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1.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; 85(2):122-136, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818324

ABSTRACT

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents and surgical approaches may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.

2.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(2):594-595, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1704925

ABSTRACT

Case Report Chronic respiratory sequelae are well documented in adults after COVID-19 infection, however, in young children and infants, evidence is still evolving. Here we report an infant with significant chronic respiratory complications after COVID-19. Case Report A 10 month old female with no significant past medical history was admitted to the PICU secondary to hypoxemia, respiratory distress, and respiratory failure following COVID-19 infection in January 2021. She was also positive for Rhinovirus and Enterovirus. CXR displayed worsening bilateral alveolar infiltrates, and she developed subsequent pneumothorax requiring a chest tube. Apart from mechanical ventilation, she received supportive treatment and broad spectrum antibiotics. Cardiac echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hypertension, PFO, and PDA. Due to worsening respiratory status and hypoxemia, she received bronchodilators, inhaled nitric oxide, sildenafil, steroids, and magnesium. After 3 weeks, her respiratory status improved and she was discharged. The patient required another hospitalization in March and an ER visit in April for persistent cough and shortness of breath. After evaluation by pulmonology, she began inhaled steroids and airway clearance treatments including chest physical therapy, hypertonic saline, and bronchodilators. Further workup ruled out cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and immunodeficiency. Chest CT showed diffuse bilateral patchy airspace opacities representing atelectasis and scarring. Despite a short period of improvement, the patient was hospitalized for respiratory distress in June, where she was hypoxemic and diagnosed with pneumonia. She required repeated outpatient visits to the PCP for persistent respiratory symptoms. PDA closure was performed in September. The patient continues to have persistent respiratory symptoms addressed with outpatient respiratory treatment regimen. Conclusion As we have ruled out other underlying causes, the patient's chronic lung disease and persistent respiratory symptoms occurred most probable secondary to COVID-19. This case report highlights the importance of monitoring respiratory symptoms in pediatric patients with severe COVID-19 infection for early identification of chronic respiratory sequelae.

3.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617062

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has changed the perspective through which medical staff look at dyspnea and hypoxemia cases. Epidemiological links are frequently missing, and clinical and imagological findings are often unspecific, overlapping substantially with other respiratory infections. Case summary: We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a known history of asthma who had recently moved from Guinea-Bissau with her mother. Although the mother reported being Ag HBs positive, no serologic studies had ever been performed on the child. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room after 4 days of cough and the feeling of thoracic oppression, without fever. No contact with suspected or confirmed individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 or other respiratory viruses was reported. She presented with peripheral oxygen saturation of 90%, costal retractions and a prolonged expiratory phase. After an unsuccessful course of bronchodilators and prednisolone, she was admitted to the Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit because of a sustained need for oxygen therapy. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for SARS CoV-2 came back negative. A chest radiograph displayed a bilateral reticular infiltrate, and therapy with azithromycin was started. Due to a deterioration of the dyspnea, a chest tomography was eventually performed, revealing an exuberant and bilateral ground glass-like densification suggestive of alveolar injury. Echocardiogram and e electrocardiogram were both normal. After a positive serologic result for HIV, the patient was transferred to a Level III hospital, and Pneumocystis jirovecii was identified in bronchoalveolar lavage. T cell count was 12/mm3. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cotrimoxazole were started, prompting clinical and analytical recovery. Discussion: Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised children. Even though an asthma exacerbation and atypical bacterial or viral infections, namely COVID-19, present as more usual causes of dyspnea, a low suspicion index is warranted in children coming from HIV-endemic countries, particularly those who are unresponsive to conventional bronchodilator and antibiotic therapy.

4.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617059

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) tends to be milder in children, but severe cases have been reported. We described a case report of a toddler admitted to our department with additional findings, highlighting the importance of assessing the patient as a whole. Case Presentation: A previously healthy, 15-month-year-old girl presented with fever and dry cough for 10 days, respiratory distress and PCR SARS-CoV-2 was positive. At admission, she presented with hypoxemia (SpO2 89-90% in room air), global retraction and bilateral bronchospasm. She was treated with bronchodilators, methylprednisolone, remdesivir and also amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her complete blood count revealed leucocytosis 16,160x109/L, 41% lymphocytes, C-reactive protein 57,9 mg/L, procalcitonin 0,13 ng/mL, sedimentation rate 44 mm/h, ferritin 218,4 ng/mL. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral peripheral areas of ground glass, coexisting consolidation areas at inferior lobes but also revealed a 6 cm supra-renal mass. Abdominal ultrasound and CT confirmed an heterogeneous right supra-renal gland mass of 5,5cm along the greatest diameter with diffuse calcifications, evolving the inferior vena cava and the renal vascular pedicle, no signs of liver, bone, cutaneous or ganglionic metastization. These features were suggestive of neuroblastoma in stage L2. Vanillylmandelic acid, normetanephrine/creatinine ratio and metanephrine/creatinine ratio were elevated. The metaiodobenzylguanidine (Mibg) scan showed a localized disease. The total excision of the tumour mass was performed, and the histology confirmed neuroblastoma with no N-myc oncogene amplification, nor other bad prognosis chromosomal abnormalities. She is currently under oncological surveillance, with no signs of recurrence. Learning Points Discussion: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. It is known for its broad spectrum of clinical behaviour and outcome. In this case, although this toddler was admitted due to COVID-19 pneumonia, it allowed to identify a localized tumour, perform excision and due to the favourable biology tumour, she has a very good chances of being cured and free of disease.

5.
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) ; 26(SUPPL 1):e88, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1584135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma in children and adolescents is a major cause of urgent visits and hospitalizations. In preschoolers, viral infections remain the main cause of these exacerbations, although environmental factors may also play a role. In older children and adolescents, many other risk factors are present including respiratory allergies, exercise, strong emotions, active and passive smoking and poor adherence to recommended treatments. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians have been concerned about the possibility of a significant increase in urgent consultations for asthma in children. However, due to the confinement imposed on a large part of the population from March 2020, we have suspected a reduction in the number of viral infections leading to urgent visits and hospitalizations in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis was that the number of children hospitalized with asthma exacerbations during the pandemic lockdown declined significantly. Our objective was to determine if the number and severity of hospitalizations at the CME of the CHU de Québec for asthma exacerbations in children aged 1 to 17 had significantly decreased during the confinement period from April 1 to July 1, 2020 and to what extent, according to various clinical features. DESIGN/METHODS: Retrospective study reviewing episodes of care in medical records in children aged 1 to 17 and hospitalized on all wards at the CME-CHU de Québec. All patients with primary diagnosis of asthmatic exacerbation according to the summary sheets between April 1 to July 1, 2020 for the study group and from April 1 to July 1, 2019 for the control group were included. We aimed to determine the number of hospitalizations for this diagnosis for each period and determine the length of stay on the various pediatric wards for each episode of care according to the established criteria. We have determined the presence of risk factors (asthma diagnosis, underlying condition, regular asthma medication, allergies, and other factors relevant to asthma).We have further determined the presence of gravity markers during the course of hospitalization (need for: IV corticosteroids, Mg sulfate, IV bronchodilators, non-invasive ventilation, intubation, ICU stay and radiological pneumonia) for each episode of care. The data was denominated and collated in an encoded file, and shareable only between the investigators. RESULTS: After exclusions, a total of 97 charts were analyzed. Between April 1 and July 1 2019, a total of 89 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of asthma exacerbation while only eight patients were admitted during the same period in 2020. The median age of patients admitted in 2020 was higher than in 2019 (53 vs 25 months). In 2019, 40 children (48%) had a previous diagnosis of asthma, of whom 28 used regular controller medications compared to 2 children (25%) in 2020, both taking regular controller medications. More patients had an associated diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection in 2019 than in 2020 (92% vs 63%). Nine patients required intensive care in 2019 compared to none in 2020. CONCLUSION: Compared to 2019, hospital admissions for asthma exacerbations in our tertiary care centre in Quebec City were significantly lower during the early phase of the 2020 pandemic. More research is required to determine the exact causes of this significant reduction.

6.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(12):64-68, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1579464

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to study the demographic analysis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management in COVID-19 patients and assess the complications in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective observational single centered study is carried out to study the demographic analysis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, and complications in COVID-19 patients. Results: Among 100 COVID-19 patients, 58% were male and 42% were female. Percentages of age group between 60-70 years (27%), 50-60 (20%), 40-50 (16%), 70-80 (16%), 30-40 (8%), 20-30 (5%), 80-90 (4%), and 10-20 (4%). Co-morbidities were diabetes (44%), hypertension (HTN) (28%), coronary artery disease (21%), thyroid (19%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12%), anemia (8%), and renal impairment (4%). Signs and symptoms were fever (88%), cough (80%), shortness of breath (72%), fatigue (68%), myalgia (60%), loss of appetite (52%), cold (24%), loss of smell and taste (20%), diarrhea and vomiting (12%). (97%) of the patients had two or more symptoms. Diagnostic test include reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (100%), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) (100%), O2 saturation (99%), D-dimer (65%), c-reactive (60%), Procalcitonin (60%), and also lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-6, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, ferritin, complete blood count, white blood cell. Treatment includes antiviral (100%), antibiotics (100%), corticosteroids (73%), immunosuppressant (54%), and antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antiplatelets, bronchodilators, vitamins, and mineral supplements. Conclusion: COVID-19 infects the males more and average ages of 65 years are at risk. HTN and diabetes were most common co-morbid condition. Fever and cough are major followed by weakness sob and cold. RT-PCR and HRCT are accurate tool to detect COVID-19. Although standard treatment is not yet available antibiotics and antiviral are used followed by corticosteroids. The majority of the patients have mild and moderate injection and with the lowest death rate. Older age and co-morbid conditions are major risk factors.

7.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):468-469, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570395

ABSTRACT

In 2012 a 25-year-old man presented to our outpatient clinic for severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and severe allergic eosinophilic asthma in polisensitivity (house dust mite, cat, gramineous plants, birch, milk protein and, in particular, Alternaria). His clinical history was also characterized by gastro-esophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinitis without polyposis, with septal deviation and turbinate hypertrophy, worthy of surgical intervention. History taking revealed egg and cow milk protein allergy and severe asthma since the first months of life, with frequent hospital admissions due to exacerbations. AD was severe and diffuse, involving especially face, neck, back and superior limbs, often complicated by impetigo. The esthetic, social and psychological impact led him to quit his job as a barman. At presentation, the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score was 72/72. Laboratory tests showed eosinophilic count ranging between 1.060 and 2.140/mm3, and high serum levels of total Immunoglobulin E (5.939 kUI/L). Tryptase levels were normal and autoantibody analysis was negative. Parasite stool examination was negative. Nasal swab tested positive for Staphylococcus aureus, which was treated with Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim. Asthma Control Test was 15/25, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) showed mild obstruction (FEV1 4.43 L, 103%, FEV1/FVC 69%), with positive bronchodilator testing (FEV1 5.12 L, + 670 mL, + 16%). Firstly, he was treated with topical steroids and sometimes with oral corticosteroids, with poor response. Then, in July 2019, he initiated therapy with cyclosporine 3-5 mg/kg. Soon, the drug had to be discontinued due to adverse effects (gastrointestinal symptoms and infections). In November 2019, at the age of 32 years, he started therapy with monoclonal antibody anti-IL-5 receptor alpha (benralizumab 30 mg 1 subcutaneous vial every 4 weeks for the first three administrations and then every 8 weeks), with a terrific clinical improvement of AD since the first administrations and with benefit on asthma control (ACT after the first administration increased up to 25/25;PFTs could not be performed, due to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). This therapy has always been well tolerated. The eosinophilic count decreased to 0/mm3 after the first administration. At the moment, after one year of therapy, AD is almost fully disappeared (EASI SCORE 4/72), despite being in free diet, and the quality of life of the patient has definitely improved.

8.
Italian Journal of Medicine ; 15(3):71, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1567763

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Pulmonary involvement from CoViD-19 is frequent, after acute phase dyspnoea, cough, desaturation, respiratory insufficiency, can persist, pneumonia leads to interstitial disease (ground- glass) and to pulmonary fibrosis (honeycomb lung). A diagnostic algorithm can be a simple way for differential diagnoses (pulmonary embolism, PE) and to set up therapies in a systematic way. Our objective was to propose a simple and easy diagnostic algorithm, to identify with chest CT scan, excluding PE in high dimer- D patients, suggestive gait test and compatible objectivity. Methods: Prescription of: blood tests, radiological (CT chest CMC or High Resolution), respiratory physiopathology (Walking test, Global spirometry, Plethysmography, DLCO). Set drug therapies in case of PE, oral steroid (OCS) in case of extensive interstitial disease, long-acting beta 2 agonist bronchodilators (LABA), antimuscarinics (LAMA), inhaled steroids (ICS). For fibrosis and a honeycomb pattern, treatment with dipalmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Results: 258 outpatients, average 60.68 years, 115 women, 143 men, with an urgent request for pneumological visit and treated on an outpatient basis. 1 pt died during treatment, 4 pts were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. 4 pts required a prescription for oxygen therapy. 228 pts presented ground-glass, 30 pts showed normal chest CT. Conclusions: DLCO shows progressive improvement in values after ICS treatment. Small pathway deficiency evidenced by spirometry can be treated with LABA-LAMA especially in patients with a previous history of cigarette smoking or COPD.

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