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1.
Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics ; 21(2):931-974, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163964

ABSTRACT

A knowledge of the chemical content of Rhinoceros (Rhino) oil and its activity on selected biomolecules of experimental models would help boost the immune system against an immunocompromised COVID-19 status. The study seeks to evaluate the chemical and biomolecular profile of Rhino oil. Chemical profile was done using standard methods of analysis. 25 rats were assigned in five groups (A-E) (n=5). Animals in group A (control) were administered 0.5 ml of distilled water while those in groups B-E which were immunocompromised (by intraperitoneal administration of 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of lead [Pb]) were also administered distilled water, immunomodulatory drug (5 mg/kg body weight of zinc [Zn]), 2 and 5 mg/kg b.w of Rhino oil extract respectively, once daily for 8 days followed by biomolecular assay. Proximate analysis gave moisture content (14.37+/-0.29), among others. FAMEs analysis showed hexadecanoic acid (12.80%) and other esters. Lipid profile of the oil gave LDLC to contain (32.90+/-0.53 mg/L), and others. The physicochemical properties gave iodine value as (115.80+/-0.40 mg/g), among others. The metal composition revealed Zn (0.28+/-0.06) plus others. The amnio acid profile of the oil gave ten essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively. The levels of biomolecules in serum of the animals were altered at specific doses of the oil extract. Altogether, the chemical content of the oil was significantly high, with altered biomolecular effect. The rich content of vital nutrients and chemicals of Rhino oil may boost the white blood cells against COVID-19. The isolation and characterization of the active principles of the oil is encouraged. Copyright © 2007 The authors.

2.
Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics ; 21(2):922-930, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163963

ABSTRACT

Cetirizine Hydrochloride is a non-drowsy second-generation antihistamine and a derivative of piperazine with a half-life of eleven hours. It is used to relieve allergy symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, rhinitis, urticaria and watery eyes. It is a key adjuvant therapy in management of some covid-19 related symptoms. To assess the quality of five brands of Cetirizine hydrochloride 10mg tablets marketed in Abuja. The weight variation, friability, hardness, disintegration, dissolution tests and HPLC assay were evaluated using USP methods. The hardness and friability of the samples ranged from 2.03kgF to 7.54KgF and 0.00 to 0.90% respectively. The disintegration time were within 5mins, for dissolution, 80.0 to 103.3% of the API in the samples were released within 30mins, the assay ranged from 93.1 to 101.6%. The cetirizine tablets conformed with quality standards. Copyright © 2007 The authors.

3.
Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics ; 21(2):883-890, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163960

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) has resulted in millions of deaths worldwide. Nigeria has recorded over 2000 deaths due to the disease. Development of alternative medicine from plants against SARS-COV-2 can be a potential therapy for treatment of secondary complications. To investigate plants with potential to manage respiratory tract infections. The plants were extracted and screened for phytochemical constituents;their acute and subacute toxicity profile was evaluated. The plant extracts were tested against clinical microbial isolates associated with respiratory tract infection. All the plants extract were found to have acute toxicity dose above 5000 mg per kg body weight. Among the four tested medicinal plants Guiera senegalensis was found to have significant zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumonia and Moraxella catarrhalis more than the standard drug (Gentamicin). Guiera senegalensis has been used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial infections without any report of toxicity. The preclinical study indicated that Guiera senegalensis can be used in the management of respiratory infections associated with symptoms of COVID 19. Guiera senegalensis can therefore be used as a potential medicinal plant for management of secondary bacterial infections in Covid19 patients. Copyright © 2007 The authors.

4.
Saude e Sociedade ; 31(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2162704

ABSTRACT

From a case study of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil, this article discusses the role of states in coordinating healthcare with its local governments in the context of the new coronavirus pandemic. The absence of federal government initiatives in responding to the pandemic in Brazil have been acknowledged by several specialists as an unprecedented event in the Brazilian federation, breaking with a recurrent pattern of national coordination and regulation by different governments since the 1988 Constitution. In this sense, states and municipalities had to adopt their own initiatives to respond to the pandemic. Qualitative research based on the collection of documents (local media, epidemiological reports, and state regulations) and in-depth interviews with state and municipal managers reveals significant changes in the state-municipal relationship throughout the pandemic period in Rio Grande do Norte, a state historically characterized by the lack of state coordination. The pandemic, thus, functioned as an exogenous shock, which induced changes in the pattern of state coordination in healthcare. It is unclear, however, whether these changes are one-off or permanent since the weight of increasing returns - a specification of a path dependency process - seem to work as a mechanism producing inertial dynamics of difficult disruption with the past. Copyright © 2022, Universidade de Sao Paulo. Museu de Zoologia. All rights reserved.

5.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Health ; 26 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2158472

ABSTRACT

Clinical depression and anxiety are not just national health issues. They are significant global health problems, with a worldwide prevalence of clinical depression amounting to nearly 4%. Moreover, its prevalence is certainly underreported, particularly since the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic. This suggests that at least 26 million people are sad, fatigued, do not enjoy life, struggle with weight changes and experience suicidal thoughts. This Special Issue provides cutting-edge, new information from laboratories around the world about inflammation and depression. It consists of four review articles and five original research articles. Copyright © 2022 The Authors

6.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 80(8):523-531, 2022.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156543

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the presence of ocular symptoms was common in COVID-19 patients, which can cause secondary complications in the treatment of ocular diseases. On the other hand, obesity can cause secondary symptoms in infectious diseases by impairing the function of the immune system, which indicates the relationship between involvement of different tissues and dysfunction of the cellular immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body indexes (i.e., age, height, weight, and BMI) and the presence of ocular symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Method(s): In this cross-sectional study (from March 2021 to May 2021), ocular symptoms (including blurred vision, epiphora, photophobia, discharge and exudate, redness, pain, and itching of the eyes) and body indexes (age, height, weight and BMI) were evaluated in 108 patients with COVID-19, who were referred to Ayatollah Rouhani hospital, Babol, Iran. The independent t-test and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were used to examine the data relationship in SPSS software. Result(s): The results showed that the mean body weight in COVID-19 patients with blurred vision was significantly higher than COVID-19 patients without blurred vision (P=0.003, t=-3.056). The mean height of COVID-19 patients with epiphora was significantly lower than the mean height of COVID-19 patients without epiphora (P=0.018, t=2.398). Also, the BMI of COVID-19 patients with epiphora was 30.00 +/-4.07 kg/m2, while the BMI of COVID-19 patients without epiphora was 27.68+/-4.42 kg/m2 (P=0.047, t=0.026). In COVID-19 patients with at least one ocular symptom, height was significantly lower than heigh of COVID-19 patients without any ocular symptoms (P=0.001, t=3.397). Conclusion(s): Our results indicate the essential role of obesity in the occurrence of eye symptoms in COVID-19 patients. In this study, it was found that blurred vision, epiphora and the presence of at least one eye symptom in COVID-19 patients were significantly associated with the upward trend of BMI (as an index of obesity). Copyright © 2022 Babaei et al. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

7.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism ; 15(2):263-271, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2154628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are growing interests in the use of medicinal mushrooms in controlling overweight and obesity. OBJECTIVE(S): The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Lingzhi on anthropometric indices, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and blood pressure of overweight individuals METHODS: This randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on seventy-two overweight individuals (Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?25-29.9?kg/m2) received 3 capsule Ganoderma Lucidum (each capsule containing 220?mg of whole powder and 30?mg of pure aqueous extract) daily or matching placebo for 6 weeks. Anthropometric indices, metabolic tests (fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipid profile) and blood pressure were measured before and after treatment. RESULT(S): Data analyses indicated that body weight and BMI were decreased after 6-week intervention (P?<?0.05). The beneficial effect of supplementation was evident on some anthropometric indices. Changes in LDL-cholesterol were significantly different between two treatment and placebo groups (P?<?0.05). FBS, other components of lipid profile and blood pressure did not significantly change by Lingzi treatment. CONCLUSION(S): Results showed that Ganoderma Lucidum might have some potential benefits on anthropometric indices and mild effects on lipid profile, but and there is no claim for weight lose function. Hence, further long-term studies are recommended. Copyright © 2022 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.

8.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S540-S541, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2154105

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The covid pandemic has become a unique phenomenon in world history with great impact on mental health. Objective(s): A great growth of anxious depressive pathology in relation to the Covid situation has appeared with the need to increase the psychiatric approach in the general population Methods: A 58-year-old woman with no personal medical story of interest is referred to the high-resolution Covid program due to severe depressive symptoms: intense apathy, abulia, anhedonia, weight loss, insomnia and important social distancing after the beginning of the confinement due to the Covid Pandemic. 4 psychotherapy sessions are performed, with a maximum duration of 45 minutes. It is necessary to add antidepressant medication with sertraline up to 100mg to improve psychotherapeutic work. Result(s): A complete recovery of symptoms is achieved even their severity with normalization of daily life. Conclusion(s): Small psychotherapeutic interventions have been shown, even with critically ill patients, to be very effective in helping patients regain their baseline status.

9.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S495, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153986

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 infection may lead to encephalopathy and various neurotrophic effects which can result in neuropsychiatric complications. Here, an asymptomatic adolescent female developed acute onset catatonia and psychosis manifesting during the resolution of Covid-19 infection. Objective(s): Discuss differential diagnosis, medical workup, and initial treatment optimization for acute stabilization. Method(s): This 15-year-old female with no previous psychiatric history nor prodromal symptomatology was hospitalized secondary to Covid -19. During the immediate three-month recovery phase following resolution of Covid-19, the patient exhibited gradually increasing anxiety, paranoia, delusions, disorganized behavior, and weight loss leading to re-hospitalization secondary to catatonia. Negative workup included rapid strep test, urinalysis, chest and abdominal x-ray, EEG, and brain MRI. Lumbar puncture revealed elevated WBC of 18 but was unremarkable for NDMA receptor antibodies, CSF HSV, and encephalitis panel. IV steroids, IVIG, and Anakinra were all given without benefit. Inadequate response to olanzapine, clonidine, and lorazepam led to an Index Series of bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Result(s): The provisional diagnosis of psychotic disorder secondary to COVID-19 infection responded robustly regarding sleep, behavior, and affect by session #6, yet positive symptoms of psychosis persist. Ongoing ECT, psychopharmacology, and narrowing of the differential diagnosis continue. Conclusion(s): As more COVID-19 cases evolve during the pandemic, potential post-infectious neuropsychiatric complications should be considered as potentially contributory and kept in a thoughtful differential diagnosis. Regardless of ultimate causation, the acute symptom profile responded robustly to an initial Index Series of ECT.

10.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S403-S404, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153940

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increased psychological strain on public mental health and may impact behavioural, mental, and physical health, presumably with effects on patients with severe mental disorders. Objective(s): This study examines pandemic-related physical and mental health and (compensatory) behavioural changes, in patients with BD as compared to healthy control individuals. Method(s): Physical and mental health and self-reported changes in daily structure and behaviour due to pandemic were assessed using a self-constructed questionnaire and the brief symptom inventory (BSI) from outpatient clinics in Germany, Austria, and Denmark in individuals with BD and a healthy control group. Result(s): The present study included 118 individuals with BD and 215 healthy controls. Individuals with BD reported statistically significant higher physical risk burden, increased weight gain, more physical comorbidities, and a decrease in physical activity and they further reported higher rate of COVID-19 testing, had more worries concerning health and experienced more anxiety but less social distancing. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have a greater impact on physical health in individuals with BD than in healthy controls. Individuals with BD appear to be having more difficulties compensating their behaviour due to the pandemic which could amplify the effect of risk factors associated with poorer physical health. This highlights the necessity for optimising and targeting the overall treatment of both mental and physical health in patients with BD during periods with far-reaching changes such as COVID- 19 pandemic.

11.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S384, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153936

ABSTRACT

Introduction: 15-year-old female referred to outpatient unit after COVID lockdown for binge eating and purging with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Objective(s): To show the importance of a correct diagnosis in an impulsive patient with eating disorder Methods: case report and literature review Results: The patient presents emotional instability with interpersonal difficulties with high fear of rejection. She suffered from fear of gaining weight and desires to lose weight with rejection of her body image. Fluoxetine and lorazepam are started together with low doses of olanzapine. During the follow up she presented a worsening of mood, onset of self-injuries and an episode of suicidal attempt. A biographical examination was performed, expressing a feeling of academic failure with difficulty concentrating and performing simple tasks. As a child she is described as impulsive, with frequent arguments with classmates. CPT III was performed with a high probability of ADHD. Treatment was started with lisdexamfetamine up to 50 mg with good tolerance. From the beginning of the treatment the patient expressed a feeling of improvement in the control of emotions as well as in the management of her impulsivity. There was an improvement in her academic performance with a decrease in self-injury episodes. The patient was able to express improvement in the sense of incapacity she felt. Conclusion(s): This case shows how marked emotional dysregulation and impulsive symptoms improves after diagnosis and subsequent treatment of ADHD, also improving eating symptoms. ADHD is present in eating disorders, especially in those with impulse dyscontrol such as binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa.

12.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153771

ABSTRACT

Covid had a profound impact on services for eating disorders because of the huge increase in demand. Nevertheless, services quickly adopted a virtual form of working. This rapid change in prevalence was attributed to a number of factors, including a general increase in fear and fragmented social functioning, with a specific accentuation of higher risk associated with body weight. Recent advances in the conceptualisation of eating disorders include a move from a transdiagnostic to a more to a personalised approach. For example, it has been further demonstrated that reducing the duration of untreated illness within three years of onset is associated with a better outcome (1). This has led to the rollout of FREED, an early intervention service in the UK. Genetic associations have been compared and contrasted across the spectrum of eating disorders. People with binge eating disorders share a profile with those at risk of metabolic syndrome whereas people with anorexia nervosa have the opposite profile (2). This reconceptualization of eating disorders as conditions with both brain and body underpinnings has led to new treatment approaches. For example, there have been small proof of concept studies in which metreleptin has been administered. These show promise with rapid reductions in depression and other symptoms (3, 4). Meanwhile the value of "experts by experience," in co designing and delivering services is an area of active investigation which offers the much needed potential of improving treatment outcomes (5).

13.
The American Heart Journal ; 254:244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2149197

ABSTRACT

Individuals with certain medical conditions, e.g., diabetes, heart, and/or lung disease, are at higher risk of severe COVID-19. Molnupiravir, an oral antiviral drug for treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in certain adults, was granted US FDA emergency use authorization. Retrospective analyses of US patient-level medical and pharmacy claims, and hospital chargemaster data, aggregated by HealthVerity, was conducted. Adults (≥18 years) were indexed to their first outpatient pharmacy fill for molnupiravir between Dec-24-2021 and May-02-2022. Comorbidities were identified using ICD-10 diagnosis, CPT, and/or HCPCS codes during pre-index period (back to Dec-01-2018) and comedications by generic name (from NDCs) ≤90 days before index. Demographic, comorbidity, and comedication characteristics were reported using descriptive statistics. The analyses included 26,191 patients: mean age 58.7 (SD 16.3) years, 59.0% female and 75.9% resided in the South. Presence of ≥1 comorbidity associated with severe COVID-19 was observed in 87.0%: hypertension (52.5%), overweight/obesity (37.4%), mood disorder (30.7%) and cardiovascular disease (18.9%). Diabetes mellitus was observed in 6,944 (26.5%) patients: mean age 62.5 (SD 14.3) years and 54.4% female. Polypharmacy (≥5 comedications) within the last 90 days was also prevalent in both the overall (49.7%) and patients with diabetes (66.1%). Concomitant use of comedications contraindicated with ritonavir-based COVID-19 treatment was noted in 33.7% of all patients and 45.8% of patients with diabetes. Majority of COVID-19 patients treated with molnupiravir in clinical practice were at high risk of severe COVID-19. Future research needs to assess impact of molnupiravir on clinical outcomes in real-world practice, including in patients with comorbid conditions.

14.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:621, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124848

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity, which is becoming increasingly common worldwide, is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease and progression of chronic kidney disease, due to inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Many angiotensin II effects are dependent on AT1 stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In COVID-19 patients, overweight and obesity are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and AKI. Although obesity increases oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, its effect on IRI-induced AKI is unknown. We hypothesized that obesity would aggravate renal IRI in mice. Method(s): We fed mice a high-fat or standard diet (45 and 10 kcal% fat, respectively) for 8 weeks. Some then underwent bilateral 30-min clamping of the kidney hila and subsequent reperfusion (groups: obese, normal, obese+IRI and normal+IRI). All studies were performed 48 h after IRI. Data are mean+/-SEM. Result(s): Body weight (g) was 33+/-1.7, 32+/-0.7, 27+/-1.4 and 26+/-0.9 in the obese, obese+IRI, normal and normal+IRI groups, respectively (P<0.001). Mortality was 42% and 25% in the obese+IRI and normal+IRI groups, respectively (P <0.05);there were no deaths in the non-IRI groups. Serum glucose and cholesterol did not differ among the groups. Creatinine clearance (mL/min/100g BW) was 0.20+/-0.05 and 0.20+/-0.07 in the obese+IRI and normal+IRI groups, respectively, vs. 0.34+/-0.06 and 0.40+/-0.08 in the obese and normal groups, respectively. Renal p65 protein expression (%) was 127+/-4.8 in the obese+IRI group, vs. 100+/-4.1, 92.5+/-4.8 and 107+/-3.7, respectively, in the normal, obese and normal+IRI groups (P<0.05). Conclusion(s): In obese individuals with AKI, ROS could be a therapeutic target (FAPESP, NWO).

15.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18:94-100, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2124604

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has made significant changes in life. Sedentary lifestyle, increased usage of gadget, and increased sitting duration could lead to body weight and nutritional status changes. This study aimed to analyze the differences of sitting and screen time with weight changes and body mass index (BMI). Methods:: Online cross-sectional survey performed among 401 individuals older than 18 years in Surabaya. Self-administered questionnaire included questions related to sedentary activities, namely sitting and using gadget duration in a day. Self-reported weight and height before and during pandemic were used to calculate BMI before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Data analysis used the Chi-square test. Results: Study found that 47.9% of respondents did not experience significant changes in their body weight before and during COVID-19 pandemic. People who experienced no change in their body weight spent less than 6 hours sitting (50.8%) and people who experienced weight loss spent more than six hours using their gadgets (59.3%). It also found that 44.6% of respondents had normal nutritional status where 45.3% used gadgets with a duration of more than 6 hours and 45.8% used the time to sit for less than 6 hours. Body weight changes and BMI changes are not significantly different compared to sitting time (p-value=0.692) and screen time (p-value=0.099) during COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: There are no association between screen time and sitting time to body weight and BMI during pandemic COVID-19. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

16.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Conference: Irish Section Conference ; 81(OCE4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124556

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 78 papers. The topics discussed include: Socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with adolescent overfat and obesity in Ireland - preliminary analysis from the national teens' food survey ii;pilot study: use of a novel portion control device and dietetic app in a six-week weight management intervention;using mixed methods to investigate the weight change, dietary intake and physical activity of black pregnant women, incorporating a participant and public involvement approach;effects of misreporting on agreement of methods to measure sodium status in the national diet and nutrition survey;a mixed method assessment on the acceptability of an online cancer nutrition resource (OCNR);the influence of timing of eating on weight loss in gastric bypass patients;and vitamin D and the COVID-19 pandemic: Notified supplements in Ireland before and during the pandemic.

17.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13(3):249-254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146651

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become pandemic in many countries. Many subsequent data shown that the obesity is a risk factor responsible for severity of COVID-19. Obese COVID-19 patient were significantly associated with elevation the inflammatory markers and coagulated factor. The sex has association with diseases severity specially obese COVID-19 patient, so more likely to become seriously ill,so those patients will hospitalized and admitted to ICU and more care requirement . Objective(s): The ambition of this study is to investigation whether obesity is implicated in exacerbation severity of COVID .19. Method(s): 381 COVID -19 patient was participated in this study,185 of them were non obese COVID-19 and the other 196 patient were Obese COVID-19, inflammatory and coagulation marker was measured. Result(s): The data show significant higher levels in interleukins IL-6, CRP, TNF-alpha, Ferritin, and D-dimer and failure to give significant level for IL-10 and glucose concentration among obese, and non-obese, obese based on BMI and depend on the sex . Conclusion(s): Obesity is significantly increase the severity of COVID-19 disease. The obese patient displays higher levels for inflammatory and coagulation factor specially in those patients has 35-39.9 BMI compared with normal weight individuals. The data indicated that the sex significantly interact with obesity on to COVID-19 severity enhancing. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

18.
Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases ; 29(3):280-283, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146606

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) presented an opportunity to conduct an online survey to research the relationships between changes in body weight, physical activity and lifestyle during an unprecedented occurrence of forced isolation or quarantine among the population of Jadara University. We distributed an electronic questionnaire (cross-sectional) in Jadara University, Jordan, between March and May 2020, where a total of 200 students were approached (43.8% males and 56.2% females). Of 200 questionnaires returned, during the period of semi-lockdown, both females and males increased body weight significantly (p<0.05). Changes in body weight are inversely correlated with changes in the number of meals and increased stress during the quarantine. Quarantine carries some long-term effects on the rate of food intake and sleeping also affects the total body weight. With the prolonged quarantine, these figures are subject to increase consequently and the drawback on health status may drop to a considerably large percentage in the community. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases published by Sanatatea Press Group on behalf of the Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases.

19.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 105(11):1027-1033, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146501

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection was first reported in Wuhan, China. It rapidly spread worldwide, causing health, economic, and social problems. In terms of health issues, the critical condition is respiratory tract infection, especially pneumonia and subsequent respiratory failure. However, the incidence and related factors of COVID-19 pneumonia among children are still not well understood. Objective(s): To find the incidence and factors associated with pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia. Material(s) and Method(s): A cross-sectional study was performed by including patients less than 15 years old whose nasopharyngeal PCR swabs were positive for COVID-19. All patients were admitted to the cohort ward or pediatric department at ChumPhae Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand between January 1 and December 31, 2021. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, and chest radiographs reported by radiologists were collected. Descriptive statistics was performed followed by simple and multiple logistic regressions to determine the associated factors of COVID-19 pneumonia. Result(s): Two hundred eighty-seven cases were included, with 114 cases or 39.7% (95% CI 34.1 to 45.7%) of abnormal chest radiographs reported. The risks associated with increasing pneumonia were weight-for-height percentage (adjusted OR 1.01, 95% CI 1 to 1.02). Aged younger than 1 year group and aged 1 to younger than 3 years old group had significantly higher risk of pneumonia than patients aged 7 to younger than 15 years old group [(adjusted OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 11.45) and (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 2.62 to 12.43), respectively]. In contrast, rhinorrhea was slightly associated with lower risk (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.87). Conclusion(s): Among children, COVID-19 pneumonia is frequent, and the risk was increased for those in the group of less than 3 years old and having increased body weight. Rhinorrhea was slightly associated with a lower risk. Physicians and care teams should consider these factors when treating this group of pediatric patients. Copyright © 2022 Medical Association of Thailand. All rights reserved.

20.
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar ; 14(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146346

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in new diagnoses and pediatric hospital admission for anorexia nervosa (AN) or atypical AN in adolescents have been reported, suggesting an adverse effect of COVID-19 on youth mental health. We hypothesized possible differences in prevalence of hospitalization and/or disease severity, related to socio-economic status and/or ethnicity. Method(s): Retrospectively, patients were divided into two subgroups and compared according to the date of first hospital admission: "pre SARS-COV2 era" group (n. 45, 8th March 2016-8th March 2020) and "SARS-COV2 era" group (n. 43, 9th March 2020-8th March 2022). Result(s): During the two years of the SARS-COV2 era, we reported an increase in hospital admission incidence more than doubled respect to the "pre-SARS-COV2 era". The "SARS-COV2 era group" showed a more rapid weight loss (p = 0.005), a minor duration of weight loss from lifetime maximum to admission (p = 0.019) and needed most frequently treatments with intravenous fluids (p < 0.0001), oral dietetic supplements (p < 0.001) and enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube (p = 0.002). The same group presented higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities (63% vs. 22%, p < 0.0001) and required most frequently treatments with psychotropic drugs (56% vs. 24%, p = 0.002). We found higher family socioeconomic status (SES) in our patients with AN in both the periods and we did not find a shift in social class distribution over time. Conclusion(s): Our study confirms a significant increase in incidence of hospitalization and of psychiatric comorbidity in the pediatric population with AN during the second year of COVID-19 pandemic, regardless of SES or ethnic background. Further studies are needed to understand potential mechanisms that during COVID-19 pandemic trigger eating disorder symptoms. Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.

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