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1.
Small Business Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2085508

ABSTRACT

In the USA, governors became central figures in the fight against the novel coronavirus. In many cases, state leaders were forced to choose between preserving life and protecting economic livelihood. While prior research has underscored the important role that US governors played in implementing healthcare policies at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we know little about how characteristics of state leaders impacted self-employment. In this paper, we draw from upper echelons theory to examine how governor party and discretion impacted venture creation in the food and restaurant industry. Interestingly, we find no significant relationship between governor party and venture creation. However, we find that when the governor and legislature were unified in their political party - irrespective of party line - there were a higher number of new food and restaurant ventures created. We also found this effect to be strengthened when small business unemployment levels were higher. We explore the implications of these results for how unity of command may be beneficial during times of crisis. Plain English Summary During the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA, governors played a critical role in creating policy that either helped to preserve life or protect economic livelihood. Our research examines how two particularly important characteristics of governors and the political environment - party affiliation and discretion - impacted new venture creation within the food and restaurant industry, which is an important indicator of economic recovery. Using a publicly available, hand-collected dataset inclusive of all 50 states, we find that the political party of the governor has no effect on venture creation. However, we demonstrate that when the governorship and state legislature were aligned and led by members with the same party affiliation, the state experienced a greater number of new venture creation in the food and restaurant industry than when leaders of these two branches of government were not aligned. We further found that the effect of governor discretion was stronger when small business unemployment levels were higher. Our findings have implications for practice by suggesting that a unity of command government structure can be advantageous for economic outcomes during crises.

2.
International Journal of Emerging Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070213

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 on tourism and hospitality small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in an emerging country located in Latin America and identifies service innovation strategies adopted by these firms to survive a prolonged crisis. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative investigation was conducted drawing on a framework of imposed service innovation. Data were obtained from in-depth interviews with owners/managers of 20 SMEs in the hospitality and tourism sector in Chile. Findings Findings show that the effect of COVID-19 on SMEs includes a decline in demand due to lockdowns and restrictions, with minimal government support. Tourism and hospitality SMEs developed different service innovation strategies to confront the crisis, and several businesses were even able to exploit new opportunities for future growth. Originality/value The effect of COVID-19 and SMEs' service innovation strategies to confront a prolonged crisis is a topic that is largely unexplored, particularly in the tourism and hospitality sector. The findings contribute to the literature on emerging markets, crisis management and SME innovation in tourism and hospitality. The findings provide managerial implications for SME managers, governments and policymakers.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11886, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066375

ABSTRACT

Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) has become essential for corporate sustainability. Among ESG activities, we focus on governance structure since firms can properly engage in activities related to environmental and social responsibility only when their corporate governance structures are well established. Outside directors play an important role in governance structure since they monitor the management and provide expertise to the board of directors. In this study, we pay particular attention to the compensation of outside directors, which reflects the effort, expertise, and independence of outside directors. Based on data from listed firms on the Korea Stock Exchange in South Korea between 2014 and 2020, we examine the association between outside directors’ compensation and ESG performance in certain firms with unique governance structures, namely, chaebols (or family firms). We find that the compensation of outside directors is positively associated with ESG performance, implying that outside directors’ compensation motivates effective monitoring and advisement of management and has an incremental effect on ESG performance. We suggest that the compensation of outside directors is one of the key factors that can significantly affect ESG performance. Therefore, investors and policymakers may evaluate whether a firm is doing well in terms of ESG activities by examining the compensation of outside directors.

4.
Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies ; 47(1-2):47-62, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2058403

ABSTRACT

This study aims to draw lessons about the subprime crisis and how it differentially affected different business sectors. Based on empirical data from Eurostat, it aims to assess the resilience of firms during the subprime crisis (years 2008-2014) and whether they belong to some industries and economic sectors. It is also intended to analyse whether, regardless of whether an industry is resilient on average or not, it holds resilient segments. Finally, we evaluate the changes in the structure of the economy during the crisis;as well as draw whether the inferences drawn about the subprime crisis are compatible with recent Covid 2020 data. © 2022, Council for Social and Economic Studies. All rights reserved.

5.
IDS Policy Briefing 2022. (201):6 pp. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056697

ABSTRACT

Small food businesses are vital to delivering affordable, nutritious food to low-income communities. Yet food systems are under threat from multiple stressors. During the Covid-19 pandemic, government support was directed at maintaining business activity, so understanding how this affected small food businesses offers insights for future policy design. Most policies aligned primarily with the short-term financial needs of larger businesses, leaving a gap for timely support for small enterprises. The recurrent nature of shocks means that such businesses also require longer-term agility to respond to shocks. Interventions to build this capacity can be integrated into nutrition programming.

6.
Global Journal of Social Sciences ; 19:49-51, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055814

ABSTRACT

This article seeks to answer: would Africa be able to survive if the virus spreads further and strict measure as seen in Europe are enforced? It is clear from the aforementioned factors in this study that Africa is not ready for an outbreak like COVID-19. The only thing African governments can afford to do right now is vehemently prevent the virus from entering or spreading because the continent already has too many problems to deal with (such as: unhealthy ethnic and religious diversity, terrorism, high levels of corruption, an increasing number of youths with wrong priorities, a poor health sector, political and economic invasion, etc). African governments, institutions, and businesses should take note of how their peers in Europe, America, and Asia managed to alleviate the COVID-2019 crisis with essentially creative means of operation while still achieving the same outcomes, if not better ones. African organisations and businesses should be prepared to significantly strengthen health security by enhancing the continent's overall health and making sure that the land borders are secure if they feel at ease maintaining the status quo without the need for change. Otherwise, African nations ought to consider introducing novel approaches to education, employment, and commerce gradually. They can never predict what infectious diseases or terrorist assaults might one day spread over the continent.

7.
Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento ; 138:111-126, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046500

ABSTRACT

Five dimensions allow to understand sustainable development from a multidisciplinary perspective: the geographic, the economic, the ecological, the social and the cultural ones. Different attitudes can be adopted by the gastronomic sector which contribute to a sustainability-focused management. In view of this, the aim of the present article is to discuss the perception of sustainability from the gastronomy industry perspective. For this, in addition to a literature review a quali-quantitative approach was taken through the compilation of a questionnaire which was electronically sent to establishments that form the Campos Gerais gastronomic network in Parana. The current pandemic scenario was taken into account in order to identify attitudes that allowed the establishments to remain operational in the face of the restrictions imposed by Covid-19. Twenty-two of twenty-five associated establishments responded to the survey, most of them showing to have adopted sustainable management actions and, especially regarding the pandemic scenario, adaptations that allowed them to remain in business.

8.
ODI Working Paper 2020. (579):29 pp. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046204

ABSTRACT

This paper contends that, given the constraints on national responses to the multiple challenges the pandemic poses in sub-Saharan Africa, multilateral organisations, governments from outside the region and private creditors can and must play a key part in helping African governments and the private sector cope. The paper primarily focuses on the provision of finance, but clearly support in other areas, including health, trade and business, matters too. The paper first examines the scale and nature of the crisis, then looks at some of the principles and constraints shaping the design of policy responses to shield health systems, individuals and economies from the immediate impacts (chapter 2). The paper then explores the role that international cooperation and finance can play in enabling more effective national responses (chapter 3), before concluding with a summary of key recommendations (chapter 4).

9.
Journal of Family Business Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042699

ABSTRACT

Purpose The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of consumers' brand trust in family businesses and the impact of crisis management practices on customer purchase intention during the period of Covid-19. Design/methodology/approach This is a primary quantitative research on a sample of 817 consumers who bought products from 20 food and beverage family companies. Simple random sampling was used to collect the primary data. Data collection was made with the use of questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed based on previous studies and were tested in terms of reliability and validity. Findings The research findings indicate, among others, that there is a positive significant relationship between brand trust and purchase intention. As a result, the higher the trust of the consumers in a family business brand name, the higher their intention to make purchases. Additionally, it was found that the higher the performance of family businesses on crisis management practices, the more the consumers intent to make purchases. Research limitations/implications Nonetheless, there are some limitations in the current research. First, the research sample consists of companies and consumers from a specific location, which can create issues regarding the generalization of the findings. Thus, to ensure improved research implications, a future research should include sample units from different locations and countries in order to reinforce the research findings and enable comparisons and more easily generalized outcomes. Moreover, a future research could assess additional factors that potentially affect purchase intention within a family business environment. Factors such as human resources and the relationship between customers and companies as well as communication and promotional efforts will allow the creation of a more stable and holistic framework and the prediction of consumer behavior. This potential follow-up research will further contribute to the theoretical argumentation of the findings and highlight the connection among purchase intention, trust and crisis managements practices within the family business environment. Practical implications Regarding the managerial and practical implications, the research outcomes can lead to specific strategies related to brand trust and crisis management practices. Specifically, family companies should invest on their brand name and their relationship with the consumers by reinforcing any action which can potentially affect the trust of the consumers. This could be realized by providing a safe purchase environment according to health and safety standards and through their response strategy and adaptability to the current pandemic conditions through the use of crisis management practices. Finally, a practical response to social and physical distancing measures would increase brand trust, and the performance on crisis management practices could also lead to sufficient financial outcomes since all these factors positively affect consumers' purchase intention. Originality/value The outbreak of the pandemic directly affected the profitability but also the viability of companies, regardless of industry. In particular, the impact that the pandemic had on family businesses, financially, organizationally and operationally, was massive and in many cases, catastrophic. Several studies have focused on family businesses, analyzing their structure, advantages and disadvantages. However, in these studies, there is little focus on the brand's influence on consumer behavior and market intention, especially compared to nonfamily businesses and under unique circumstances such as those of a pandemic.

10.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 62(1):39-46, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040759

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the records of the creation of new companies in the department of Magdalena (Colombia), mainly between 2019 and 2020. In the same way, an analysis of epidemiology control measures is developed at the national and departmental levels to better understand COVID-19 containment initiatives. For the development of this study, the data on business creation of the last five years (2016 - 2020) in Magdalena was taken as a reference;as well as measures for epidemiological control at the national level (prevent, mitigate, and suppress), along with those adopted specifically for Magdalena were analyzed. Among the main findings, it was found that, when comparing the years 2019 and 2020, there was a 2.6% decrease in the creation of new companies in Magdalena, a percentage that represents 202 production units less than in 2019;This downward trend in the creation of companies came from 2019, the year in which there was a 0.8% drop in the establishment of new companies compared to 2018 -62 fewer companies-;the overwhelming drop in 2020 is a reflection of the disastrous effect of the appearance of COVID-19 on business dynamics in Magdalena;On the other hand, the business associations management measures were a key important factor. Additionally, the financial support to boost the economy in Magdalena, as well as a prudent chronology - in terms of epidemiological controls in the Territory.

12.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2037331

ABSTRACT

Sleman Regency, known as the Student City, is greatly affected by the mobility restriction policy which results in a gradual emptying process of boarding houses, so there is an urgency for regional studies regarding the impact of the pandemic on the livelihoods of boarding house business actors in Sleman Regency. In addition, there is no latest policy from the regency government to overcome the said impact other than the policy of implementing health protocols. Hence, the study focuses on the living conditions and livelihood strategies of boarding house entrepreneurs who are heavily affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper aimed to look at two points of view, namely the bottom-up approach to see the affected objects related to changes in the livelihood strategies of boarding house entrepreneurs during the Covid-19 pandemic and the response of business actors in dealing with shock due to the pandemic;and the top-down approach to see the parties who have legal authority by conducting a critical study of the policies at the regency level related to boarding house business actors before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research found that there were changes in the assets and livelihood strategies of entrepreneurs which varied following the capacity of the boarding house entrepreneur. Whereas based on a top-down point of view;despite the change in social assistance policies in terms of the type of assistance, targets, and the amount of assistance provided before and during the Covid-19 pandemic;there is no social assistance that is directed specifically to boarding house business actors.

13.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved ; 33(3):1663-1670, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030816

ABSTRACT

From July 2020 to June 2021, the UC San Diego COVID-19 Small Business Outreach Project conducted COVID-19-related educational outreach to small businesses in high-risk communities of San Diego County and distributed over 1,200 toolkits containing COVID-19-related safety tips, best practices, and a summary of pertinent guidelines and COVID-19 vaccine information.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 921704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029985

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization officially declared SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, and governments and health institutions enacted various public health measures to decrease its transmission rate. The COVID-19 pandemic made occupational health disparities for small businesses more visible and created an unprecedented financial burden, particularly for those located in communities of color. In part, communities of color experienced disproportionate mortality and morbidity rates from COVID-19 due to their increased exposure. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the public to reflect on risks daily. Risk perception is a critical factor influencing how risk gets communicated and perceived by individuals, groups, and communities. This study explores competing risk perceptions regarding COVID-19, economic impacts, vaccination, and disinfectant exposures of workers at beauty salons and auto shops in Tucson, Arizona, using a perceived risk score measured on a scale of 1-10, with higher scores indicating more perceived risk. The primary differences between respondents at beauty salons and auto shops regarding their perceived risks of COVID-19 vaccination were between the vaccinated and unvaccinated. For every group except the unvaccinated, the perceived risk score of getting the COVID-19 vaccine was low, and the score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was high. Study participants in different demographic groups ranked economic risk the highest compared to the other five categories: getting the COVID-19 vaccine, not getting the COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19, disinfection, and general. A meaningful increase of four points in the perceived risk score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a 227% (95% CI: 27%, 740%) increase in the odds of being vaccinated. Analyzing these data collected during the coronavirus pandemic may provide insight into how to promote the health-protective behavior of high-risk workers and employers in the service sector during times of new novel threats (such as a future pandemic or crisis) and how they process competing risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Business
15.
International Journal of Environmental Sustainability and Social Science ; 3(1):205-211, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026743

ABSTRACT

Economic activity must grow and develop faster than the growth in the number of people looking for work. One closely related element to economic growth is MSMEs, namely micro, small and medium enterprises. Indonesia's wealth assets that can be used as objects of batik tourism are also used as Indonesian cultural identity to the world. It is the reason that attracts researchers to make Batik Blimbing Malang SMEs the research object. Currently, the main task of Batik Blimbing Malang that must be carried out as a batik industry that is sufficiently developed to maintain the viability of its business in the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic era, is one of them by designing appropriate promotional strategies to face market competition. Therefore, this study aims to explore the sales promotion strategy of SMEs by conducting a qualitative research approach. This study was conducted on Batik Blimbing Malang. The results showed that the strategy of Batik Blimbing Malang in maintaining its business continuity, among others, was to do several points, including: Advertising, Personal selling, Sales promotion, Public relations, Word of mouth, Customer relationship.

16.
Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis ; 14(2):187-210, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026707

ABSTRACT

The rapid growth of home-based work raises questions about its long-term impacts on neighbourhoods and cities. By removing the need to commute, home-based work has the potential to advance the New Urbanism aspirations of walkable neighbourhoods in an urban village format where people live, work and play. Nonetheless, the uneven distribution of this emerging work practice, strongly associated with the socio-economic status of neighbourhoods, is exacerbating the risk of increased urban inequalities. This paper presents pre- and post-COVID data for the City of Gold Coast, Australia, and it discusses the urban distribution of home-based work by analysing the home-based workers' locational preferences, their daily movement patterns, the preferred built environment outcomes, and the urban design features. The findings suggest that certain social and economic interactions tend to increase with the growth of remote work. These interactions, magnified by the COVID pandemic, offer opportunities to advance the New Urbanism aspirations of cohesive, walkable communities and neighbourhoods.

17.
Cuadernos Latinoamericanos de Administración ; 18(35), 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025941

ABSTRACT

Hoy en día, el impacto de la pandemia por el coronavirus COVID-19 en las pequeñas y medianas empresas es enorme, por tanto, el marketing digital surge como una estrategia para captar nuevos clientes y llegar a los consumidores utilizando medios digitales. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar los factores que influyen en la utilización del marketing digital por parte de las pequeñas y medianas empresas de la ciudad de Medellín. Se empleó la teoría fundamentada, un enfoque cualitativo y alcance exploratorio-descriptivo, aplicando nueve entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas de cargos relacionados con el área de mercadeo y marketing digital en las pequeñas y medianas empresas del sector de servicios y manufactura. Los hallazgos señalan que estas empresas han venido utilizando Internet como principal herramienta de comunicación, generando ventajas para el consumidor al momento de acceder a los productos y realizar compras. Se concluyó que los factores más influyentes en la utilización del marketing digital por parte de estas empresas son: factores de uso, motivación, estrategias y medios;y ventajas del uso de esas herramientas.

18.
Independent Journal of Management and Production ; 13(3):s310-s328, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025736

ABSTRACT

The article reveals the importance of state financial regulation as one of the most important tools for economic growth and ensuring the competitiveness of industries and the economy of Ukraine. The studies of domestic and foreign scientists on the subject of research are analyzed in detail. The state of enterprises of the agricultural sector of Ukraine for the period 2013- 2020 has been determined. The study was carried out on the factors of providing agricultural producers with financial resources in terms of the size of the forms of management. The share of unprofitable enterprises in the industry for the same period is also analyzed. The achievements of the agricultural sector are described according to the statistical analysis of the state of socio-economic development of the regions in the period 2020-2021. The methodology for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the state regional policy in accordance with legislative regulations is described. This made it possible to establish that at the present stage, the financial regulation of the agricultural sector of Ukraine is carried out without proper scientific justification and, as a rule, responds slowly to the requirements of economic practice, especially in the context of deepening the penetration of global processes into the national economy. Approaches to the assessment of the competitive environment of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and the direction of its state regulation are proposed. Theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of assessing the competitiveness of the sector are disclosed. The necessity and possibility of forming a competitive environment by fiscal policy measures, primarily budgetary regulation, is proved. The problems of forming a competitive environment in the context of the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the place of Ukraine in the world competitiveness ranking are identified, and methodological approaches to the development strategy are proposed. It is proved that the competitive strategy is based on the existing resources of the industry (material, financial and intellectual), the level of development of various forms of management, the structure of production, marketing, processing, the formation of value chains and a bilateral state-market regulator. The directions for improving the quality of the competitive environment, arising from the paradigm of innovative development of the agricultural sector, are summarized and provide for the stimulation of small business in niche and organic production and large-scale industrial production in terms of the main indicators of food security, as well as the development of land, financial, credit and resource markets and the formation of equal access to them all agricultural producers.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10442, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024167

ABSTRACT

By combining agency theory and the resource- and capabilities-based view, this paper aims to unveil the influence of family firm heterogeneity on environmental performance. Previous results are inconsistent about how the specific features of this type of business contribute to better environmental protection performance. We analyse a number of variables related to the management, ownership and corporate governance characteristics of the family business and their individual influence on environmental performance. We test our hypotheses using a database of 748 family firms in the Spanish tourism sector. This economic sector, which is mostly composed of family businesses, puts great pressure on the environment. As such, family firms must take an active role in the resolution of the environmental problems that afflict society. We find that the effects of a family-controlled ownership and management structure on environmental performance are negative. Family-founder firms with a high degree of family control also are shown to have a negative relationship with environmental performance. However, the existence of a formal management mechanism, such as a management committee, emerges as the most powerful structural factor in facilitating the achievement of environmental objectives. The conclusions drawn from this study allow us to outline future lines of research as well as recommendations for practitioners. Our study responds to the call made in the literature to delve deeper into the heterogeneity of the family business, and specifically to determine which of its characteristic features allow this type of business to achieve better environmental performance.

20.
MENA RP Working Paper 2021. (37):v + 36 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2022487

ABSTRACT

The Egyptian government has prioritized the idea of cluster-based development-that is, the geographic concentration of specialized firms, such as in this case, those producing similar or related products. The establishment of such clusters, however, presents significant challenges, bottlenecks, and obstacles. Based on primary field work, this paper focuses on two case studies of the impacts of shocks on business clusters. The first study involved the relocation of an established leather cluster from Cairo to a newly created industrial park, Robbiki Leather City, which was promoted by Egypt's Ministry of Trade and Industry. Although the relocation partly solved the existing issues of water contamination, new challenges emerged relating to increased production and transportation costs, and unforeseen impacts on the community. The second study assessed the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a business cluster producing medicinal and aromatic plants. Overall the MAPs sector was resilient to the outbreak and there are opportunities to offset any negative impacts of the pandemic by taking advantage of new markets for Egyptian MAPs stemming from supply disruptions in other countries;increased global demand for MAPs due to their pharmacological and health properties;and increased international demand for organically grown MAPs. Findings indicate that it is essential for governments to develop policy responses to the challenges - and especially barriers - to the development of business clusters, while simultaneously supporting and creating incentives for the cooperation, entrepreneurship, and collective action needed for business clusters to thrive and grow. As anticipated, challenges and obstacles - whether overarching or in response to shocks - are unique to specific sectors, contexts, and times, and hence need to be dealt with as an ongoing facilitation process.

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