parental history of diabetes were significantly associated with later GDM. Close glucose monitoring during pregnancy among females with either a low birth weight and/or parental history of diabetes might help to prevent GDM among this high-risk group.

10.
Children ; 9(8):1248, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023224

ABSTRACT

An inadequate nutrient intake correlates with malnutrition, a problem affecting many adolescents worldwide. Nutrient intake is associated with quality of life (QoL). Our study analyzed the relationship between nutrient intake and adolescents’ QoL. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Through simple random sampling, 157 adolescent girls were selected. Nutrition status was assessed using anthropometric measurements. Nutrient intake was collected using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). WHOQOL BREF was used to explore adolescent girls’ quality of life. The median of nutrient intake: energy (908.25 kcal);protein (24.16 g);carbohydrate (128.89 g);fat (21.89 g);vitamin A (77.10 mg);vitamin E (1.40 mg);vitamin B1 (0.19 mg);vitamin B2 (0.29 mg);vitamin B6 (0.45 mg);folic acid (35.13 mg);vitamin C (12.60 mg);calcium (197.46 mg);magnesium (93.72 mg);iron (2.64 mg);and zinc (2.09 mg). The adolescents’ QoL scores were physical health 44 (25–81), psychological domain 56 (19–94), social relationships 56 (19–94), and environmental domain 56 (31–100). The strongest correlations were between (1) physical health with carbohydrates, vitamin C, and fat;(2) psychological domain with calcium;(3) social relationships with carbohydrates and vitamin C;and (4) environmental domain with BMI and zinc. There was a significant positive correlation between the intake of some nutrients and adolescents’ QoL, despite the observation of some significant negative correlations. The findings of this study indicate that more attention should be focused on adolescents’ nutrient intake in order to improve their QoL.

11.
Children ; 9(8):1247, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023223

ABSTRACT

sBackground: Children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are more prone to having celiac disease (CD) than the normal population. Moreover, patients with this dual diagnosis who are also on a diabetic and gluten-free diet (GFD) risk faltering growth and uncontrolled blood glucose levels. This review aims to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of managing patients with T1DM screened for CD with GFD to prevent complications associated with these chronic pathologies in childhood and adulthood. Materials and Methods: We abided by the PRISMA guidelines in this meta-analysis and used multiple databases and search engines. We included case–control studies. The primary outcomes were changes in the standard deviation score, body mass index (SDS BMI), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1C) after being on a GFD for at least twelve months. Results: The pooled data from the six studies included showed that there was neither a statistically significant difference in the mean SDS BMI (−0.28 (95% CI −0.75, 0.42)) (p = 0.24) nor in the mean of HA1C (mean −0.07 (95% CI −0.44, 0.30)) (p = 0.36) for the same group. HDL cholesterol improved significantly in patients on a strict GFD (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In children with T1DM and asymptomatic CD, being on a GFD had no significant effect on BMI or HA1C. However, it can have a protective effect on the other complications found in both chronic pathologies.

12.
Cells ; 11(16):2614, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023200

ABSTRACT

Obesity is of concern to the population because it is known to cause inflammation and oxidative stress throughout the body, leading to patient predisposition for health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers. However, some proteins that are activated in times of oxidative stress may provide cytoprotective properties. In this study, we aim to gain further understanding of the interconnection between Nrf2 and Sesn2 during obesity-related stress and how this relationship can play a role in cardio-protection. Cardiomyocyte-specific Sesn2 knockout (cSesn2−/−) and Sesn2 overexpressed (tTa-tet-Sesn2) mice and their wildtype littermates (Sesn2flox/flox and tet-Sesn2, respectively) were assigned to either a normal chow (NC) or a high-fat (HF) diet to induce obesity. After 16 weeks of dietary intervention, heart function was evaluated via echocardiography and cardiac tissue was collected for analysis. Immunoblotting, histology, and ROS staining were completed. Human heart samples were obtained via the LifeLink Foundation and were also subjected to analysis. Overall, these results indicated that the overexpression of Sesn2 appears to have cardio-protective effects on the obese heart through the reduction of ROS and fibrosis present in the tissues and in cardiac function. These results were consistent for both mouse and human heart samples. In human samples, there was an increase in Sesn2 and Nrf2 expression in the obese patients’ LV tissue. However, there was no observable pattern of Sesn2/Nrf2 expression in mouse LV tissue samples. Further investigation into the link between the Sesn2/Nrf2 pathway and obesity-related oxidative stress is needed.

13.
Brain Sciences ; 12(8):1076, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023168

ABSTRACT

Flow diverters (FD) have become the mainstay for the endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Most FD procedures are performed under general anesthesia, and the influence of local anesthesia (LA) on outcomes remains unknown. This study evaluated the results of FD placement under LA. Data of patients treated for FD under LA between August 2016 and January 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. A good outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 0–2. Major stroke, steno-occlusive events of FD, mortality, and satisfactory aneurysm occlusion were also evaluated. In total, 169 patients undertook 182 treatments (139 [82%) female, mean age 61 ± 11 years). The median maximum aneurysm size was 9.5 mm (interquartile range 6.1-14 mm). A flow re-directed endoluminal device and pipeline embolization device were used in 103 (57%) and 78 (43%) treatments. One patient (0.59%) experienced major stroke, and steno-occlusive events were observed in four patients (2.4%). A good outcome at 90 days was obtained in 164 patients (98%), and one patient died (0.59% mortality). During the median follow-up period of 345 days (interquartile range 176–366 days), satisfactory aneurysm occlusion was observed in 126 of 160 aneurysms (79%). Our results suggest that FD placement under LA is a safe and effective treatment for UIA.

14.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021940

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common autoimmune neuromuscular disorder, and is more common in women than in men. Anemia is also more common in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with anemia and the negative impact of anemia in female MG patients. We investigated factors related to MG and anemia in 215 female patients with MG, who were attending the MG clinic of Keio Hospital between January and December 2021. We statistically evaluated clinical factors related to anemia in patients with and without anemia. Eighty-five patients (40%) had anemia in the past, and 130 patients did not have anemia in the past. There were no significant differences in age at study, age at MG onset, body mass index, or frequency of autoantibodies between the anemia and non-anemia groups. MG severity evaluated by the MG Foundation of America classification was greater in the anemia group than in the non-anemia group. History of anemia was associated with immunosuppressive treatment, such as prednisolone and calcineurin inhibitor treatment. There was a correlation between hemoglobin levels and the MG-quality of life score. Long term immunosuppressive therapy can cause anemia in female MG patients. Anemia may negatively affect the quality of life of female MG patients.

15.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigate the effectiveness of the scientific 4 Phases Method, a methodology developed by EMAGRECENTRO, which is based on a ketogenic approach (total carbohydrate intake <40 g/day; including fibers) associated with health coach assistance, in promoting reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference after 5 weeks of methodology application. METHODS: Record files from 354 individuals, both sexes, aged between 18 and 67, who took part in the 4 Phases Method were used to develop this study. Age, sex, weight, height, BMI, waist circumference measurement, and the presence of ketone bodies in the urine were evaluated before (baseline) and after 5 weeks of the 4 Phases application. RESULTS: In general, a significant reduction in body weight (-7.8 ± 1.2 kg, p < 0.0001), BMI (-2.8 ± 0.4 kg/m2, p < 0.0001), and waist circumference measurement (-7.6 ± 0.4 cm, p < 0.0001) was found after the application of the 4 Phases Method, regardless of age, gender, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results demonstrated that the 4 Phases Method was able to promote significant body weight, BMI, and waist circumference reductions in the short term, particularly by associating a ketogenic intake strategy with a regular close follow-up weekly consultation with a health coach assistance.

16.
Gut ; 71(Suppl 2):A85-A87, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020125

ABSTRACT

IDDF2022-ABS-0170 Table 1Demographics, comorbidities, laboratory investigations and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients stratified by ALT All (n=163) Status of ALT P-value¶ Characteristics Abnormal (n=50) Normal (n=113) Age in years, median (IQR) 56 (43–65) 60 (50–67) 55 (37–64) 0.022 Gender, n (%) 0.124 Male 96 (58.9) 34 (68.0) 62 (54.9) Female 67 (41.1) 16 (32.0) 51 (45.1) Ethnic group, n (%) 0.520 Chinese 98 (60.1) 34 (68.0) 64 (56.6) Malay 18 (11.0) 4 (8.0) 14 (12.4) Indian 20 (12.3) 6 (12.0) 14 (12.4) Others 27 (16.6) 6 (12.0) 21 (18.6) Comorbidities, n (%) Diabetes 32 (19.6) 13 (26.0) 19 (16.8) 0.201 Hyperlipidemia 57 (35.0) 24 (48.0) 33 (29.2) 0.032 Hypertension 61 (37.4) 26 (52.0) 35 (31.0) 0.014 Ischemic heart disease 15 (9.2) 7 (14.0) 8 (7.1) 0.238 Chronic liver disease 4 (2.5) 1 (2.0) 3 (2.7) 1.000 Charlson Comorbidity Index, median (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.400 BMI, kg/m2, median (IQR), n=46 24.3 (23.2–27.9) 22.9 (22.1–24.2) 24.6 (23.6–28.7) 0.011 GI symptoms, n (%) Diarrhoea 29 (17.8) 12 (24.0) 17 (15.0) 0.186 Abdominal pain 4 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.5) 0.313 Nausea/vomiting 10 (6.1) 0 (0.0) 10 (8.8) 0.032 Abnormal chest radiography on admission 55 (33.7) 22 (44.0) 33 (29.2) 0.074 Laboratory investigations on admission, median (IQR) ALT, U/L 23 (18–31) 29 (22–33) 21 (17–26) <0.0005 ALT/LDH ratio, n=162 0.05 (0.04–0.07) 0.06 (0.04–0.07) 0.05 (0.03–0.06) 0.039 ALP 72 (60–89) 72 (61–90) 72 (60–89) 0.700 R factor 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 1.15 (0.86–1.49) 0.87 (0.63–1.19) <0.0005 WBC, x109/L 4.70 (3.80–5.70) 4.75 (3.80–5.83) 4.70 (3.85–5.70) 0.844 Lymphocyte, x109/L 1.11 (0.84–1.49) 0.99 (0.74–1.23) 1.20 (0.87–1.65) 0.002 PLT, x 109/L 188 (150–225) 177 (142–223) 193 (155–226) 0.306 CRP, mg/L, n=162 10.75 (3.15–39.40) 30.10 (11.28–50.65) 6.85 (1.95–23.88) <0.0005 LDH, U/L, n=162 420 (350–547) 482 (378–572) 408 (342–525) 0.033 Creatinine, μmol/L 72 (61–87) 76 (65–88) 71 (59–87) 0.288 Albumin, g/L, n=156 39 (37–42) 39 (37–41) 40 (37–43) 0.044 BIL, μmol/L, n=152 11 (9–14) 11 (9–14) 12 (9–15) 0.555 Medication used, n (%) NSAIDs 22 (13.5) 4 (8.0) 18 (15.9) 0.218 β-lactam 47 (28.8) 22 (44.0) 25 (22.1) 0.008 Hydroxychloroquine 7 (4.3) 1 (2.0) 6 (5.3) 0.677 Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 25 (15.3) 16 (32.0) 9 (8.0) <0.0005 Remdesivir 12 (7.4) 5 (10.0) 7 (6.2) 0.516 Interferon 9 (5.5) 6(12.0) 3 (2.7) 0.025 Days of symptoms before admission, median (IQR) 4 (3–7) 4 (2–7) 5 (3–7) 0.396 Length of stay in days, median (range) 13(8–17) 16(13–24) 11 (7–16) <0.0005 Clinical severity HDU/ICU, n (%) 29 (17.8) 16 (32.0) 13 (11.5) 0.003 Required supplementary oxygen, n (%) 50 (30.7) 29 (58.0) 21 (18.6) <0.0005 Days on supplementary oxygen, median (IQR), n=50 11 (6–18) 12 (6–21) 8 (5–15) 0.15 Intubated, n (%) 13 (8.0) 10 (20.0) 3 (2.7) <0.0005 Death, n (%) 5 (3.1) 3 (6.0) 2 (1.8) 0.169 Sample size, n=163, except where indicated.¶ P values are from Fisher’s exact test or chi-square test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. P values< 0.05 are in bold.ALP, alkaline phosphatase;ALT, alanine aminotransferase;AST, aspartate aminotransferase;BIL, bilirubin;BMI, body mass index;CRP, c-reactive protein;GI, gastrointestinal;ICU, intensive care unit;IQR, interquartile range;LDH, lactate dehydrogenase;HDU, high dependency unit;PLT, platelet count;WBC, white blood cell.Results30.7% of patients developed abnormal ALT: they were more likely to be older and had comorbidities of hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression (IDDF2022-ABS-0170 Table 2) showed that R-factor ≥1 on admission (aOR 3.13, 95%CI 1.41–6.95) and hypoxia (aOR3.54, 95%CI 1.29–9.69) were independent risk factors for developing abnormal ALT, but not medications or comorbidities. The R-factor on admission trended higher for patients who developed abnormal LFT as compared to those who didn’t, regardless of the day of illness (IDDF2022-ABS-0170 Figure 1. R-factor). The patients who developed abnormal ALT also ran a more severe course of illness with a greater proportion needing supplementary oxygen (58%vs18.6%, p <0.0005), admission to Intensive Care/High Dependency Unit (32%vs11.5%, p=0.003) and intubation (20%vs2.7%, p<0.0005). The death rate between the 2 groups was similar. IDDF2022-ABS-0170 Table 2Odds ratio of risk factors for development of abnormal ALTVariable Univariable model Multivariable model ‡ cOR (95% CI) P value aOR (95% CI) P value Age in years <45 1.00 Referent 1.00 Referent 45–64 3.42 (1.28–9.11) 0.014 2.69 (0.84–8.47) 0.096 65+ 4.31 (1.49–12.42) 0.007 2.84 (0.66–12.19) 0.160 Gender Male 1.00 Referent Female 0.57 (0.28–1.15) 0.118 Diabetes 1.74 (0.78–3.87) 0.176 Hyperlipidemia 2.24 (1.13–4.45) 0.022 1.14 (0.43–3.00) 0.796 Hypertension 2.41 (122–4.78) 0.0110.89 (0.31–2.58) 0.835 Ischemic heart disease 2.14 (0.73–6.26) 0.166 Presence of GI symptom(s) on admission 1.17 (0.53–2.58) 0.695 Abnormal chest x-ray on admission 1.90 (0.96–3.80) 0.067 0.91 (0.36–2.25) 0.833 R factor on admission <1 1.00 Referent 1.00 Referent ≥1 3.12 (1.56–6.24) 0.001 3.13 (1.41–6.95) 0.005 Use of acetaminophen No 1.00 Referent Yes, <2 g/day 1.48 (0.39–5.65) 0.567 Yes, ≥2 g/day 2.86 (0.71–11.46) 0.139 Use of β-lactam 2.77 (1.35–5.65) 0.005 1.12 (0.38–3.24) 0.840 Use of Hydroxychloroquine 0.36 (0.04–3.11) 0.355 Use of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 5.44 (2.20–13.43) <0.0005 2.20 (0.57–8.45) 0.252 Use of Remdesivir 1.68 (0.51–5.58) 0.395 Use of interferon 5.00 (1.20–20.88) 0.027 0.80 (0.12–5.22) 0.813 Hypoxia 6.05 (2.9–12.62) <0.0005 3.54 (1.29–9.69) 0.014 ‡ Variables in the multivariable logistic regression model were age group, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, whether there was abnormal chest x-ray on admission, R factor on admission, use of β-lactam, use of LPV/r, use of interferon, and hypoxia, P values<0.05 are in bold, aOR, adjusted odds ratio, cOR, crude odds ratio IDDF2022-ABS-0170 Figure 1ConclusionsLiver injury is associated with poorer clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. R-factor ≥1 on admission and hypoxia are independent risk factors for developing abnormal ALT in COVID-19. More studies are required to see if the incorporation of the R-factor into conventional clinical risk scores can improve the performance in predicting disease progression/discriminating disease severity and applicability in emerging virus variants.

17.
BMJ Paediatrics Open ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020092

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo determine the extent to which the presence of acanthosis nigricans confers additional risk for insulin resistance, in addition to obesity alone (body mass index, BMI) within a young, overweight, UK population.Research design and methodsRetrospective data were collected to compare the degree of insulin resistance within a sample of 94 young people with acanthosis nigricans, and a matched cohort of 94 participants with obesity alone. Insulin resistance was assessed by fasting glucose, fasting insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score (a mathematical model derived to measure insulin resistance).ResultsThe acanthotic and control group were well matched for age, BMI, BMI SDS and sex, although the groups were not matched for ethnicity. The acanthotic group showed a significantly greater median fasting insulin (215 pmol/L), mean fasting glucose (4.7 mmol/L) and median HOMA-IR score (6.4), compared with the control group (126 pmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L and 3.7, respectively). The presence of acanthosis nigricans as an indicator of insulin resistance was found to have a positive predictive value of 81% (within this study population).ConclusionIndividuals with both acanthosis nigricans and obesity had significantly greater degrees of insulin resistance than individuals with obesity alone. The findings support the potential for acanthosis nigricans as a visible marker of type 2 diabetes in young people.

18.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A62, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019831

ABSTRACT

Aims• Explore international literature published in the years 2020-2021 to determine the prevalence of adolescent obesity and identify any changes following the introduction of COVID-19 lockdown measures.• Determine changes in weight and anthropometric measurements in adolescents during this period (2020-2021).• Consider correlations between changes in physical activity, eating habits and screen-time following COVID-19 lockdowns and changes in anthropometric measures.• Explore the impact of economic and environmental inequalities on weight gain and obesity.MethodsPeer-reviewed publications published between 1st January 2020 - 1st December 2021 were identified via systematic searching of three electronic databases, CINAHL, PubMed and OVID. Designated medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and free text search terms relating to the research question including ’COVID-19’, ‘obesity’, and ‘adolescents’ were used to identify relevant articles for inclusion. Those executed in all global settings, published in the English language, and with participants aged 10-18-years-old were included. Any anthropometric measure of obesity, including body mass index, body weight and body fat index were considered. Grey literature searches were also conducted using Goggle Scholar. Data was extracted onto a pre piloted data collection form capturing population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and outcomes (PICO). A narrative analysis was produced based around identified themes.ResultsOverall nine studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. No UK based studies were identified, but global findings were captured including those conducted in the USA, China, South Korea, Germany, India, and Italy. Two studies compared anthropometric measures before and after school closures due to COVID-19. Six reported anthropometric changes before and after/during COVID-19 lockdowns, and one reported pre-pandemic versus pandemic changes in anthropometry. COVID-19 resulted in increased screen times, reduced physical activity and changes in nutritional habits. Key themes included gender- weight gain was higher in adolescent males than females, ethnicity- those from Hispanic backgrounds showed higher levels of obesity, parental factors- obese parents increased the likelihood of adolescent obesity (70%), lower socioeconomic status presented with 2.5 times increase in body weight, and behavioural changes- this included reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour and dietary changes with increased snacking reported.ConclusionOur findings show that there was an increase in the prevalence of adiposity, obesity prevalence and weight gain alongside changes in eating habits and activity levels across several regions between 2020-2021. COVID-19 infection control measures such as school closures increased sedentary behaviours e.g. screen-time for both education and leisure, and negatively influenced nutrition. There is a need for ongoing surveillance and intervention in particular for those identified at risk groups from our included articles. All healthcare professionals and governmental bodies have a role to play in addressing this issue. Further work will be required in order to explore the long-term effects of COVID-19 and its true impact on adolescent obesity.

19.
Nutrition & Food Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2018563

ABSTRACT

Purpose As the development and vaccination of the COVID 19 vaccine is accelerating worldwide, it is important to investigate the ways to improve immunity and immune responses to vaccines. This study aims to investigate the association between history of nutritional supplements intake and body mass index (BMI) in the severity of COVID-19 vaccine side effects after vaccination. Design/methodology/approach A total of 465 vaccinated participants with the Sinopharm vaccine (females and males in the 18-65 age range) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the first visit. In addition, nutrient supplement history and demographic information were collected. Moreover, the participants' phone numbers were collected and they were contacted. Participants were asked to report if they experienced systemic (whole-body) and/or local side effects after vaccination, in the following eight days. Then, participants were grouped into four categories: no symptoms (n = 232), mild symptoms (n = 121), moderate symptoms (n = 55) and severe symptoms (n = 57). Findings There was a significant difference between the consumption of nutritional supplements by different groups of participants in the last six months (considering the severity of the symptoms) (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the incidence of side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine increased in the Q3 of BMI (range 22.94-26.34) in Modes 2 and 3: [OR: 1.85, (95% CI: 1.14- 3.00), p-for trend = 0.08] and [OR: 1.89, (95% CI: 1.16- 3.09), p-for trend = 0.09] based on logistic regression models. Originality/value In this study, the history of nutrient supplement intake affects the severity of side effects after the vaccination with COVID-19. Furthermore, based on logistic regression models, side effects were more prevalent in the BMI range 22.9-26.3 when compared to BMI < 20.2 so further study is necessary.

20.
Nutrition Today ; 57(4):221-228, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2018348

ABSTRACT

A prominent issue for patients with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is obesity. Some reports claim that obese patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have better outcomes. This inverse relationship has been termed the obesity paradox and is not yet understood in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to investigate the obesity paradox in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. In this retrospective observational study, 5230 patients with COVID-19, admitted to the ICU between June 1, 2020, and January 10, 2021, were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to the World Health Organization classification, and patients were categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese for statistical analysis. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression model, and dose-response relationship between BMI level and ICU length of stay (LOS) and connection to the ventilator survival were conducted. Of the 5230 patients studied, 3233 (62%) had nonobese BMIs, and 2997 (38%) were obese. We found no significant difference in mortality between obese and nonobese patients with COVID-19, where 1699 patients (31%) survived. However, there were significant differences in BMI level for ICU LOS and ventilation duration (P < 0.05, P < 0.03). In multivariable Cox regression, significant differences were observed in ICU LOS and ventilation duration of patients between obese and nonobese patients (P < 0.001, P < 0.005). There was no association between BMI and survival among patients with LOS in the ICU LOS or connection to a ventilator. However, obese patients with COVID-19 require more care than nonobese patients because of additional comorbidities, higher inflammation, and a weaker immune system.

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