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1.
Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences ; 16(2):52-58, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026684

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate economic burdens and the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on paramedic candidates in Turkey. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on paramedic candidates in Turkey from January to May 2021. Students studying in the paramedic program in Turkey were included in the study. A self structured questionnaire was developed. Relatives leaving work, state support status, purchasing power for basic food needs evaluated the economic and psychosocial burden of the participants with the variables. The researchers developed a data collection tool consisting of three parts based on the current literature. The first part evaluated descriptive characteristics , the second part the economic effects of COVID-19, and the third part the psychosocial burden of COVID-19. Results: Of 1327 candidates, the average age was 20.41±2.08 years. There were 963 (72.6%) females and 364 (27.4%) males. During the pandemic, 933 (70%) and 784 (59.1%) felt responsible for grocery shopping for relatives and neighbors aged ≥65 years. Moreover, 1099 (82.8%) of the participants left their homes as rarely as possible;784 (59.1%) were unhappy with staying at home all the time;623 (46.9%) became more interested in religion, spirituality, and philosophy during the pandemic;473 (35.6%) of the participants' income did not meet their expenses, and 696 (52.4%) indicated that their academic performance had deteriorated. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the behaviors, lifestyles, habits, academic performance, and therefore the lives of the paramedic candidates due to additional burdens. © 2022 Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Midwives Association.

2.
Journal of Medical Ethics: Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics ; 47(12):784-787, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2011983

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unusually challenging and dangerous workplace conditions for key workers. This has prompted calls for key workers to receive a variety of special benefits over and above their normal pay. Here, we consider whether two such benefits are justified: a no-fault compensation scheme for harm caused by an epidemic and hazard pay for the risks and burdens of working during an epidemic. Both forms of benefit are often made available to members of the armed forces for the harms, risks and burdens that come with military service. We argue from analogy that these benefits also ought to be provided to key workers during an epidemic because, like the military, key workers face unavoidable harms, risks and burdens in providing essential public good. The amount of compensation should be proportional to the harm suffered and the amount of hazard pay should be proportional to the risk and burden endured. Therefore, key workers should receive the same amount of compensation and hazard pay as the military where the harms, risks and burdens are equivalent. In the UK, a form of no-fault compensation has recently been made available to the surviving families of key workers who suffer fatal COVID-19 infections. According to our argument, however, it is insufficient because it offers less to key workers than is made available to the families of armed services personnel killed on duty. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158350, 2022 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004490

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been suggested as a useful tool to predict the emergence and investigate the extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, we screened appropriate population biomarkers for wastewater SARS-CoV-2 normalization and compared the normalized SARS-CoV-2 values across locations with different demographic characteristics in southeastern Michigan. Wastewater samples were collected between December 2020 and October 2021 from nine neighborhood sewersheds in the Detroit Tri-County area. Using reverse transcriptase droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR), concentrations of N1 and N2 genes in the studied sites were quantified, with N1 values ranging from 1.92 × 102 genomic copies/L to 6.87 × 103 gc/L and N2 values ranging from 1.91 × 102 gc/L to 6.45 × 103 gc/L. The strongest correlations were observed with between cumulative COVID-19 cases per capita (referred as COVID-19 incidences thereafter), and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations normalized by total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), creatinine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and xanthine when correlating the per capita SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 incidences. When SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater were normalized and compared with COVID-19 incidences, the differences between neighborhoods of varying demographics were reduced as compared to differences observed when comparing non-normalized SARS-CoV-2 with COVID-19 cases. This indicates when studying the disease burden in communities of different demographics, accurate per capita estimation is of great importance. The study suggests that monitoring selected water quality parameters or biomarkers, along with RNA concentrations in wastewater, will allow adequate data normalization for spatial comparisons, especially in areas where detailed sanitary sewage flows and contributing populations in the catchment areas are not available. This opens the possibility of using WBE to assess community infections in rural areas or the developing world where the contributing population of a sample could be unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Creatinine , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid , Incidence , Nitrogen , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sewage/virology , United States , Waste Water , Xanthines
4.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 24: 100832, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004212
5.
International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management ; 9(4):345-365, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1951600

ABSTRACT

In Slovenia, patients report difficulties registering with a family doctor (FD), even in dense urban areas, since the patient-to-FD ratio is well below the EU average and not improving. Moreover, public primary healthcare providers (PCP) report difficulties with the financial liquidity that endangers the regular payment of employed FDs' salaries and constantly call for additional budget funding in the healthcare sector, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. It is therefore questionable, whether or not the PCP, which perform economic activity under the EU standards, respect human rights of all the stakeholders in the healthcare sector. Therefore, in this paper, I analyse the existing regulations on the public financing of FDs in Slovenia that seems to pose significant problems to patients' timely access to health care and does not facilitate the FDs' goal of delivering the patients' constitutional right to healthcare services. I discuss some better alternative solutions that would promote the patients' right to effective primary healthcare, attract more medical students to specialise in family medicine and consolidate the fiscal sustainability of the primary healthcare sector, which is at grave risk of collapse due to a dysfunctional healthcare payment and delivery system. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

6.
Energy Research & Social Science ; 91:102713, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1914348

ABSTRACT

Energy and internet insecurity are exacerbated by the compounding of multiple forms of social-economic disadvantage during extreme events. This study demonstrates the effects of concentrated disadvantage on internet and energy burdens and utility hardships in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Based on 1991 online respondents, we found that internet and energy burdens are higher in Florida than in California, but utility hardship is greater in California. Women, renters, low-income households, and people of color have higher internet and energy burdens than their counterparts. Unique to this study, people with higher energy medical needs are more likely to suffer from energy and internet insecurity than people without such needs. Low-income women, low-income homeowners, and homeowners of color with more energy medical needs have- higher energy burdens than their counterparts. Low-income men, people of color, and Black/Latino residents with higher levels of energy medical needs, and renters with disabilities and homeowners with medical needs affected by heating and cooling experienced higher levels of utility hardship than their counterparts. These findings suggest that energy insecurity is not just determined by income but by other social and health factors. The findings provide policy implications.

7.
12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752395

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, also known as 2019-nCoV, is no longer a pandemic but an endemic disease that has killed many people worldwide. COVID-19 has no precise treatment or remedy at this time, but it is unavoidable to live with the disease and its implications. By quickly and efficiently screening for covid, one may determine whether or not one has COVID-19 and thus limit the financial and administrative burdens on healthcare systems. Research has shown that predictions which use many variables in order to predict the likelihood of infection have been established. Due to the world's inadequate healthcare systems, this fact places significant strain on these countries' healthcare systems, particularly in emerging nations. While there is no proven antiviral medication method or licensed vaccine that can eliminate the COVID-19 pandemic, there are other potential options that would alleviate both healthcare systems and the economy from the weight of the virus. Non-clinical approaches like machine learning, data mining, deep learning, and other artificial intelligence approaches are among the most promising approaches for use outside of a clinical setting. To make diagnosis and prognosis for patients with the 2019-NCoV pandemic easier, use these options. Additionally, artificial intelligence systems, such as decision trees, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and naïve Bayesian models, are validated using a positive and negative COVID-19 case dataset. To establish the degree of connection between dependent characteristics, correlation coefficients between different dependent and independent variables were investigated. During preparation, the model was trained for 80% of the time, while at the same time, it was tested for 20% of the time. Based on the success evaluation, the Random Forest had the best precision of 94.99%. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715264

ABSTRACT

Background: The growing need for nursing care is offset by a shortage of nurses, who are exposed to high physical and psychological demands in their daily work and have above-average absences that vary between different care settings. Based on the data on sick days, the question arises: What are the subjective work-related health burdens of nurses in acute care hospitals, inpatient care facilities, and outpatient care services? Methods: Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in different care settings between May and September 2021. Questions about the professional career, everyday working life and personal health, violence in the workplace, and organizational framework conditions were asked. Results: The experiences of the nurses highlighted that health-related burdens have varying manifestations in different care settings. This was reflected in three main categories: health, everyday working life, and experiences of violence. In particular, the different structural framework conditions that trigger stress and the occurrence of violence are important from the perspective of the nurses. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory study can serve as a baseline for obtaining further setting-specific quantitative data that can contribute to the development, implementation, and evaluation of target group-specific health promotion programs.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690235

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the social and psychological burdens placed on educators during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and to propose an optimal form of support. We investigated educators' perceptions of psychological and socioeconomic anxieties and burdens, sense of coherence, and social capital using a questionnaire survey of 1000 educators in January 2021. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to analyze the associations between the variables. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents considered COVID-19 a formidable, life-threatening illness. Our results revealed that the higher the social capital, the greater the fear of COVID-19, and the higher the sense of coherence, the lower this fear. Conclusions: The anxiety burden of implementing infection prevention was higher than the anxiety burden associated with distance learning. The predictive factors for educators' perceptions of burden included sense of coherence, gender, and age. Our findings suggest the importance of having the government and educational institutions provide multidimensional assistance that matches educators' individual characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 17(3): 346-361, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685953

ABSTRACT

Individual informed consent is a central requirement for clinical research on human subjects, yet whether and how consent requirements should apply to health policy experiments (HPEs) remains unclear. HPEs test and evaluate public health policies prior to implementation. We interviewed 58 health experts in Tanzania, Bangladesh and Germany on informed consent requirements for HPEs. Health experts across all countries favored a strong evidence base, prior information to the affected populations, and individual consent for 'risky' HPEs. Differences pertained to individual risk perception, how and when consent by group representatives should be obtained and whether HPEs could be treated as health policies. The study adds to representative consent options for HPEs, yet shows that more research is needed in this field - particularly in the present Covid-19 pandemic which has highlighted the need for HPEs nationally and globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Expert Testimony , Health Policy , Humans , Informed Consent , Pandemics
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a chronic disease that requires stroke survivors to be supported long-term by their families. This is especially because of the inaccessibility to post-stroke rehabilitation outside hospitals. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis and the pandemic restrictions in Malaysia are expected to exponentially increase the demand from family caregivers in supporting stroke survivors. Thus, this study aims to explore the burden, experience, and coping mechanism of the family caregivers supporting stroke survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted from November 2020 to June 2021 in Malaysia. A total of 13 respondents were recruited from two public rehabilitation centers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In-depth interviews were conducted with the participants. Comprehensive representation of perspectives from the respondents was achieved through purposive sampling. The interviews were conducted in the Kelantanese dialect, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes on burdens and experiences were identified. They were worsening pre-existing issues, emerging new issues, and fewer burdens and challenges. Two themes on coping strategies were also identified. They were problem-focused engagement and emotion-focused engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the entire system of stroke management. While family caregivers mostly faced the extra burden through different experiences, they also encountered some positive impacts from the pandemic. The integrated healthcare system, especially in the era of digitalization, is an important element to establish the collaborative commitment of multiple stakeholders to compensate burden and sustain the healthcare of stroke survivors during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Adaptation, Psychological , Caregivers , Family , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 813-817, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335595

ABSTRACT

The relevance of the study included that scarcity of evidence about the burdens of diseases in Ethiopia, in particular to non-communicable diseases along with the impact of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic analysis and content analysis using GBD 2019 database and health metrics datasets of 2020 was used to analyze diseases burdens trends of Ethiopia. The descriptive retrospective analysis has been performed, and reported in text and charts method. RESULTS: The result of the study showed increment of crude death and premature death due to both communicable and non-communicable diseases such as enteric infections, cardiovascular, neoplasm, others. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 would be the headache of Ethiopia health systems due to double burdens of diseases have steadily been shooting at ground. Hence, the nation should incite local based innovation work proactively and integrate all health services to fight with COVID-19 based on the experience of Russia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(3): e435-e437, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219366

ABSTRACT

In the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, long-term nursing care facilities are faced with general and pandemic-specific demands. In our study, we examined their burden from the perspective of managers in long-term nursing care facilities and how it differed in outpatient and inpatient settings. A cross-sectional online survey of long-term care managers was conducted in April 2020 (n = 503) and December 2020/January 2021 (n = 294). Burdens have increased over the course of the pandemic especially for outpatient facilities and in terms of general demands referring to staff (e.g. (staff shortages and overload) and work organization (e.g. compliance with regulations on working hours or staffing ratio). Concerns about infections of people in need of care and of employees remain the highest burden in the course of the pandemic. This knowledge helps us to draw implications from the pandemic and to prepare for future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Long-Term Care , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the relation between care involvement of informal caregivers and caregiver burden is well-known, the additional psychosocial burden related to care involvement during the COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been investigated. METHODS: A total of 1000 informal caregivers, recruited offline, participated in a cross-sectional online survey from April 21 to May 2, 2020. Questionnaires were used to assess COVID-19-specific changes in the care situation, negative feelings in the care situation, problems with implementation of COVID-19 measures, concerns/excessive demands, loss of support, change in informal caregivers' own involvement in care and problems with provision, comprehension & practicability of COVID-19 information, and to relate these issues to five indicators of care involvement (i.e., being the main caregiver, high expenditure of time, high level of care, dementia, no professional help). Binomial and multiple regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: Across indicators of care involvement, 25.5-39.7% reported that the care situation rather or greatly worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for those caring for someone with dementia or those usually relying on professional help. In a multiple regression model, the mean number of involvement indicators met was associated with age (ß = .18; CI .10-.25), excessive demands (ß = .10, CI .00-.19), problems with implementation of COVID-19 measures (ß = .11, CI .04-.19), an increase in caregiving by the informal caregivers themselves (ß = .14, CI .03-.24) as well as with no change in the amount of caregiving (ß = .18, CI .07-.29) and loss of support (ß = -.08, CI -.16-.00). No significant associations with the mean number of involvement indicators met were found for gender, educational level, change in the care situation, negative feelings, and provision, comprehension & practicability of COVID-19 information. CONCLUSION: Those caregivers who perceived extensive care burden were those who suffered most during the pandemic, calling for structural support by the healthcare system now and in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This article does not report the results of a health care intervention on human participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Cost of Illness , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Pflege ; 33(4): 207-218, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722563

ABSTRACT

Nursing care in times of COVID-19: Online survey of leaders on challenges, burdens, and coping strategies Abstract. Aim: In light of the dynamic developments and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the care of people in need of long-term care the following questions arise: How do leaders of care facilities perceive the challenges, how burdened are they and how do they cope with these? METHODS: Leaders from outpatient and inpatient nursing and hospice care facilities were contacted by e-mail to participate in an online survey. Closed questions were analysed descriptively, open information was analysed by content analysis. RESULTS: From of 4,333 nursing facilities contacted, usable information was available from 525 persons. The greatest pandemic-related, interdependent challenges include concern about infections of patients and employees, procurement of protective equipment, compliance with hygiene regulations, inconsistency and lack of transparency of information and guidelines that are important for work, and loss of income and lead to a cascade of burdens. Around 40 % of respondents are uncertain whether they can cope with these. According to the respondents, the well-being and presenteeism of the leaders surveyed has deteriorated in the course of the pandemic outbreak and they appeared to be more often ill at work. Financial and structural measures, the strengthening of social cohesion and explanation were mentioned as coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The results show an increase in challenges and illustrate interdependent pandemic-related burdens. These are mainly met by overtime and additional effort, especially on the part of leaders. It remains unclear what long-term consequences are to be expected from the burden situation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nurse Administrators/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
AIDS Behav ; 24(8): 2244-2249, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72563

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 creates another health burden for people living with HIV (PLWH) who face multiple morbidities and may be at heightened risk for severe physical health illness from COVID-19. Our abilities to address these morbidities in PLWH must be considered alongside the socially-produced burdens that both place this population at risk for COVID-19 and heighten the likelihood of adverse outcomes. These burdens can affect the physical, emotional, and social well-being of PLWH and interfere with the delivery of effective healthcare and access to HIV treatment. We posit that a syndemic framework can be used to conceptualize the potential impact of COVID-19 among PLWH to inform the development of health programming services.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , HIV Infections/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Food Supply , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , Telemedicine
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