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1.
Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift ; 91(4):167-181, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072228

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is the leading health concern in calves during the first weeks of their lives. In this narrative review, the potential for pathogen-oriented approaches for NCD is discussed. The literature on NCD clearly shows substantial differences in spread and characteristics between the major NCD pathogens, making pathogen-oriented approaches possible, justifying the use of etiological diagnostics. For enterotoxic Escherichia coli, colostrum delivery and dam vaccination, biosecurity around calving and antimicrobial therapy are key. Both for bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine rotavirus (BRV), biosecurity and disinfection, dam vaccination in combination with adequate and prolonged colostrum delivery are the essentials. However, a different focus concerning biosecurity is necessary given the airborne spread of BCV and higher environmental persistence of BRV. For an effective Cryptosporidium spp. control, the use of disinfectants that kill oocysts is crucial. Evidence supporting the prophylactic use of halofuginone lactate to reduce shedding and diarrhea, is available, but in terms of biosecurity, attention should be placed on the proper use of this product. In case of a Salmonella enterica outbreak, antimicrobial use remains important, and biosecurity wise, attention should be paid to shedding of periparturient cows in the calving pen and administration of infected colostrum. Both for S. enterica and cryptosporidiosis, farm staff should be informed on how to protect themselves against these zoonotic infections. Nutritional factors play an additional role within NCD. Improper nutrition management can induce diarrhea or can further enhance infectious NCD through osmosis or dysbiosis. In conclusion, the suggested pathogen-oriented approaches can aid to economize labor and financial investments, limit the environmental impact of NCD control and prevention and valorize tailor-made farm advisory work.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105802, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049668

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea is the most common disease affecting calves in the neonatal period resulting in economic losses. Although predisposing factors play a role in the etiology of the disease, in most cases, different pathogens are involved in the development of the infection. In this study, hemogram data, glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were examined to determine lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in E. coli- and coronavirus-infected calves. Serum amyloid A and calprotectin levels were also analyzed to determine inflammatory status. The study included a total of 45 female Montofon calves aged 0-1 week, including the E. coli group (15 calves), the coronavirus group (15 calves), and the control group (15 calves). Analysis revealed that total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, malondialdehyde, serum amyloid A, and calprotectin levels increased in the coronavirus-infected calves compared with the E. coli group and the control group. In contrast, the levels of glutathione, one of the antioxidant markers, decreased. In conclusion, the main findings related to the determination of inflammation and oxidative status were characterized by the presence of E. coli and coronavirus diarrhea, and it is suggested that future studies may be guided by the fact that inflammatory conditions are higher in viral disease than in bacterial infection.

3.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025202

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests (POCT) for the detection of rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia (E.) coli F5, Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum, Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens and Giardia (G.) intestinalis in fresh and thawed faecal samples from calves aged up to six months with diarrhoea. We performed POCTs to detect rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5, C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis on fresh samples in a field study and re-evaluated the performance for C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis using thawed samples. We calculated the performance based on the results of the reference methods, which were RT-qPCR for the detection of rota- and coronavirus and bacteriological culturing and PCR to detect E. coli F5 and Cl. perfringens a and ss2 toxins. C. parvum was detected by phase-contrast microscopy and G. intestinalis by immunofluorescence microscopy. We collected 177 faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves. We found good performance for the POCT targeting rotavirus (sensitivity (SE)=92.9%;specificity (SP)=95.6%) and C. parvum (SE=63.3%;SP=96.2%). For E. coli F5, the number of true positive samples (n=1) was too low to evaluate the performance. The POCT to detect coronavirus gave a poor performance (SE=3.3%;SP=96.6%) and the POCT to detect Cl. perfringens a moderate performance (SE=52.8%;SP=78.2%). G. intestinalis POCT showed a higher sensitivity to immunofluorescence microscopy in thawed than in fresh faecal samples (SE=43.9% versus SE=29.2%). There are substantial differences in diagnostic performance between the commercially available immunochromatographic POCTs. Still, POCT can make a valuable contribution to the diagnosis and prevention of calf diarrhoea.

4.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 9), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neonatal calf diarrhoea is a multifactorial disease that sometimes leads to high economic losses. It can be fatal due to dehydration and acidosis and has been one of the main causes of calf mortality. Material and methods: This retrospective study considered calves of a maximum of 35 days of age and with a diagnosed infection with rotavirus and/or bovine coronavirus. We examined the clinical records of 156 calves that were referred to the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna. Results Calves that had been treated with antibiotics before admission to the Clinic had a higher risk of staying longer, suggesting either that these calves had a more serious illness or that antibiotic treatment was not indicated and so therapeutic success was not achieved. Twenty-three calves died or were euthanized at the Clinic. At the time of admission, they were younger than the surviving calves and they had a lower inner body temperature and a lower base excess at the first examination. The four most common pathogens in faecal samples were rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli, which were detected in 67.1%, 53.9%, 48.1% and 94.1% of the faecal samples examined. The most common co-infection was rotavirus with Cryptosporidium parvum (17 faecal samples). We inspected the four most common pathogens in more detail. There were significant correlations between bovine coronavirus and season, with the risk of suffering from bovine coronavirus 1.6 times higher in winter than in other seasons. There was also a correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and general behaviour: the risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium parvum was 2.6 times higher in calves that were moderately to severely depressed at the first examination. There was a correlation between co-infections and mortality, with calves with a co-infection at three times higher risk of dying than calves with a mono-infection.

5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 323, 2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is the leading cause of calf morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. Cow's vaccination in last stage of pregnancy is one of the most important measures to mitigate the risk of NCD outbreaks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prepartum single dose vaccination against NCD, especially Bovine Rotavirus type A (BoRVA) and Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV), in Nelore dams and offspring. A total of 117 pregnant cows (n = 81) and heifers (n = 36) were distributed in two groups, vaccinated (VAC: cows = 40; heifers = 19) and non-vaccinated (NVAC: cows = 41; heifers = 17). Vaccination occurred between 60 to 50 days before the expected calving date with a single dose of a water-in-oil (W/O) vaccine, and NVAC group received a dose of saline solution 0.9%. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 30 days after to evaluate the antibody (Ab) response. Specific IgG1 Abs against BoRVA and BCoV were measured by using an Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Calves' births were monitored, and the transference of passive immunity was evaluated. Diarrhea was monitored in the first 30 days of age, and fecal samples were collected for identification of the etiological agent. RESULTS: Higher titers of IgG1 Ab against BoRVA and BCoV was observed in the VAC group than NVAC group in the cow (P < 0.0001) and total dams categories (P < 0.0001). The titer of specific IgG1 Abs in the calves' serum reflected the dams response, observing higher IgG1 Ab titers for BoRVA (P < 0.0016) and BCoV (P < 0.0095) in the offspring born to VAC cows and higher IgG1 Ab titers for BoRVA(P < 0.0171) and BCoV (P < 0.0200) in the offspring born to VAC total dams. The general incidence of diarrhea observed was 18.6% (11/59) and 29.3% (17/58) in the calves born to the VAC and NVAC group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prepartum vaccination with a single dose of the vaccine tested increased the titers of IgG1 Ab against BCoV and BoRVA, and it could be used as a preventive strategy to decrease the NCD occurrence in Nelore calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Female , Immunoglobulin G , Pregnancy , Vaccination/veterinary
6.
Veterinary Times ; 50(24):6-6, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1970949
7.
SwissHerdbook Bulletin ; 2:6-13, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1970111

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the strategies done by the dairy sector in Switzerland to maintain and even have surplus milk supply during the Covid-19 pandemic. Some of the strategies implemented during the pandemic are milk production tests, inspection of the origin of milk, registration of calves, and insemination using top performing dairy bulls.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963666

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium is a worldwide enteric protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal infection in animals, including humans. The most notable species is Cryptosporidium parvum because of its zoonotic importance; it is also the leading cause of cryptosporidiosis in preweaned calves. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection, investigate the potential risk factors, and use molecular diagnosis to identify the predominant Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves in Kuwait. Of 175 preweaned calves, Cryptosporidium antigens were detected in 58 (33.1%) using rapid lateral immunochromatography assay (IC). Calves less than one month of age (OR = 4.32, p = 0.0001) and poor hygiene (OR = 2.85, p = 0.0075) were identified as significant risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection. Molecular identification revealed that C. parvum (62.8%) was the dominant species infecting preweaned calves in Kuwait. In contrast, C. bovis and C. andersoni were recorded at 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. All C. parvum gp60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1. Calves could be a source of C. parvum infection due to the similarity of the subtypes recorded previously in Kuwaiti children and preweaned calves in this study. Therefore, more research is needed to understand the Cryptosporidium transmission cycle in Kuwait.

9.
Harran Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 11(1):120-127, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934962

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infections are widespread in newborn calf diarrhea, which is one of the critical problems in cattle breeding. This study aims to investigate BCoV infection in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. In this study, 94 calves with diarrhea (3 months) following clinical examination were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of BCoV antigen. A total of 5 stool samples were found to be BCoV positive (5.32%). This result showed that BCoV was low in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. However, considering the rapid spread of the infection in cattle populations, it is thought that it may cause significant economic losses due to treatment costs and calf deaths.

10.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1041(1):012030, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908704

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the sustainability of indigenous cattle production (Jabres Cattle) during the COVID 19 pandemic in Brebes Regency, Indonesia. The sustainability of Jabres cattle production is considered from the aspects of production, socio-economic, and environmental aspects. The study was conducted on 64 Jabres farmers in 5 sub-districts (Ketanggungan, Bantarkawung, Banjarharjo, Larangan, and Salem). Respondents were taken using a simple random sampling method and data was taken using online questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The indigenous cattle farmers in Brebes Regency have a long experience as beef cattle farmers (10.7 years on average) with an average ownership scale of 7 heads. During the pandemic, there was an increase of 54.7 percent of farmers who felt it was difficult to get cattle breeds compared to before the pandemic. The number of farmers who found it difficult to get forage also showed an increase of 36 percent compared to before the pandemic. Likewise, an increase in the number of farmers (75 percent) felt that it was increasingly difficult to sell beef cattle, which resulted in not making it easy for profits. However, the COVID 19 pandemic can encourage all farmers to pay more attention to the cleanliness of cowshed and the cage environment. Most of the indigenous cattle farmers (89 percent) remain committed to continuing their business despite difficulties in obtaining calves, feed, and selling cattle. Farmers still have confidence that the difficult situation will pass, and demand slaughter cattle will recover.

11.
Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 57(1):27-40, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905390

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the efficacy of a commercialized mixed herbal medicine in alleviating diarrhea in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. The study involved 15 diarrheic water buffalo calves regardless of sex and with less than a year old from one farm divided into three treatments using randomized block design. Treatment 1 was served as control given with antibiotics and intestinal protectants.;Treatment 2 was mixed herbal medicine and probiotics and lastly, Treatment 3 was mixed herbal medicine only. The calves were treated three times a day for seven days for Treatments 2 and 3 while Treatment 1 (control) were treated once a day for 7 days. The animals were ob served and scoring of diarrhea were done and recorded daily for the next 7 days. Results of the study showed significant decrease in diarrhea scores on Day 6 and 7 post-treatment in Treatments 1 and 2 compared to the control. At Day 8 post-treatment, all calves showed soft to apparently normal stool. Genetic analysis of the possible causative agent of diarrhea revealed infection caused by rotavirus A, bovine coronavirus, BVDV, and ETEC. Results revealed that diarrhea caused by these pathogens can be alleviated by the herbal medicine and herbal medicine in addition of probiotics parallel to antibiotic treatment.

12.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal ; 68(173):10-15, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876353

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out for rapid etiological diagnosis of neonatal calf diarrhea by using immunochromatographic test kits in the Esme district of Usak. The animal material of the study consisted of 100 1-28 days old neonatal calves of different breeds and genders in the Esme district of Usak. Stool samples were taken from calves with diarrhea as a result of clinical examination. When stool samples were examined by a rapid diagnostic test, none of the disease factors sought in the study were found in 10 (10%) of 100 calves, while one or more disease factors were detected in 90 (90%) of calves. Rotavirus was detected in 27 (27%) calves, Escherichia coli 14 (14%) calves, Coronavirus in 8 (8%) calves, Clostridium perfringens in 19 (19%) calves, Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 (17%) calves, Rotavirus + Coronavirus in 2 (2%) calves, Rotavirus + Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf, Rotavirus + Cryptosporidium spp. in 1 (1%) calf, and Escherichia coli - Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf. As a result, data on the presence and distribution of enterogenous pathogens that cause diarrhea in neonatal calves in the Esme district of Usak were presented, and it was concluded that it would shed light on future studies on diarrheal calves in the Esme.

13.
Bulletin of Agrarian Science ; 1:175-181, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865672

ABSTRACT

The problem of viral pneumoenteritis of young farm animals is relevant for agriculture of the Republic of Belarus. Today, the most effective method of preventing viral pneumoenteritis of calves is vaccination of pregnant cows. In case of mixed infections, the most effective means of preventing such diseases are polyvalent vaccines. But biological preparations should have not only high preventive effectiveness, but also not affect the quality of the final product. The author of the article studied the effect of a polyvalent inactivated culture vaccine against infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus and coronavirus infection of cattle left-pointing-double-angle BolsheVak right-pointing-double-angle on the state of metabolism of pregnant cows. For this purpose, 3 groups of pregnant cows of the Belarusian black-and-white Holstein breed were formed in the conditions of the Agricultural Republican subsidiary of the Ulishitsy Agro enterprise of the Gorodok district on the principle of pairs of analogues with10 animals in each group for 1.5-2 months before calving. The cows of the first experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-15 intramuscularly into the croup area in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics in the volume of 5.0 cm3. Cows of the second experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-25 - in the volume of 3.0 cm3. The cows of the control group were injected with isotonic sodium chloride solution according to a similar scheme. The animals were immunized twice with an interval of 21 days. The sampling was carried out before the start of the studies, on the 14th, 21st days after the first vaccination and on the 45th day after the revaccination. The clinical condition of the animals was monitored for 70 days. As a result of the research, it was found that the studied vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis does not have a negative effect on the general condition of the animal, does not cause allergic reactions, abortions, does not inhibit the synthesis of the studied biochemical parameters of the serum.

14.
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; : 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798681

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to find out the etiology and predisposing factors of calves having diarrhea from Kayseri province and its neighboring cities between January 2016 and September 2019. A total of 270 neonatal diarrheic calves were included to this study. Comprehensive information was obtained by face-to-face interviews with the animal owners about administrative practices such as the vaccination status of the dams, farm type, colostrum intake status. The etiological agents were determined using the lateral flow immunochromatographic test kits. As a result of this investigation, out of 270 diarrheic cases;21.9% (59) Cryptosporidium spp., 15.6% (42) E. coli K99+, 14.1% (38) bovine coronavirus (BCoV), 10.4% (28) bovine rotavirus (BRV), 9.3% (25) Cryptosporidium spp.+BRV, 8.5% (23) BRV+BCoV were found. Interms of shelter type;85.2% (230) were traditional and 14.8% (40) were modern type. Regarding the colostrum intake situation;7.4% (20) received no colostrum, 11.1% (30) received insufficient colostrum and 81.5% (220) received colostrum adequately and on time. Additionally, 36.7% (99) calf mothers were vaccinated and 63.3% (171) were unvaccinated. Compared to those born in autumn, calves born in winter;6.5-fold, in the spring season;3.6-fold and in summer;5.2-fold more likely to develop diarrhea caused by E. coli K99+. These findings may generate valuable information not only for the clinicians and researchers but also animal health experts, policy makers, farmer etc.

15.
Online Journal of Veterinary Research ; 26(2):106-112, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766796

ABSTRACT

A 1:1 matched case-control study of calves under 1 month of age was carried out by weekly visits to 7 dairy farms in Mashhad, Iran. Fecal samples were collected from 112 calves with diarrhea and 112 controls matched assessed by scoring. Rotavirus and Coronavirus were isolated by antigen capture ELISA test. We found Rotavirus antigen in 29.5% in diarrheic and 17% in normal calves. We detected Coronavirus antigen in 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively. In diarrheic calves Rotavirus was most prevalent at 3rd week age whereas Coronavirus was found in very few cases by 2nd week. Excretion of Rotavirus in feces of scouring calves was greater (P < 0.03) than controls with odds ratio of 1.9 (1.05 - 3.76). We found no relationship between shedding Coronavirus in feces and diarrhea (P value =0.66) with odds ratio equals to 1.4 (0.24 -9.05). We find that Rotavirus is associated with newborn calf diarrhea in industrial dairy farms in Iran.

16.
Sensors & Transducers ; 253(6):9-17, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1668506

ABSTRACT

The paper investigates the properties of gas sensors based on biohydroxyapatite for diagnostic the state of the upper respiratory tract of calves and humans. The process of synthesis of biohydroxyapatite of different mass is described. The peculiarities of sorption of volatile compounds on this sorbent depending on mass are considered for two modes of measurement (injection and frontal). The effectiveness and selectiveness of organic vapor microweighting using biohydroxyapatite phases of different mass are estimated. Possibilities of volatile organic compounds vapors identification in a mixture without separation are considered. For this task, the new parameters are calculated by the signals of one or two piezoelectric sensors with biohydroxyapatite of different masses. Results of analysis and identification of substances in the gas phase over nasal secretions of calves and humans with various respiratory diseases are presented. The intervals of the values of the calculated parameters are determined for reliable selection of samples into the "inflammation" group. The first and second order errors have been estimated in binary classification into groups "healthy" and "inflammation". The minimum number of false-positive responses in the classification of samples is achieved using the parameters of two sensors with a biohydroxyapatite of different masses.

17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 237: 110254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239778

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to elucidate whether the route of booster vaccination affects the immune response against respiratory vaccine viruses in pre-weaning beef calves that receive primary intranasal (IN) vaccination during the first month of life. The objective was to compare the serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers to BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V, cytokine mRNA expression and mucosal BHV1- and BRSV-specific IgA in nasal secretions following administration of IN or subcutaneous (SC) modified-live virus (MLV) booster vaccines 60 days after primary IN vaccination in young beef calves. Twenty-one beef calves were administered 2 mL of an IN MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V (Inforce3®) between one and five weeks of age. Sixty days after primary vaccination, calves were randomly assigned to one of two groups: IN-MLV (n = 11): Calves received 2 mL of the same IN MLV vaccine used for primary vaccination and 2 mL of a SC MLV vaccine containing BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi- Shield GOLD® BVD). SC-MLV (n = 10): Calves were administered 2 mL of a MLV vaccine containing, BHV1, BRSV, BPI3V, and BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi-Shield GOLD® 5). Blood and nasal secretion samples were collected on days -61 (primary vaccination), -28, -14, 0 (booster vaccination), 14, 21, 28, 42 and 60 for determination of SNA titers, cytokine gene expression analysis and nasal virus-specific IgA concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures analysis through PROC GLIMMIX of SAS®. Booster vaccination by neither IN nor SC routes induced a significant increase in SNA titers against BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA titers (on day 42) and IgA concentration in nasal secretions (on days 21 and 42) compared to calves receiving IN booster vaccination. Both IN and SC booster vaccination were able to stimulate the production of BHV1-specific IgA in nasal secretions. In summary, booster vaccination of young beef calves using either SC or IN route two months after IN MLV primary vaccination resulted in comparable SNA titers, cytokine gene expression profile and virus-specific IgA concentration in nasal secretions. Only a few differences in the systemic and mucosal immune response against BHV1 and BRSV were observed. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA and secretory IgA titers compared to IN booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/immunology , Administration, Intranasal/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 17-28, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-828403

ABSTRACT

The early use of antimicrobial therapy has been introduced in many farms to prevent diarrhea and respiratory disease in young calves; however, there is controversy about whether this practice has a beneficial effect on the health of these animals. This study evaluated the influence of the early use of antimicrobials on the health and performance of neonatal Holstein calves. Twenty-six Holstein calves were screened and divided into two groups, according to the administration (ATB+), or not (ATB-) of tulathromycin (2.5mg/kg, subcutaneously) within the first 12 hours of life. Calves were evaluated by general clinical examination, fecal score, respiratory score, and external palpation of the umbilical region, besides fecal output of dry matter. Anemia was determined by using an automatic system and, also, using a commercial kit for iron dosage. Diarrhea was diagnosed by a centrifuge-flotation technique using a sugar solution (Cryptosporidium) and multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavirus/coronavirus). The performance of the calves was estimated by Daily Weight Gain (DWG). The young dairy calves were evaluated within 12 hours of birth (≤12h) and at 3-5th (D3-5), 7-9th (D7-9), 13-15th (D13-15), 20-23rd (D20-23), and 27-30th (D27-30) days of life. No difference was noted between the ATB+ and ATB- groups concerning heart rate, respiratory frequency, and rectal temperature. Erythrogram showed a higher frequency of anemia in ATB- group (P=0.016) at the D3-5 check-up; lower values of serum iron were also observed simultaneously (P=0.051). Thirteen cases of respiratory disease were detected during this study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups in this regard. The frequency of diarrhea (fecal score 2-3) was high in both groups, peaking at D13-D15. No differences were noted between the groups regarding the frequency of diarrhea when considering the dry fecal matter. The predominant etiological agent for diarrhea was Cryptosporidium spp.. The DWG was similar between groups, with maximum weight reduction on D13-15. The administration of tulathromycin in prophylactic dose (2.5mg/kg) at birth decreased the frequency of anemia but did not influence weight gain or the prevalence of diarrhea.(AU)


O uso precoce de antimicrobianos tem sido adotado em muitas fazendas para profilaxia das diarreias e doença respiratória em bezerras, no entanto existem controvérsias sobre os beneficios desta prática na saúde desses animais. Esta pesquisa avaliou a influência do uso precoce de antimicrobiano na sanidade e desempenho de bezerras holandesas recém-nascidas. Para tanto foram selecionadas 26 bezerras Holandesas distribuídas de acordo com a aplicação (ATB+) ou não (ATB-) de tulatromicina (2,5mg/Kg) por via subcutânea até 12h de vida. As bezerras foram examinadas por meio de exame clínico geral, escore fecal, escore respiratório e palpação externa da região umbilical, além da matéria seca fecal. A presença de anemias foi determinada pelo eritrograma utilizando sistema automático e além da dosagem de ferro utilizando kit comercial. O diagnóstico etiológico das diarreias foi investigado por meio da técnica de flutuação em solução saturada de sacarose (Cryptosporidium) e multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavírus/coronavírus). O desempenho das bezerras foi estimado pelo ganho de peso. As bezerras foram avaliadas até doze horas após o nascimento (≤12h); 3-5º (D3-5); 7-9º (D7-9); 13-15º (D13-15); 20-23º (D20-23); e 27-30º dias de vida (D27-30). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos ATB+ e ATB- em relação à frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e temperatura retal. O eritrograma revelou maior frequência de anemias no grupo ATB- (P=0,016) no D3-5. Neste momento também foram observados menores valores de ferro sérico (P=0,051). Foram detectados treze casos de doença respiratória durante o estudo, no entanto não foi possível detectar diferença entre os grupos. A frequência de diarreias (escore fecal 2 e 3) foi alta em ambos os grupos, observando-se pico no D13-15 (ATB+=92,3%; ATB-=92,3%). Não observamos diferenças entre os grupos em relação a frequência de diarreia considerando-se a matéria seca fecal. O agente etiológico predominante nas diarreias foi o Cryptosporidium. O ganho de peso diário foi igual entre grupos, com intensa redução no GPD no D13-15. A administração de tulatromicina na dose profilática (2,5mg/Kg) ao nascimento diminuiu a frequência de anemias e não influenciou no ganho de peso e prevalência de diarreias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Dysentery/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Anemia/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis
19.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740509

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/therapy , Diarrhea , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolism , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Dairying , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control
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