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1.
Journal of Medical Internet Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834186

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2020 and 2021, people increasingly used the internet to connect socially and professionally. However, people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) experience challenges in using social media, and rehabilitation professionals have reported feeling underprepared to support them in its use. To date, no review of social media skills training to inform ABI rehabilitation has been conducted. Objective: This scoping review aimed to examine research on interventions addressing social media skills and safety, with a focus on people living with health conditions;free web-based resources for the general public on social media skills training;and currently available online support groups for people with ABI. Methods: An integrative scoping review was conducted, with a systematic search strategy applied in March and November 2020 across OvidSP (MEDLINE, AMED, PsycINFO, and Embase), Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Google, and Facebook. The data collected were critically appraised and synthesized to describe the key content and features of social media training resources. Results: This review identified 47 peer-reviewed academic articles, 48 social media training websites, and 120 online support groups for people with ABI. A key recommendation was interactive training with practical components addressing cybersafety, how to use platforms, and how to connect with others. However, no social media training resources that were relevant and accessible for people with ABI were identified. Conclusions: Training resources to support people with ABI in safely using social media are limited. The key content to be addressed and the features to be incorporated into web-based social media training were determined, including the need for interactive training that is co-designed and safe and incorporates practical components that support people with ABI. These findings can be used to inform the development of web-based evidence-based support for people with ABI who may be vulnerable when participating in social media.

2.
Internal Medicine ; 61(7):1071-1076, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834094

ABSTRACT

Myoclonus and ataxia, with or without opsoclonus, have recently been recognized as a central nervous system syndrome associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A 52-year-old Japanese man developed myoclonus and ataxia 16 days after the onset of COVID-19. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed hyperperfusion in the cerebellum and hypoperfusion in the cerebral cortices with frontal predominance during the acute stage, which improved over two months. This study indicates that brain perfusion SPECT can be effective in detecting functional alterations in COVID-19-related myoclonus and ataxia.

3.
Intercultural Pragmatics ; 19(3):271-297, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1833725

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest global health threat in over 100 years. Its impact is seen in large numbers of premature deaths and the loss of economic stability for many millions of people. A significant number of people who contract the SARS-CoV-2 virus – the virus that causes COVID disease – experience symptoms many months after their acute illness. So-called Long COVID is now a recognized condition, with many affected individuals unable to return to work and engage in other daily activities. Among the complex symptoms of this condition is “brain fog”, a constellation of cognitive-linguistic problems that manifest as forgetfulness, word-finding difficulty, a lack of attention and concentration, and problems engaging in conversation. In this paper, I examine two women who had moderate COVID-19 infection during the first wave of the pandemic in Belgium and the UK. Both participants reported cognitive-linguistic difficulties several months after first becoming unwell. The UK participant is a native English speaker while the participant in Belgium speaks English as a second language. Case studies are used to examine their pre-morbid functioning and lifestyle, the onset and course of their COVID illness, and its impact on their language skills. It is argued that Long COVID has the potential to disrupt pragmatic and discourse skills even as structural language skills are intact. As such, this condition requires further systematic study by clinical linguists and speech-language pathologists.

4.
Bmj ; 377, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832401

ABSTRACT

[...]they were also more likely to have a high body mass index, a family history of diabetes, and to be inactive (Diabetologia doi:10.1007/s00125-022-05692-8). Raised without antibiotics As more people realise that using antibiotics in livestock farming contributes to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, the market for meat from animals unexposed to antibiotics is expanding. A registry study from Denmark finds that people taking carvedilol or propranolol, which both readily cross the blood-brain barrier, were less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than those taking atenolol, bisoprolol, or sotalol, to which the blood-brain barrier is less permeable (Brain doi:10.1093/brain/awac076).

5.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334813

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is an emerging infection shifted from primarily ART- naive to being ART-experienced HIV/AIDS patients, COVID-19 patients and also in immune competent individuals, mainly caused by the human opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet mechanisms of the brain or CNS dissemination remain to elucidate, which is the deadest process for the disease. Meanwhile, illustrations of clinically relevant responses in cryptococcosis were limited, as the low availabilities of clinical samples. In this study, macaque and mouse infection models were employed and miRNA-mRNA transcriptomes were performed and combined, which revealed cytoskeleton, a major feather in HIV/AIDS patients, was a centric pathway regulated in both two infection models. Notably, assays of clinical immune cells confirmed an enhanced “Trojan Horse” in HIV/AIDS patients, which can be shut down by cytoskeleton inhibitors. Furthermore, we identified a novel enhancer for macrophage “Trojan Horse”, myocilin, and an enhanced fungal burden was achieved in brains of MYOC transgenic mice. Taking together, this study reveals fundamental roles of cytoskeleton and MYOC in blocking fungal CNS dissemination, which not only helps to understand the high prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV/AIDS, but also facilitates the development of novel drugs for therapies of meningoencephalitis caused by C. neoformans and other pathogenic microorganisms.

6.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 15(4):437-447, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1828917

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a new coronavirus that constitutes a great challenge to human health. At this stage, there are still cases of COVID-19 infection in some countries and regions, in which ischemic stroke (IS) is a risk factor for new coronavirus pneumonia, and patients with COVID-19 infection have a dramatically elevated risk of stroke. At the same time, patients with long-term IS are vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and have more severe disease, and carotid atherosclerosis is an early lesion in IS.

8.
2nd International Conference on Intelligent and Cloud Computing, ICICC 2021 ; 286:463-470, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826299

ABSTRACT

These days’ web-based media is one of the main news hotspots for individuals throughout the planet for its minimal expense, simple openness, and quick spreading. This web-based media can in some cases include uncertain messages and has a critical danger of openness to counterfeit or fake news, which may elude the pursuers. Therefore, finding fake news from social media is one of the important natural language processing tasks. In this work, we have proposed a bi-directional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) network to identify COVID-19 fake news posted on Twitter. The performance of the proposed Bi-LSTM network is compared to six different popular classical machine learning classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, KNN, Decision Tree, Gradient Boosting, Random Forest, and AdaBoost. In the case of classical machine learning classifiers uni-gram, bi-gram, and tri-gram word TF-IDF features are used whereas in the case of the Bi-LSTM model word embedding features are used. The proposed Bi-LSTM network performed best in comparison to other implemented models and achieved a weighted F1-score of 0.94 in identifying COVID-19 fake news from Twitter. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

9.
Case Reports in Neurology ; 14(1):130-148, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824148

ABSTRACT

The longer term neurocognitive/neuropsychiatric consequences of moderate/severe COVID-19 infection have not been explored. The case herein illustrates a complex web of differential diagnosis. The onset, clinical trajectory, treatment course/response, serial neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological test data were taken into account when assessing a patient presenting 8 months post-COVID-19 (with premorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes mellitus, mood difficulties, and a positive family history of vascular dementia). Her acute COVID-19 infection was complicated by altered mental status associated with encephalopathy and bacterial pneumonia. After recovery from COVID-19, the patient continues to experience persisting cognitive and emotive difficulties despite an ongoing psychopharmacotherapy regimen (16 + years), psychotherapy (15 + sessions), and speech-language pathology SLP;2 × week/for 12 weeks). The purpose of her most recent and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was to determine the presence/absence of neurocognitive disorder. The patient is a 62-year-old Caucasian woman. Cognitive screening was completed 3 months post-acute COVID-19 as part of an SLP evaluation, and a full neuropsychological evaluation was conducted 8 months post-COVID-19 recovery on an outpatient basis (in person). The patient had serial neuroimaging. Initial neurological evaluation during acute COVID-19 included unremarkable brain computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging. However, follow-up CT (without contrast) revealed, in part, “asymmetric perisylvian atrophy on the left.” Full neuropsychological evaluation at 8 months post-COVID-19 recovery revealed a dysexecutive syndrome characterized by language dysfunction and affective theory-of-mind deficit, consistent with dementia. There is need for careful use of differential diagnosis in COVID-19 patients with multiple risk factors that make them more susceptible to long-term neurological complications post-COVID-19. Differential diagnosis should involve multidisciplinary assessment (e.g., neuropsychology, SLP, neurology, and psychiatry).

10.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics ; 48(9):755-866, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1823474

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 13 articles focusing on innate lymphoid cells and gastrointestinal disease;microbiota-gut-brain axis in autism spectrum disorder;characteristic dysbiosis in gout and the impact of a uric acid-lowering treatment, febuxostat on the gut microbiota;gut microbiota, inflammation, and molecular signatures of host response to infection;the rice histone methylation regulates hub species of the root microbiota;a powerful adaptive microbiome-based association test for microbial association signals with diverse sparsity levels;an efficient metatranscriptomic approach for capturing RNA virome and its application to SARS-CoV-2;easy to create repeatable and editable Venn diagrams and Venn networks online.

11.
Akademik Acil Tip Olgu Sunumlari Dergisi ; 12(3):91-93, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822752

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many studies have shown that coagulation disorders and increased risk of thrombosis may occur during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Although cardiac or pulmonary vascular pathologies has been detected in most cases, cerebral sinus thrombosis are rare. During COVID-19 infection patients rarely present with neurological symptoms. Case Report: A 19-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with neurological symptoms. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) was detected in Brain Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. Our patient was hospitalized in the neurology department of our hospital for medical treatment and was discharged after clinical recovery. Discussion: In this case report we wanted to draw attention to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis which is a rare but treatable complication of COVID-19 infection in a young patient. We examined our patient in the light of literature. Conclusion: Clinicians should keep in mind the diagnosis of CVST that may occur due to infection associated thrombosis in COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms and consider adding anticoagulants to the treatment if necessary.

12.
Journal of Advances in Medical and Biomedical Research ; 30(139):75-85, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822722

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus causes the outbreak of COVID-19. There is still no verified treatment regimen against this novel virus;however, different drugs and compounds have been tested against it. Ample proposals have led to a good understanding of pathogenesis and drug efficacy against the novel virus disease. Excess systemic inflammation, which is described as cytokine storm, in the severe cases of COVID-19 can pass through the blood-brain barrier, enter the brain tissue, and activate the microglial cells and oligodenritcytes. Activation of the microglia cells and oligodenritcytes can increase generation of reactive oxygen species in the brain. Excess generation of reactive oxygen species can in turn increase neuro-inflammation in some cases of patients with COVID-19. Treatment of COVID-19 is far from clear. Today, some antiviral drugs such as remdisivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, kaletra, and arbidol are being tested against the disease. Besides these drugs, corticosteroids, anti-malaria drugs (such as chloroquine family), anticoagulants (such as heparin or enoxaparin) are repurposed. In this paper, first we explained the pathogenesis of COVID-19 particles, particularly in the brain. Second, we reviewed recent treatment options up to now, including interferon therapy, convalescent plasma exchange, plasmapheresis, immunoglobin therapy, and use of specified monoclonal anti-bodies in COVID-19 patients.

13.
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal ; 15(1):543-552, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822622

ABSTRACT

The primary motive of this study was to examine advantages of allometry scaling strategies for correct prediction of pharmacokinetics of Baricitinib in human from preclinical species. Baricitinib is basically Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Currently approved by FDA in combination with remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 hospitalized patient. The literature published pharmacokinetic parameters (Cl and Vd) of preclinical species (Rat, Dog and monkey) were utilized for the allometry scaling of Baricitinib. The connection among the primary pharmacokinetic parameters [Volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (Cl)] and body weight (BW) were studied across three preclinical species, we used the double logarithmic plots for prediction of the human pharmacokinetic parameters i.e. Cl and Vd with use of simple allometry and with additional correction factors for better prediction. The dose extrapolation of baricitinib was carried out by FDA guidelines. By application of the allometric scaling methods and principles correlation was found to be satisfactory for the prediction of intravenous human Cl and Vd for baricitinib. The volume of distribution (Vd) predicted by simple allometry (65.3 L) was found to be in agreement with the reported value (75.5 L);clearance (Cl) prediction by simple allometry was found to be at least 1.06 -closer to the reported value (245 mL/min);CF were used to predict the clearance. Both brain weight (B.W) and maximum life span potential (MLP) predicted the Cl with 0.52- and 0.61 -fold difference. The application of monkey liver blood flow predicted Cl with 0.81 fold which was also in close agreement with reported value. The Cl prediction was also extrapolated using LBF (Liver blood flow) method and observed that the higher species (Dog and Monkey) have predicted Cl with better accuracy than rat. Overall, the simple allometry (SA), monkey liver blood flow (MLBF) and application of liver blood flow (LBF) methods showed excellent correlation with human. The time vs. plasma concentration simulated graph also showed the similar closeness with human profile. The inclusion of plasma protein binding factor didn't improve the prediction accuracy. The FIH dose extrapolation were showed that PK guided approach and exponent for BSA based approach was found closer to actual human dose of 4.0 mg/Kg. Oriental Scientific Publishing Company

14.
Brain Sciences ; 12(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822411

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, olfactory disorders have been reported as a frequent symptom of COVID-19;however, its pathogenesis is still debated. The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the pathogenesis of smell impairment in the course of COVID-19 and to highlight potential avenues for future research on this issue. Several theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related anosmia, including nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, oedema of the olfactory cleft mucosa, olfactory epithelial damage either within the olfactory receptor cells or the supporting non-neural cells (either direct or immune-mediated), damage to the olfactory bulb, and impairment of the central olfactory pathways. Alt-hough the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related anosmia is still not fully elucidated, it appears to be mainly due to sensorineural damage, with infection of the olfactory epithelium support cells via the ACE1 receptor and disruption of the OE caused by immense inflammatory reaction, and possibly with direct olfactory sensory neurons infection mediated by the NRP-1 receptor. Involvement of the higher olfactory pathways and a conductive component of olfactory disorders, as well as genetic factors, may also be considered.

15.
Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses ; 15, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822351

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been many patients with neurological manifestations reported in medical literature following a COVID-19 infection. We conducted a literature review to identify patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who presented with Neurocysticercosis (NCC) and associated seizure disorders/ epilepsy. Currently, there is a new variant of the COVID-19 virus strain invading South Africa and no indication when this pandemic will end and what kind of tardive sequelae may occur going forward. Case: We searched the medical literature looking for all publications regarding NCC, Status Epilepticus (SE), Epileptic Seizures (ES), and Epilepsy (Ep), in patients infected by COVID-19. Based on the therapeutic response of our series, we propose a novel approach for patients presenting NCC, epilepsy and associated with COVID-19. We have hypothesized on the pathogenesis of ES and SE from the NCC/Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), SARS-CoV-2/CRS, including the role played by gut microbiota from the enteric nervous system (gut hormones, gut metabolites, inflammatory factors, neuroactive substances, and microbiota-derived products) to the medulla oblongata/hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis via microbiota gut brain axis in ES, Ep and associated depression, plus the mechanism of hyperferritinemia on the overall process. This article is the first publication approaching this comorbidity as far as we know.

16.
AAPS Journal ; 24(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822235
17.
Pilot and Feasibility Studies ; 8(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822217

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthy diet and exercise are associated with reduced risk of dementia in older adults. The impact of diet and exercise interventions on brain health is less consistent, especially with dietary interventions which rely on varying approaches. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 6-month intervention combining exercise with a novel dietary counseling approach to improve hippocampal volume among older adults at-risk for dementia. Methods: Participants with vascular risk factors and subjective cognitive decline or early mild cognitive impairment were cluster randomized in groups of 3–4 to the diet intervention (DIET) or control education (ED) group. All participants engaged in 1 h of supervised exercise per week and additional exercise at home. DIET involved 1 h per week of group-based dietary counseling comprising education, goal setting, and strategy training. ED involved 1 h per week of group-based brain health education classes. Our primary outcome was change in hippocampal volume from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in cognitive function, blood biomarkers, diet, and fitness. Recruitment challenges and early discontinuation of the trial due to COVID-19 necessitated a revised focus on feasibility and preliminary efficacy. Results: Of 190 older adults contacted, 14 (7%) were eligible and enrolled, constituting 21% of our recruitment target. All participants completed the intervention and attended 90% of exercise and DIET/ED sessions on average. All 6-month assessments prior to COVID-19 were completed but disruptions to in-person testing resulted in incomplete data collection. No serious adverse events occurred and all participants expressed positive feedback about the study. Preliminary findings did not identify any significant changes in hippocampal volume;however, substantial improvements in diet and HbA1c were observed with DIET compared to ED (d = 1.75 and 1.07, respectively). Conclusions: High adherence and retention rates were observed among participants and preliminary findings illustrate improvements in diet quality and HbA1c. These results indicate that a larger trial is feasible if difficulties surrounding recruitment can be mitigated. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03056508.

18.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation ; 37(1):2-4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821992
19.
Radiology Case Reports ; 17(6):2215-2219, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821461

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare underestimated condition, that generally complicates a rise in blood pressure in an acute setting. This entity has been increasingly identified in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus disease. PRES is challenging to diagnose seeing as it presents with nonspecific neurological symptoms, such as head-aches, confusion, seizures, visual changes or a coma, and can mimic neuropsychiatric lupus. Imaging plays a necessary role in confirming this diagnosis, as it is characterized by vasogenic edema of the posterior white matter, in which the distribution is bilateral and symmetrical. Although this syndrome is rare, early diagnosis allows a prompt treatment and therefore a favorable outcome. We present a case report of PRES in a 14-year-old female previously diagnosed with lupus nephropathy, who presented to the emergency department with seizures and uncontrolled hypertension, that was unfortunately not reversible is this patient.

20.
NeuroImage: Clinical ; 34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821425

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common neuropathological finding and clinical entity that occurs independently and with co-existent Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small vessel disease. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of the fornix, the primary efferent tract of the hippocampus between CAA, AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Methods: Sixty-eight healthy controls, 32 CAA, 21 AD, and 26 MCI patients were recruited at two centers. Diffusion tensor images were acquired at 3 T with high spatial resolution and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) to suppress cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and minimize partial volume effects on the fornix. The fornix was delineated with deterministic tractography to yield mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AXD), radial diffusivity (RD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and tract volume. Volumetric measurements of the hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral ventricles were obtained using T1-weighted MRI. Results: Diffusivity (MD, AXD, and RD) of the fornix was highest in AD followed by CAA compared to controls;the MCI group was not significantly different from controls. FA was similar between groups. Fornix tract volume was ∼ 30% lower for all three patient groups compared to controls, but not significantly different between the patient groups. Thalamic and hippocampal volumes were preserved in CAA, but lower in AD and MCI compared to controls. Lateral ventricular volumes were increased in CAA, AD and MCI. Global cognition, memory, and executive function all correlated negatively with fornix diffusivity across the combined clinical group. Conclusion: There were significant diffusion changes of the fornix in CAA, AD and MCI compared to controls, despite relatively intact thalamic and hippocampal volumes in CAA, suggesting the mechanisms for fornix diffusion abnormalities may differ in CAA compared to AD and MCI.

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