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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus is one of the important pathogens that contribute to high mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in intensive care units (ICUs). Although incidence rates of Aspergillus coinfection are high globally, a Japanese national survey reported a low incidence. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis at our institute. METHODS: We identified patients with microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 on mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Of these patients, we identified patients in whom Aspergillus was cultured from the respiratory specimen. RESULTS: Of a total of 169 patients, seven had aspergillosis (4.1%), which included three patients, three patients, and one patient with possible, probable, and proven aspergillosis, respectively, according to the criteria of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology International Society. All patients received systemic steroid therapy. Two patients (one each with proven and probable aspergillosis) had tracheobronchitis diagnosed by bronchoscopy. All patients in whom Aspergillus was repeatedly isolated from samples died. The mortality rates for all cases and probable and proven cases were 57% (4/7) and 75% (3/4), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19 in the ICU was higher in our institute than that reported by a Japanese national survey (4.1% vs. 0.5%). Repeated detection of Aspergillus might suggest a true Aspergillus infection, such as chronic aspergillosis, rather than colonization. In patients with severe COVID-19 patients, it is important to always keep CAPA in mind.

2.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; JOUR(11), 22.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2090601

ABSTRACT

Many types of microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2, can spread through aerosols. Indoor medical environments are abundant in bioaerosols, which can cause infections among medical staff members and patients in hospitals. Given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, using a steadystate displacement air purification system may reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other microorganisms. In this study, we analyzed the purification effect of the steady-state displacement air purification system on bioaerosols in the bronchoscopy room of the hospital. In particular, bioaerosols were collected from the bronchoscopy room at different periods from April to May 2021. Among them, the microorganisms contained in the bioaerosol were identified using nextgeneration sequencing (NGS) and culture and strain identification. During the experiment, we took 5 sampling points to collect the bioaerosols. The total purification efficiency was 88.0% (NGS) and 87.5% (microbial culture count and identification). The results were significantly different between the purified and unpurified groups. In an occupant environment in the bronchoscopy room, the steady-state displacement air purification system exerted a favorable removal effect on the bioaerosols. Such purification efficiency may help prevent the in-hospital spread of COVID-19 and various infectious diseases.

3.
Saudi Med J ; 43(10): 1165-1167, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081102

ABSTRACT

To present an unusual and a rare pulmonary affection by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), in which only one lung is affected. Coronavirus disease-19 attacks the lungs and interferes seriously with their functions. The attack is usually bilaterally, while a uni lateral pulmonary affection is unusual. The presentation, both clinical and radiological findings, bronchoscopy appearance, the strange operative findings of the resected mass, the uneventful post-operative course, in addition to the histopathological report, will be presented.In conclusion, unilateral lung affection is unusual and post-viral pneumonia COVID-19 should be considered as a possible aftermath, which may not be uncommon in Iraq.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Iraq
4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065751

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been causing cases of severe pneumonia in China and has spread all over the world, putting great pressure on health systems. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) sensitivity is suboptimal. When the SARS-CoV-2 infection is suspected despite negative NPSs, other tests may help to rule out the infection. Objectives: To evaluate the yield of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) isolation of SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the correlations between SARS-CoV-2 detection and clinical symptoms, and laboratory values and RSNA CT review scores in suspect patients after two negative NPSs. To assess the safety of bronchoscopy in this scenario. Method: A retrospective analysis of data from LRT sampling (blind nasotracheal aspiration or bronchial washing) for suspected COVID-19 after two negative NPS. Chest CT scans were reviewed by two radiologists using the RSNA imaging classification. Results: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 14/99 patients (14.1%). A correlation was found between SARS-CoV2 detection on the LRT and the presence of a cough as well as with typical CT features. Typical CT resulted in 57.1% sensitivity, 80.8% accuracy and 92.3% NPV. Neither severe complications nor infections in the personnel were reported. Conclusions: In suspect cases after two negative swabs, CT scan revision can help to rule out COVID-19. In selected cases, with consistent CT features above all, LRT sampling can be of help in confirming COVID-19.

5.
Chest ; 162(4 Supplement):A2650-A2651, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060977

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Procedures Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: The Galaxy SystemTM (Noah Medical, San Carlos, CA) is a novel robotic endoluminal platform using electromagnetic navigation combined with integrated tomosynthesis technology and augmented fluoroscopy. It provides intraprocedural imaging to correct CT-to-body divergence and novel confirmation of tool-in-lesion. The primary aim of this study was to assess the tool-in-lesion accuracy of the robotic bronchoscope with integrated digital tomosynthesis and augmented fluoroscopy. METHOD(S): Over four separate days, four operators (the authors) conducted the experiment using four pigs. Each physician performed between 4 and 6 nodule biopsies for 20 lung nodule biopsies. A porcine model (S. s. domesticus) was utilized. Each pig was anesthetized with volatile gas and underwent tracheostomy with an 8.5 endotracheal tube and bilateral chest tube thoracostomy. Anesthesia was monitored by a veterinarian with invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance, simulated lung nodules were created by percutaneous injection of a gelatinous agar solution containing purple dye and radiopaque material into the lung periphery. A CT was then performed for pre-procedure planning. Using Galaxy's "Tool in Lesion TOMO+" with augmented fluoroscopy, the physician navigated to the lung nodules and a tool (needle) was placed into the lesion. Tool in lesion was defined by the needle in or tangential to the lesion determined by CBCT. Center strike was defined as the needle in the middle third in three orthogonal angles (axial, sagittal, and coronal) on CBCT. RESULT(S): Lung nodules' average size was 16.3+/-0.97 mm and were predominantly in the lower lobes (65%). Only 15% (3/20) had a bronchus sign and the average distance to the pleura was 6.88+/-5.5 mm. All four operators successfully navigated to all (100%) of the lesions in an average of 3 minutes and 39 seconds. The median number of tomosynthesis sweeps was 3 and augmented fluoroscopy was utilized in most cases (17/20 or 85%). Tool in lesion after final tomography sweep was 100% (20/20). Biopsy yielding purple pigmentation on microscopic or gross examination was also 100% (20/20). Center strike rate was 60%. CONCLUSION(S): The Galaxy SystemTM demonstrated successful digital tomography confirmed tool in lesion success in 100% (20/20) of lesions as confirmed by CBCT. Successful biopsy was achieved in 100% of lesions as confirmed by intralesional pigment acquisition. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The combination of robotic navigation, catheter maneuverability and real-time correction for CT body divergence capitalizes on the strengths of all three technologies to improve diagnosis. Additional clinical trials are warranted to see if high success rates can be reproduced in patients. DISCLOSURES: Consultant relationship with Medtronic ILS Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Veractye Please note: $1-$1000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Bodyvision Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Merit Endotek Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Boston Scientific Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Human Factor Testing relationship with Auris Surgical Robotics Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Intuitive Surgical Robotics Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Biodesix Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Noah Medical Please note: 5/2020 Added 06/01/2022 by Krish Bhadra, value=Consulting fee Speaker relationship with Body Vision Please note: 2015 - present Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Ownership interest Consultant relationship with Magnisity Please note: 2021 - present Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Ownership interest Consultant relationship with Auris (J&J Ethicon) Please note: 2014-present Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Honoraria Consultant relationship with Boston Scientific Please note: 2008 - present Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Medtronic Please note: 2010-2019 Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Broncus Please note: 2017-2021 Added 05/29/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with PulmonX Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Removed 06/08/2022 by Douglas Hogarth Consultant relationship with Spiration Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Removed 06/08/2022 by Douglas Hogarth Consultant relationship with Eolo Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Ownership interest Removed 06/08/2022 by Douglas Hogarth Consultant relationship with Noah Please note: 2019 - present Added 06/08/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Ownership interest Consultant relationship with Noah Please note: 2019 - present Added 06/08/2022 by Douglas Hogarth, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Medtronic Corporation Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Amit Mahajan, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Boston Scientific Corporation Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Amit Mahajan, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Pulmonx Corporation Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Amit Mahajan, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Ambu USA Please note: $1-$1000 by Amit Mahajan, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Circulogene Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Amit Mahajan, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Medtronic/Covidien Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Otis Rickman, value=Consulting fee Copyright © 2022 American College of Chest Physicians

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2559, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060962

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Transplantation: New Issues in 2022 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a promising plasma analyte for surveillance of rejection and lung transplant (LT) injury. Herein we report our preliminary real-world experiences in concert with standard of practice (SOP) assessments. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional, cohort study of a clinically available dd-cfDNA test (the Prospera™ test, Natera, Inc.) combined with SOP clinical assessments − spirometry, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Single LT dd-cfDNA results were corrected (2X) for lung mass before analysis. Clinical-pathologic cohorts were assigned based on ISHLT guidelines for acute cellular rejection (ACR), uncomplicated chronic lung allograft dysfunction (U-CLAD), and either CoVid-19 or Non-CoVid-19 allograft infection. We also compared median dd-cfDNA fractions between patients experiencing allograft dysfunction (AD) (defined by ΔFEV1≥ -10%) vs stability (STA) and stratified by DSA status. Groups were analyzed by Mann-Whitney (p<0.05) and data expressed as median with 25-75% interquartile range (IQR). RESULTS: A total of 54 plasma samples from 42 unique LT recipients (Single=6, Double=36) were collected at Spectrum Health between November 2021 and February 2022. Primary diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=7), interstitial lung disease (n=31), CoVid-19 related ARDS (n=2), CF (n=1) and PAH (n=1). Matching histopathology was available for 68% of dd-cfDNA samples. dd-cfDNA fraction trended 2-fold higher in patient with ACR (1.59%, IQR: 0.09-3.57;n=3) and U-CLAD (1.88%, IQR: 0.88-3.32;n=4) than STA (0.86%, IQR: 0.21-1.62;n=14) patients. Patients with CoVid-19 had significantly higher dd-cfDNA fraction (6.91%, IQR: 2.41-9.77;n=4) than both STA (p=0.035) and NON-CoVid-19 infection cohorts (p=0.049). Although no antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) events were observed, dd-cfDNA fraction was significantly elevated in DSA(+) patients (2.75%, IQR: 1.72-6.25;n=8, class I (4) and II (4)) vs DSA(-) (1.035%, 0.04-1.64;n=46) cohorts (p=0.011). A trend was noted with elevated dd-cfDNA with AD (1.58%, IQR: 0.74-3.62;n=17) vs AS (1.05%, 0.66-1.79;n=37) (p=0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary experience is consistent with prior studies, suggesting elevated dd-cfDNA fraction during LT allograft rejection and specific types of infection, in particular, CoVid-19. Of interest, dd-cfDNA detected potential occult molecular injury associated with anti-HLA DSA. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: dd-cfDNA fraction assessment after LT represents a valuable clinical tool for clinical surveillance of organ transplant health. DISCLOSURES: Employee relationship with Veracyte, Inc Please note: 2 years by Sangeeta Bhorade, value=Salary Removed 04/03/2022 by Sangeeta Bhorade Employee relationship with Natera Inc Please note: 2/22/22- present Added 04/03/2022 by Sangeeta Bhorade, value=Salary Employee relationship with Natera Please note: 05/2021-present Added 04/04/2022 by Kathryn Crabtree, value=Salary research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria no disclosure on file for Cameron Lawson;No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy Employee relationship with Natera, Inc. Please note: 2020- present by David Ross, value=Salary

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2492-A2493, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060953

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare illness characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the lung parenchyma. Cases often present with fever, severe dyspnea, bilateral infiltrates, and eosinophilia on BAL exams. The cause of eosinophilic pneumonia is unknown, but is thought to be related to inhalational exposure of an irritant or toxin. Most cases are responsive to steroid treatment. This case demonstrates acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient who recently recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 year old female with a history of multiple sclerosis, seizure disorder secondary to MS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and a distant history of tobacco smoking and opiate dependence on chronic suboxone therapy, presented with dyspnea secondary to respiratory failure. The patient was urged to present by her husband after findings of hypoxia to 79% on room air with cyanosis of the lips and fingers. She recently recovered from COVID-19 1 month prior, at which time she had symptoms of cough productive of red mucus, fever, and exhaustion;but states she never returned to her baseline. With ongoing hypoxia, the patient was intubated for mechanical ventilation. Subsequent bronchoscopy with BAL resulted in a elevated eosinophil count to 76%, with fungal elements and PCR positive for HSV-1. The patient was initiated on high dose glucocorticoid therapy in addition to Acyclovir and Voriconazole. A CT with IV contrast revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli involving the segmental and subsegmental branches throughout both lungs and extension into the right pulmonary artery;the patient was started on anticoagulation. Shortly after beginning glucocorticoid therapy, the patient had significant improvement and was able to be weaned off ventilation to simple nasal cannula. She was able to be safely discharged home with two liters of supplemental oxygen and steroid taper. DISCUSSION: Acute Eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare condition with an unknown acute disease process. The diagnostic criteria for acute eosinophilic pneumonia includes: a duration of febrile illness less than one month, hypoxia with an SpO2 <90%, diffuse pulmonary opacities, and otherwise absence of inciting causes of pulmonary eosinophilia (including asthma, atopic disease, or infection). Diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is attained after meeting clinical criteria with a BAL sample demonstrating an eosinophilia differential of >25%. The mainstay of treatment for this condition is glucocorticoid therapy with most cases resolving rapidly after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 200 cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia have been reported in medical literature. It is imperative to keep a wide differential as critical illness may be rapidly improved with appropriate therapy. The cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is largely unknown, it is unclear what role COVID-19 may have played in the development of this pneumonia. Reference #1: Allen J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr;27(2):142-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939517. PMID: 16612765. Reference #2: Nakagome K, Nagata M. Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 21;10(4):638. doi: 10.3390/biom10040638. PMID: 32326200;PMCID: PMC7226607. Reference #3: Yuzo Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of the previous literature, causes, diagnosis, and management, Allergology International, Volume 68, Issue 4, 2019, Pages 413-419, ISSN 1323-8930 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Tayler Acton No relevant relationships by Calli Bertschy No relevant relationships by Stewart Caskey No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande No relevant relationships by Tyler Houston No relevant relationships by Zenia Sattar No relevant relationships by Heather Villarreal

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A2250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060920

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Diseases with Deceptive Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis of the respiratory tract is rare. We present a case of tracheobronchial amyloid presenting as multifactorial cough with syncope. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 65-year-old man with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and allergic rhinitis who presented to the ED after a syncopal event. Two weeks prior, he had a new-onset myalgias and severe persistent cough, not resolving with over-the-counter medications. During a coughing paroxysm, he experienced a brief loss of consciousness. On arrival, his vital signs and physical exam were within normal limits except for Mallampati II, BM of 38.8 kg/m2. Basic laboratory testing was also unremarkable except for troponin T of 251 nl/dL and NT-ProBNP of 1181 pg/mL. NP swab for Sars-CoV-19 (PCR), Influenza A and B were not detected. CT of the chest revealed an area of circumferential mural soft tissue thickening in the left lower lobe bronchi. Cardiac MRI showed an area of subepicardial delayed enhancement, suggestive of myocardial inflammation or edema. Flexible bronchoscopy confirmed that the left lower lobe bronchus and proximal subsegmental bronchi had an infiltrative process with a friable, erythematous irregular mucosal surface. Forceps biopsy sampling and staining with Congo red, sulfate Alcian blue and Trichome stain were positive for amyloid deposits. Immunostain revealed predominantly CD3 positive T-Cells. Mass spectometry showed AL (lamda)-type amyloid deposition. GMS and AFB stains were negative. Telemetry showed 2-3 second pauses, correlated with episodes of cough. DISCUSSION: Amyloidosis is a disorder caused by misfolding of proteins and fibril accumulation in the extracellular space. It can present as a diffuse or localized process to one organ system. Several patterns of lung involvement have been described: nodular pulmonary, diffuse alveolar-septal, cystic, pleural, and tracheobronchial amyloidosis. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is usually limited and not associated with systemic disease or hematologic malignancy. It can be asymptomatic, or can present with cough, dyspnea or signs of obstruction, including postobstructive pneumonia. Congo Red stained samples reveal green birefringence under polarized light microscopy. Further analysis of proteins usually reveals localized immunoglobulin light chains (AL). Cough syncope is due to increased intrathoracic pressure, decreased venous return and cardiac output, stimulation of baroreceptors, decreased chronotropic response, arterial hypotension and decreased cerebral perfusion. Our patient presented with multifactorial cough (possible viral infection, upper airway cough syndrome, amyloidosis) causing sinus pauses and syncope, on underlying myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid infiltration of the respiratory system is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway disorders, nodular or cystic lung diseases, and pleural processes. Reference #1: Milani P, Basset M, Russo F, et al. The lung in amyloidosis. Eur Respir Rev 2017;26: 170046 [https://doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0046-2017]. Reference #2: Utz JP, Swensen SJ, Gertz MA. Pulmonary amyloidosis. The Mayo Clinic experience from 1980 to 1993. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Feb 15;124(4):407-13. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-124-4-199602150-00004 Reference #3: Dicpinigaitis PV, Lim L, Farmakidis C. Cough syncope. Respir Med. 2014 Feb;108(2):244-51. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2013.10.020. Epub 2013 Nov 5. PMID: 24238768. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Amarilys Alarcon-Calderon No relevant relationships by Ashokakumar Patel

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A2217-A2218, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060912

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Post-Covid-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with either the acute or recovery phase of covid-19 infection affecting multiple organ systems requiring hospitalization. This syndrome has been described in both children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). Several case reports and systematic reviews have reported an association between post-covid-19 MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein report a case of a 27-year-old female with no known chronic medical condition and a non-contributory family history who was diagnosed with post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). She presented with generalized partial thickness erythematous skin ulcerations with tender blistering and painful erosion of her mucus membranes (oral and vaginal mucosa). This was diagnosed as Steven Johnsons syndrome. She was pulsed with intravenous methylprednisone. During this therapy, she progressed to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (fig 1). Bronchoscopy revealed mild pulmonary hemorrhage fig 2a&b). Serological testing heralded a new onset systemic lupus erythematosus in light of positive antinuclear antibodies, anti Ds DNA and anti Smith antibodies. Her course was complicated by significant proteinuria and an active renal cast suggestive of lupus nephritis. This necessitated further treatment for active lupus. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. DISCUSSION: We arrived at the diagnosis of post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) in light of her presenting with fever, hypotension, persistent sinus tachycardia and new onset atrial fibrillation), acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, elevation in transaminases, new onset skin rash, elevated inflammatory markers and a recent history of positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Covid-19 has been reported to induce wide spread vasculitis resulting in MIS-A or MIS-C by triggering type 3 hypersensitivity (1). Also, multiple case reports and systemic reviews have reported a direct association between MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases including SLE, SJS (2). The patient recovered with high dose corticosteroid and supportive therapy indicating her severe ARDS was most likely due associated to SJS, SLE and MIS-A. Clinicians should also keep in mind that SARS-CoV-2 PCR swab may be negative at the time patient presents with symptoms of MIS-A as the infection might have occurred about 4-5weeks prior just as in our patient(3) CONCLUSIONS: We cannot underscore enough the importance of clinicians having a high index of suspicion for this syndrome in patients with acute or recent covid-19 infection, with or without a positive PCR covid-19 test. Early involvement of a multidisciplinary approach and appropriate management is essential to mitigate morbidity and mortality in these patients. Reference #1: Roncati L, Ligabue G, Fabbiani L, Malagoli C, Gallo G, Lusenti B, et al. Type 3 hypersensitivity in COVID-19 vasculitis. Clin Immunol Orlando Fla. 2020 Aug;217:108487. Reference #2: Gracia-Ramos AE, Martin-Nares E, Hernández-Molina G. New Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Following COVID-19 Diagnosis. Cells [Internet]. 2021 Dec 20 [cited 2022 Mar 22];10(12):3592. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700122/ Reference #3: Morris SB. Case Series of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection — United Kingdom and United States, March–August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Mar 22];69. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6940e1.htm DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Isaac Ikwu No relevant relationships by Anthony Lyonga Ngonge No relevant relationships by Alem Mehari No relevant relationships by Noordeep Panesar no disclosure on file for Vis al Poddar;No relevant relationships by Emnet Yibeltal

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A2195, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060910

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Both COVID-19 infection and sarcoidosis have been associated with long-term systemic complications with current research attempting to link these two diseases based on inflammatory properties. This case presents a patient with previously biopsy proven asymptomatic sarcoidosis who progressed to symptomatic sarcoidosis following severe COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old previously active female with known asymptomatic, biopsy proven pulmonary sarcoidosis presented to hospital in February 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring treatment with Decadron and Remdesivir. She was discharged home on room air but continued to have fatigue, shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing. Due to persistent respiratory symptoms and new onset vomiting with anorexia, she sought evaluation in the emergency department in July 2021. She was febrile with blood work significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was found to have Anaplasmosis and despite adequate treatment continued to have persistent hypoxia with oxygen saturation of 82%. CT chest showed new areas of bilateral upper lobe predominant ground glass opacities and ill-defined soft tissue density in the subcarinal region. She was started on inhalers and underwent bronchoscopy with negative infectious disease work-up. She was discharged home on both inhalers and oral prednisone. Upon subsequent follow-up with pulmonology, she reported significant improvement in respiratory symptoms. Repeat CT chest after two of months of oral prednisone showed near resolution of all previous findings. After three of months of steroids, she began a prolonged steroid taper of one month. She reported absence of respiratory symptoms off of steroids. DISCUSSION: Current research is focusing on patients at greater risk of developing symptomatic sarcoidosis due to Th17 cells and the specific cytokines these cells produce. Several case reports suggest correlation between the inflammatory cascade induced by sarcoidosis and COVID-19 infection. One such case report suggests that COVID-19 infection can be a trigger for developing symptomatic pulmonary sarcoidosis. Our patient would be the first reported case of biopsy proven previously asymptomatic sarcoidosis developing into symptomatic sarcoidosis following severe COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, COVID-19 infection may not only predispose individuals to developing pulmonary sarcoid but may also contribute to the progression of once asymptomatic sarcoid to symptomatic sarcoid. Reference #1: Capaccione, K. M., McGroder, C., Garcia, C. K., Fedyna S., Sagi, A., & Salvatore, M. M. (2022). Covid-19-induced pulmonary sarcoid: A case report and review of the literature. Clinical Imaging, 83, 152-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.12.021 Reference #2: Chen, Edward S. "Reassessing Th1 versus Th17.1 in Sarcoidosis: New Tricks for Old Dogma.” The European Respiratory Journal, vol. 51, no. 3, 2018, p. 1800010. Reference #3: Xu, Zhe, et al. "Pathological Findings of COVID-19 Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, 2020, pp. 420–422. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Skylar Hartmann No relevant relationships by Jessica Wiseman

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A2186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060908

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Diseases Causing Pulmonary Havoc SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the etiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) should remain broad to ensure accurate diagnosis and the proper treatment of patients. Vital to the art of medicine is taking a comprehensive history, and anchoring on a common diagnosis such as COVID-19 can result in early dismissal of alternate etiologies that physicians have an obligation to explore. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension presented to the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea and fever. Initial CT chest imaging was significant for reticular and fibrotic changes with peripheral ground-glass and solid nodular opacities, some with areas of central clearing. Despite negative PCR testing, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 and discharged on oxygen with pulmonary follow-up. He continued to have arthralgias, proximal muscle weakness, low-grade fevers, and weight loss. He re-presented to the ED and was admitted for hypovolemia and further exploration into a potential autoimmune etiology of his symptoms. Labs were significant for a creatine kinase of 3,381 U/L, positive autoimmune antibodies [ANA (1:320), Jo-1 (>8.0 U), and SS-A/Ro (1.4 U)], and elevated ESR and CRP (30 mm/hr and 81 mg/L). Repeat CT revealed persistent parenchymal changes. Bronchoscopy was performed without anatomical abnormalities, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was normal in appearance and negative for infectious etiologies. Though the patient was a farmer and possessed risk factors for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lack of lymphocytic predominance on BAL, negative hypersensitivity panel, and uncharacteristic CT findings helped exclude this diagnosis. The patient was diagnosed with antisynthetase syndrome and treated with pulse dose intravenous solumedrol before transitioning to prednisone with resolution of muscle weakness and radiographic improvement in lung infiltrates. Muscle biopsy was deferred given the rapid clinical response and serum markers consistent with the diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare cause of ILD and often presents with myositis, arthritis, skin changes, Raynaud's phenomenon, and fever [1]. These symptoms, combined with the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibody—most commonly the Jo-1 antibody—help confirm the diagnosis [2]. Due to a lack of established diagnostic criteria, muscle biopsy is often used to exclude other causes of myositis [3]. The ILD associated with antisynthetase syndrome is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and delay in diagnosis can lead to progression of lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Chest imaging findings in COVID-19 are nonspecific, and post-COVID lung disease often presents similarly to other ILDs [1]. Because of this, history and physical exam remain crucial tools to reflect on alternate diagnoses for ILD and will continue to be necessary as we evolve through this COVID-19 era. Reference #1: Devi HG, Pasha MM, Padmaja MS, Halappa S. Antisynthetase Syndrome: A Rare Cause for ILD. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. 2016;10(3):OD08. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/16872.7361 Reference #2: Cavagna L, Trallero-Araguás E, Meloni F, et al. Influence of Antisynthetase Antibodies Specificities on Antisynthetase Syndrome Clinical Spectrum Time Course. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019;8(11). doi:10.3390/jcm8112013 Reference #3: Schmidt J. Current Classification and Management of Inflammatory Myopathies. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2018;5(2):109-129. doi: 10.3233/JND-180308. PMID: 29865091;PMCID: PMC6004913. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Dustin Norton No relevant relationships by Alyssa Simon No relevant relationships by Kang Rui Xiang

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A2177, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060907

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SESSION TITLE: Systemic Diseases Causing Pulmonary Havoc SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is the most common type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) and can occur in association with any pregnancy [1]. The main risk factors are advanced or very young maternal age, ethnicity, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and prior molar pregnancy. The most common sites of choriocarcinoma metastasis are lungs, liver, and brain [2]. This case describes a patient with choriocarcinoma that presented with hemoptysis. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 22 year-old G2P1 female presenting at 36 weeks-gestation with one week of hemoptysis. She denied any other symptoms. On presentation, she was tachycardic. Physical examination demonstrated bibasilar crackles. Admission chest x-ray revealed diffuse bilateral infiltrates (Fig 1). Hs-troponin was elevated to 144 ng/L;however, EKG did not show ischemic changes. Cultures were obtained prior to empirically initiating antibiotics. Despite antibiotic treatment, hemoptysis worsened over her course and oxygen requirements increased. Infectious workup was negative. CT obtained for pulmonary embolism revealed bilateral patchy airspace opacities in lungs, suspected due to multifocal pneumonia (Fig 2). AFB smear and quantiferon were negative. After an emergent C-section for increased oxygen requirements, bronchoscopy with BAL was obtained and demonstrated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. BAL was only positive for mildly increased CD4:CD8 ratio. Transbronchial biopsy was aborted due to bleed risk. Subsequent right lobe wedge biopsy confirmed metastatic choriocarcinoma. Her serum human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) level was found to be 20,713 milli-international units/mL. DISCUSSION: The etiology of hemoptysis was initially thought to be secondary to pneumonia. Differential diagnoses also included an acute COVID infection, alveolar hemorrhage, tuberculosis in a recently-immigrated patient, myocarditis, autoimmune etiology, and malignancy. Patient's risk factors included a prior miscarriage. Rarely, bleeding can occur as a result of metastatic lesions and may result in abdominal pain, hemoptysis, melena, or evidence of increased intracranial pressure from intracerebral hemorrhage [2]. Patients, such as the one described in this case, can exhibit pulmonary symptoms of dyspnea, cough, and chest pain caused by lung metastases. Upon closer examination of the CT scans, several of the opacities are nodular and consistent with GTN. Patients treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both demonstrated similar treatment outcomes;chemotherapy may still be the preferred option. The overall cure rate in treating these tumors is currently > 90% [2]. CONCLUSIONS: GTN, although rare, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in women with a pregnancy history and risk factors that present with the primary symptom of hemoptysis. High index of suspicion and awareness of these neoplasms are necessary for timely diagnosis. Reference #1: Savage P. Winter M. Parker V. et al. Demographics, natural history and treatment outcomes of non-molar gestational choriocarcinoma: a UK population study. BJOG. 2020;127: 1102-1107 Reference #2: Lurain, J., 2010. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 203(6), pp.531-539. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Crystal Ajja No relevant relationships by Heba Osman No relevant relationships by James Rowley

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A2176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060906

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Systemic Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis affecting small-to-medium sized blood vessels. GPA is highly associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and often triggered by environmental factors such as medications and infectious agents. Tracheobronchial stenosis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage are serious complications of GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian male with a history of chronic sinusitis requiring balloon sinuplasty and recent tympanostomy had presented multiple times to the emergency room due to dyspnea and cough with pinkish sputum production. This was associated with sore throat and fever, which were attributed to his COVID-19 infection and treated with supportive care. Due to persistent drainage through his tympanostomy he was prescribed levofloxacin by his ENT specialist. After the second dose of levofloxacin, he developed Raynaud's phenomenon, diffuse purpuric lesions and swelling over his lower extremity, eyelids, and elbows. Four days later he developed worsening hemoptysis and dyspnea for which he was admitted for further evaluation. Laboratory findings were remarkable for peripheral eosinophilia, elevated ESR 19mm/hr, CRP 9.2mg/dl, c-ANCA 1:320 titer, positive proteinase-3 antibodies and normal p-ANCA titers. Urinalysis with microscopic hematuria. Chest CT scan showed ground glass opacity, consolidative infiltrate with subpleural sparing and minimal left bronchial stenosis. Bronchoscopy suggestive of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Limited lung biopsy showed ulcer and granulation tissue with abundant eosinophils, but no granulomatous inflammation noted. Pulse dose steroids and Rituximab were initiated, and rapid clinical improvement was noted. Patient was discharged on prednisone taper and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: We believe that GPA may have been triggered by recent COVID-19 infection and levofloxacin use. Mild peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia (<12%) has been described in GPA, however it is a rare finding. GPA and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are both ANCA vasculitis that involve lungs and kidneys. GPA presents with sinusitis, alveolar hemorrhage and high titers of PR-3 antibodies. EGPA presents with a history of atopic, asthma and high titers of myeloperoxidase-ANCA along with abundant peripheral eosinophils. Our patient best fits the diagnostic criteria for GPA with eosinophilia variant rather than EGPA. Our patient had no history of asthma or atopic disease and p-ANCA was normal, which also points away from EGPA. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should recognize the differential diagnosis for eosinophils in ANCA vasculitis. Early diagnosis of ANCA vasculitis and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to decrease morbidity and mortality. Reference #1: Potter MB, Fincher RK, Finger DR. Eosinophilia in Wegener's Granulomatosis. Chest 116: 1480-1483, 1999 Reference #2: Krupsky, Meir et al. Wegener's Granulomatosis With Peripheral Eosinophilia. CHEST, Volume 104, Issue 4, 1290 - 1292 Reference #3: Kitching AR, Anders HJ, et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Aug 27;6(1):71. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y. PMID: 32855422. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Afoma King No relevant relationships by Joshuam Ruiz Vega No relevant relationships by Krishna Shah no disclosure on file for Milos Tucakovic;

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060901

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SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a disorder with multisystem involvement of unclear, and likely multifactorial, etiology. A majority of cases (up to 90%) include lung involvement, and hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy is frequently seen. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple complications of COVID-19 have been reported. We present a case of a female patient who developed new-onset, biopsy-proven Pulmonary Sarcoidosis after having COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A forty-eight-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension presented to the emergency department with a complaint of fever, shortness of breath, and cough. She was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 infection/pneumonia. A computed tomography angiogram of the chest was completed to evaluate an abnormal chest radiograph and to rule out pulmonary embolism and revealed pulmonary nodules throughout both lungs with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. She was referred to the pulmonary clinic for further evaluation of her abnormal computed tomography scan of the chest and presented after quarantine for her COVID-19 infection. She denied any history of Sarcoidosis and denied any mold exposure. She underwent bronchoscopy, and pathology results were consistent with non-caseating granulomas concerning for Sarcoidosis. Over the course of a few days, her symptoms improved. Repeat computed tomography scan of the chest was completed, which showed complete resolution of the previously identified pulmonary nodules with interval improvement of mediastinal adenopathy. DISCUSSION: With the increased number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, an ever-growing list of pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported. To our knowledge based on literature review, there have only been a few case reports of COVID-19 induced Sarcoidosis. Although the pathophysiology of Sarcoidosis largely remains unknown, inflammation is mediated through the dysregulation of several different cytokines (1). Behbahani, et al. proposed noncaseating granulomas formation as a sarcoid-like immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Ekinci et al. reported type-I IFN and IFN-γ role in triggering granuloma formation (2). In our patient, the biopsy-proven presence of non-caseating granuloma formation and subsequent rapid improvement of radiological lesions on computed tomography scan after recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia supports the diagnosis of COVID-19 induced Sarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS: With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing, physicians must be aware of the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Further studies are required in order to manage such cases and to evaluate COVID-19 infection as an infectious antigen capable of triggering granulomatous inflammation resulting in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis. Reference #1: Capaccione KM, McGroder C, Garcia CK, Fedyna S, Saqi A, Salvatore MM. COVID-19-induced pulmonary sarcoid: A case report and review of the literature. Clin Imaging. 2022;83:152-158. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.12.021 Reference #2: Polat Ekinci A, Büyükbabani N, Meşe S, Pehlivan G, Okumuş NG, Ağaçfidan A, Özkaya E. COVID-19-triggered sarcoidal granulomas mimicking scar sarcoidosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Aug;35(8):e477-e480. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17286. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33871106;PMCID: PMC8250646. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Zachary Anderson No relevant relationships by Sakina Batool No relevant relationships by Adnan Khan No relevant relationships by Bireera Muzaffar No relevant relationships by Ramsha Zafar

15.
Chest ; 162(4 Supplement):A2106-A2107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060900

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Nodule Biopsy: Yield and Accuracy SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/16/2022 10:30 am - 11:30 am PURPOSE: Atypia is common on biopsy specimens of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) and may result from inflammation or inadequate sampling of a malignancy. The significance of atypical cells on PPLs biopsies has not been well described. In addition, recent studies of navigational bronchoscopy have variably considered atypia on biopsies as diagnostic. METHOD(S): We analyzed a prospective database of consecutive PPLs sampled via navigational bronchoscopy at our institution (IRB: 212187). Search terms "atypia" and "atypical" were applied to pathology reports generated by these procedures. Manual inspection ensured atypia was present in the PPL itself. Definitive PPL diagnosis was established during a two-year routine clinical follow-up. Bronchoscopy diagnostic yield was defined as histopathological findings which readily explained a nodule (malignancy, organizing pneumonia, frank purulence, granulomatous inflammation) and permitted management of the patient without an immediate additional diagnostic intervention. Atypia was considered nonspecific and, therefore, nondiagnostic. RESULT(S): From 11/2017 to 4/2019, 461 biopsied PPLs were identified. Eleven cases, none exhibited atypia, lacked complete two-year follow-up, and were excluded. Ultimately, 274 of 450 (61%) analyzed PPLs were malignant. Diagnostic biopsies were obtained in 331 (73.5%) cases. Atypical cells were present in 33 PPLs (7% of overall cohort, 28% of the 119 nondiagnostic cases). Two-thirds (22 of 33) were eventually determined to be malignant. Lung adenocarcinoma was the most common ultimate malignant diagnosis (10 cases). Most benign PPLs with atypia regressed on follow-up imaging without further pathological data (5 cases). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of atypia for an eventual diagnosis of malignancy among the 223 PPLs not diagnosed as malignant at index bronchoscopy were 46% (95% CI 31-61%), 94% (89-97%), 92% (85-96%), and 53% (46-60%), respectively, with positive likelihood ratio (+LR) of 7.3 (3.8-14). CONCLUSION(S): The presence of atypical cells was a common finding, found in 28% of PPLs without a specific diagnosis after bronchoscopy. Two-thirds of PPLs with atypia were ultimately malignant, with a high PPV (92%) for malignant diagnosis in this cohort with an overall prevalence of malignancy of 61%. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Atypia not diagnostic of malignancy in bronchoscopic biopsy specimens is a nonspecific finding, which may be due to inadequate sampling of a malignant PPL or inflammation. However, the high PPV and +LR of atypia for ultimate malignant PPL diagnosis suggest that in populations with a similar prevalence of malignancy and/or in the clinical context of a high pre-test probability of malignancy, atypical findings might prompt repeat biopsy or definitive PPL management (resection or ablation). DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Robert Lentz No relevant relationships by Kaele Leonard No relevant relationships by See-Wei Low PI ofan investigator-initiated study relationship with Medtronic Please note: >$100000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support PI on investigator-initiated relationship with Erbe Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support Consulting relationship with Medtronic Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Honoraria co-I industry-sponsored trial relationship with Lung Therapeutics Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support Board of director member relationship with AABIP Please note: $1-$1000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Travel Consultant relationship with Medtronic/Covidien Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Otis Rickman, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by Briana Swanner Copyright © 2022 American College of Chest Physicians

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060899

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SESSION TITLE: Great Procedural Cases: Fire, Ice, Struts, Valves, and Glue SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: While rarely reported, there has been an increasing incidence of tracheobronchial mucormycosis in patients infected with COVID-19, especially when associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. We describe a complex case of central airway obstruction due to mucormycosis that was managed with a custom 3D printed silicone Y-stent. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old woman with diabetes, prior COVID-19 infection, presented with dyspnea and cough. She underwent a CT chest which showed left lower lobe atelectasis and left main stem bronchus (LMSB) obstruction. Bronchoscopy showed a large exophytic mass extruding from the LMSB. There was necrosis leading to a fistula between the left and right mainstem bronchi distal to the carina. Pathology of the mass showed necrotic bronchial mucosa and cartilage with invasive mucormycosis. She underwent placement of a 10X40mm covered stent in LMSB. However, due to granulation tissue and recurrent mucus plugging, she needed a bronchoscopy every 3-4 weeks and multiple stent revisions. Despite these interventions, her respiratory symptoms did not change significantly. Ultimately, her airway was also complicated by tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) of the right main stem bronchus (RMSB). Subsequently a custom printed 3D silicone Y-stent from VisionAir was placed that allowed successful recanalization of LMSB and management of the TBM of RMSB simultaneously. The patient reported significant improvement in respiratory symptoms. She was maintained on Isavuconazole for mucormycosis suppression therapy DISCUSSION: Mucormycosis infections commonly occur in the pulmonary or rhino-cerebral region with high morbidity and mortality. Mucor can involve the major airways as well as rarely invade the tracheal cartilage leading to TBM. There is often granulation tissue, gray-white mucoid material, with edematous and necrotic airway. This can be associated with complex central airway obstruction. While the covered tracheobronchial stent (Bonastent) allowed us to recanalize LMSB, it was complicated by obstructive granulation tissue formation and mucous plugging requiring frequent stent revision to maintain stent patency. At the same time, the TBM in the right airway was contributing significantly to dyspnea and cough. While a standard silicon Y stent was considered for the management of bilateral mainstem bronchi disease, due to the significant distortion in airway anatomy this was not an ideal option. By using the VisionAir stent, we placed a custom stent that would best fit her airway anatomy. The patient had sustained improvement in her symptoms for several months following the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case report of a custom designed and 3D printed stent for the treatment of benign central airway obstruction caused by tracheobronchial mucormycosis. Custom stents are a promising tool to individualize and tailor intervention for patients with complex airway anatomy. Reference #1: Tracheal Mucormycosis Pneumonia: A Rare Clinical Presentation. Satyawati Mohindra, Bhumika Gupta, Karan Gupta and Amanjit Bal. Respiratory Care November 2014, 59 (11) e178-e181 Reference #2: Keshishyan S, DeLorenzo L, Hammoud K, Avagyan A, Assallum H, Harris K. Infections causing central airway obstruction: role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management. J Thorac Dis. 2017;9(6):1707-1724. doi:10.21037/jtd.2017.06.31 Reference #3: Leon CA, Inaty H, Urbas A, Grafmeyer K, Machuzak M, Sethi S, Gildea T. Early outcomes with 3D printing and airway stents. CHEST 2019 annual meeting s. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sisir Akkineni No relevant relationships by Kelly Daymude No relevant relationships by Wissam Jaber No relevant relationships by Abesh Niroula

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A2099, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060898

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Procedures: Creativity and Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in the management of airway disorders have provided additional therapeutic options for pathology, such as central airway obstruction (CAO). Symptomatic CAO has been managed by bronchoscopic interventions with a high risk of airway compromise and respiratory failure. Other alternatives such as mechanical and jet ventilation may not ensure adequate respiratory support during the procedure and cause delays in life-saving treatments. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during these airway interventions [1,2]. We present a case of complete tracheal occlusion successfully intervened using VV ECMO support. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 55-year-old male with a history of ventilator-dependent respiratory failure s/p tracheostomy, secondary to post COVID-19 fibrosis, who presented from a long-term acute care facility with worsening hypoxemia. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, where he underwent flexible bronchoscopy via the tracheostomy lumen, which did not reveal a patent airway. Orotracheal intubation was unsuccessful as there was complete occlusion of the airway below the vocal cords with abundant granulation tissue. Interventional pulmonology was consulted, and emergent recanalization of the airway with rigid bronchoscopy-mediated debulking was performed. Due to the severity of hypoxemia, cardiothoracic surgery was consulted, and the patient was placed on VV ECMO to support further intervention. The patient was intubated with EFER-DUMON 13 mm rigid bronchoscope. Complete recanalization was achieved using a rigid barrel and forceps with patency of both mainstems and all segmental bronchi. There were no postprocedural complications, and the patient returned to his baseline ventilator settings. DISCUSSION: VV ECMO has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during high-risk bronchoscopic interventions, primarily in CAO. Acute respiratory decompensation remains a feared complication during these interventions in cases of CAO. Initiating ECMO before these interventions may reduce the incidence of respiratory failure and airway compromise. In a case series, ECMO has been described by Stokes et al. as a supportive measure facilitating such interventions [3]. Further guidelines are required to standardize ECMO initiation as procedural support during airway interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Planned preprocedural ECMO initiation can prevent respiratory emergencies and allow therapeutic high-risk airway interventions. The choices for this patient were stark- either airway recanalization without ECMO bridge with a risk of hypoxic brain injury vs. VV ECMO support and curative airway intervention. In the absence of large-scale data and based on local availability of excellent ECMO support and Interventional Pulmonology, the latter approach was used, leading to successful and safe airway recanalization. Reference #1: Zapol WM, Wilson R, Hales C, Fish D, Castorena G, Hilgenberg A et al.Venovenous bypass with a membrane lung to support bilateral lung lavage. JAMA 1984;251:3269–71. Reference #2: Fung R, Stellios J, Bannon PG, Ananda A, Forrest P. Elective use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-flow nasal oxygen for resection of subtotal malignant distal airway obstruction. Anaesth Intensive Care 2017;45:88–91. Reference #3: Stokes JW, Katsis JM, Gannon WD, Rice TW, Lentz RJ, Rickman OB, Avasarala SK, Benson C, Bacchetta M, Maldonado F. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during high-risk airway interventions. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2021 Nov 22;33(6):913-920. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivab195. PMID: 34293146;PMCID: PMC8632782 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vatsal Khanna No relevant relationships by Anurag Mehrotra No relevant relationships by Trishya Reddy No relevant relationships by Bernadette Schmidt

18.
Chest ; 162(4 Supplement):A2087-A2088, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060897

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Nodule Biopsy: Yield and Accuracy SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/16/2022 10:30 am - 11:30 am PURPOSE: A variety of endpoints have been used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of navigational bronchoscopy for sampling peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs), including diagnostic yield (rate of biopsies with a specific diagnosis that facilitates clinical decisions) and diagnostic accuracy (yield plus a follow-up to assess for false negative/positive initial results). There is also significant variation in what non-malignant findings are considered diagnostic, especially regarding nonspecific inflammatory changes. We hypothesized a diagnostic yield definition excluding nonspecific findings as diagnostic would lead to few false negative PPL biopsies. METHOD(S): Our center maintains a prospective cohort of consecutive PPLs targeted via navigational bronchoscopy. Diagnostic yield was defined as specific findings readily explaining the presence of a PPL (malignancy, organizing pneumonia, granulomatous inflammation, frank purulence, other specific finding) permitting management without immediate additional diagnostic intervention. "Other specific finding" required pulmonologist and lung pathologist agreement. All other findings were considered non-diagnostic. RESULT(S): A total of 450 PPLs biopsied 2017-2019 with complete two-year follow-up were included in the analysis. Ultimately, 274 of 450 (60.9%) PPLs were determined to be malignant. Diagnostic biopsies were obtained in 331 cases (73.6%). There was a single false-positive among 228 malignant biopsies (0.4%, carcinoid tumor on cytopathology, alveolar adenoma on resection surgical pathology). Among 223 PPLs without malignant diagnosis at initial bronchoscopy, 48 were later determined to be malignant. Most (n=39) exhibited nonspecific abnormalities on initial pathology. Two of 104 specific benign biopsies were false negative (1.9%). Both demonstrated organizing pneumonia on initial pathology but re-biopsy months after index bronchoscopy revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of specific benign findings for an ultimately benign nodule were 58% (95% CI, 51-66%), 95% (86-99%), and 90% (70-97%). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of nonspecific benign findings for an ultimately benign PPL diagnosis were 32% (95% CI, 25-39%), 19% (9-33%), and 20% (16-24%). CONCLUSION(S): A definition of diagnostic yield excluding nonspecific benign findings had low false positive/negative rates. If bronchoscopy is not diagnostic of malignancy, a specific benign finding was highly predictive of an ultimately benign PPL, while nonspecific findings poorly predicted benignity. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This definition of diagnostic yield could be used as the primary outcome in future studies, permitting distribution of reliable diagnostic results without requiring years of follow-up. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Joyce Johnson No relevant relationships by Robert Lentz No relevant relationships by Kaele Leonard No relevant relationships by See-Wei Low PI ofan investigator-initiated study relationship with Medtronic Please note: >$100000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support PI on investigator-initiated relationship with Erbe Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support Consulting relationship with Medtronic Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Honoraria co-I industry-sponsored trial relationship with Lung Therapeutics Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Grant/Research Support Board of director member relationship with AABIP Please note: $1-$1000 by Fabien Maldonado, value=Travel Consultant relationship with Medtronic/Covidien Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Otis Rickman, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by Briana Swanner Copyright © 2022 American College of Chest Physicians

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A2083, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060896

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Case Reports of Procedure Treatments Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Foreign body aspiration can affect ventilation-oxygenation dynamics causing significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults. Patient presentation can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening hypoxia. A thorough history and physical examination helps in narrowing differential diagnosis and provision of timely management. A myriad of complications can occur from aspirated Foreign body including recurrent pneumonia, lung abscess, obstructive emphysema, and death. Here we present a case of a patient with recurrent pneumonia from a chronically aspirated foreign body. CASE PRESENTATION: 37-year-old male with past medical history of a recent COVID-19 infection and bronchus intermedius endobronchial mass (squamous metaplasia on biopsy 2009) who presented with fever, chest pain, worsening dyspnea. Initial workup was consistent with severe sepsis. A CT chest showed complete collapse, cavitation in right lower lobe and presence of right bronchus stent. Patient was treated with IV fluids and antibiotics during the hospitalization. He underwent bronchoscopy for airway examination and bronchoalveolar lavage. Airway exam showed a large endobronchial mass in the bronchus intermedius. Endobronchial biopsies were taken, followed by tissue debulking using flexible forceps and cryoprobe. A yellow plastic foreign object was then visualized dislodged in the right lower lobe. This was successfully removed with grasping forceps. Patient had to be extubated and be reintubated to remove foreign object in one piece as it did not fit the endotracheal tube. Post debulking, bronchus intermedius and right lower lobe were patent and procedure was completed. Our patient responded well to treatment he was ultimately transitioned to oral antibiotics and discharged home with outpatient follow up. Repeat bronchoscopy 6 weeks later showed normal airways. DISCUSSION: Our case illustrated the importance of thorough investigation while treating patients with recurrent pneumonia, and this sometimes should include bronchoscopy with airway exam. In our case a bronchoscopy was done several years ago, however the foreign body was not identified as the cause of the endobronchial lesion. A lingering foreign body in the long run has significant morbidity as seen in our case despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics patient continued to have recurrent post obstructive pneumonias. Bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in definitive diagnosis and management of foreign body. Since the refinement of bronchoscopy and debulking, the rate of mortality from foreign body aspiration has been remarkably reduced. CONCLUSIONS: In summary patients with history suggestive of potential foreign body aspiration presenting with recurrent pneumonias at a particular anatomical location should prompt physicians to perform diagnostic bronchoscopy, which remains the gold standard for diagnosing of foreign body aspiration Reference #1: Foreign Body Aspiration Natan Cramer;Noel Jabbour;Melissa M. Tavarez;Roger S. Taylor. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Maria Abril No relevant relationships by Bilal Bangash No relevant relationships by Imran Tarrar

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A2072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060894

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Tales in Bronchoscopy SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Peripheral pulmonary nodule biopsy can be challenging based on its location and size. Robotic bronchoscopy is augmenting peripheral navigation, allowing for approximation of peripheral nodules. The diagnostic yield is variable and is primarily dependent upon operator experience, selection of biopsy equipment and nodule texture. Hard pulmonary nodules are difficult to biopsy with a needle, brush and forceps. We report a case of utilizing combined disposable 1.1 mm cryoprobe and robotic bronchoscopy to diagnose a right lower lobe nodule. CASE PRESENTATION: A 83-year-old woman with a remote history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with dyspnea and fatigue. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a 2.7 cm hypermetabolic nodule with central photopenia in the right lower lobe (RLL) along with patchy bilateral ground-glass opacities related to COVID-19 infection. After a few weeks, robotic navigation was used for approximation of the RLL superior segment nodule. Under fluoroscopic and radial guidance with circumferential signal, 6 forcep biopsies and 5 fine needle aspirations with 21-gauge needle yielded a non-diagnostic sample. A decision was made to utilize a 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe, which was inserted through the opening made by the forceps into the target lesion. Six cryo biopsies were obtained with 4-6 seconds freeze time. Minimal bleeding was encountered and no pneumothorax occurred. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of combination 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe biopsy with robotic bronchoscopy. Interventional pulmonologists are primarily using cryo probe for mechanical tumor debulking and peripheral lung biopsy for diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. The use of a 1.1 mm cryoprobe under robotic guidance allows for well-preserved tissue samples and possibly boosting diagnostic yield. The advantage of the 1.1 mm cryoprobe lies with its size and excellent flexibility. The robotic platform also corrects for any unwanted deflection. One limitation of using a flexible cryoprobe is its blunt tip, requiring an additional step in gaining access to nodules located outside the airway with either the biopsy needle or forceps. Future improvements in cryoprobe design with a sharp tip may address this limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Combining 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe with robotic bronchoscopy is safe and can be considered as an adjunct to conventional biopsy, allowing for well-preserved tissue. Further prospective studies to evaluate its performance and safety is warranted. Reference #1: Kho SS, Chai CS, Nyanti LE, et al. Combination of 1.1 mm flexible cryoprobe with conventional guide sheath and therapeutic bronchoscope in biopsy of apical upper lobe solitary pulmonary nodule. BMC Pulm Med. 2020. 158(20). doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01199-3 Reference #2: Chen AC, Pastis NJ Jr, Mahajan AK, et al. Robotic Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Multicenter Pilot and Feasibility Study (BENEFIT). Chest. 2021;159(2):845-852. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.2047 Reference #3: Sahajal Dhooria, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ashutosh NA Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Cryoprobe Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Respiratory Care. 2016. 61(5):700-712. doi.org/10.4187/respcare.04488 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sailendra Chundu No relevant relationships by Moiz Javed No relevant relationships by Abid Khokar No relevant relationships by Ali Saeed No relevant relationships by Andrew Talon No relevant relationships by Melinda Wang

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