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1.
Curr Fungal Infect Rep ; : 1-9, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075670

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the available Indian data on epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT). The epidemiology is further compared with studies from other parts of the world for each SOT type. Recent Findings: The available studies on Indian epidemiology of IFI in SOT are scarce, though the number of SOTs performed in India have increased tremendously in recent years. The limited data from India present a distinct spectrum of infection in transplant recipients with high incidence of mucormycosis. During COVID-19 outbreak, IFI rate increased and renal transplant recipients acquired mucormycosis earlier than previous studies. Summary: Maximum data on IFI was available from renal transplant recipients, wherein mucormycosis was the predominant IFI in Indian patients in contrast to invasive candidiasis in majority countries. The other IFIs had varied spectrum. With the increasing number of SOTs being performed and the already persisting high burden of IFI in India, there is an urgent need of larger prospective studies on epidemiology of IFI in transplant recipients.

2.
Journal of the Scientific Society ; 49(2):106-113, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072002

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) has led to considerable hike in hospitalizations for pneumonia with multiorgan disease requiring immediate hospital care, maintenance of oxygen saturation level, and severe cases requiring mechanical ventilation. This opens the window of opportunity to microscopic organisms such as different species of fungus including Candida, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, and Cryptococcus adding other fungi causing opportunistic invasive fungal infections (OIFIs), and other bacteria to cause concurrent infections in COVID-19-diseased patients which on occasion not promptly diagnosed and are mostly diagnosed after death, which get chance due to invasive procedures such as intubation and immunosuppressant drugs which mostly consists of corticosteroids, patient with diabetes mellitus or any other chronic disease causing immunosuppression, patient having a history of chronic obstructive airway disease, development of antibiotic resistance, and vulnerability of pulmonary tissues regarding developing colony for mycotic infections. In this review, we talk over the character of mycotic concurrent infections in aggravation of COVID-19 disease severity and focus on arising trends associated with fungal infections in coronavirus-diseased (COVID-19 diseased) cases. In addition, this review impart the view on the risky component for concurrent mycotic infections in COVID-19 diseased patients who are hospitalized and focuses the possible task of extended immunemodulatory treatments in managing concurrent mycotic infections, comprising COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, COVID-19-associated Candidiasis, and mucormycosis. This article restates the demand for prompt detection regarding presumed COVID-19-related systematic mycosis in the health-care settings which could empower fast OIFI diagnosis, treatment, and lowers the mortality rate.

3.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has a serious threat to human health. Oral candidiasis (OC) may be one of the causes of morbidity in severe COVID-19 patients. However, there is currently no treatment for oral candidiasis and COVID-19 (OC/COVID-19). The purpose of this study was to use text mining and data analysis to investigate the target genes for treatment and explore potential therapeutic drugs for OC/COVID-19. METHODS: We used the text mining tool pubmed2ensembl to detect genes associated with OC, and the dataset GSE164805 was used for the data analysis. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed on the two intersection genes using the Database of Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) platform. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by STRING software, and gene module analysis was performed using Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE), a plug-in in Cytoscape. The most significant genes were selected as hub genes and their functions and pathways were analyzed using Metascape. We revealed the upstream pathway activity of the hub genes. The drug-gene interaction database (DGIdb) and the traditional Chinese medicines integrated database (TCMID) were used to discover potential drugs for the treatment of OC/COVID-19. RESULTS: The analysis indicated that there were 2869 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GSE164805. We identified 161 unique genes associated with oral candidiasis through text mining. A total of 20 intersection genes were identified as the therapeutic targets for OC/COVID-19. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, nine genes (TNF, IL1B, IFNG, CSF2, ELANE, CCL2, MMP9, CXCR4, and IL1A) were identified as hub genes that were mainly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. We identified four of the nine genes that target five existing drugs, including BKT140, mavorixafor, sivelestat, canakinumab, and rilonacept. Furthermore, twenty herb ingredients were also screened as potential drugs. CONCLUSION: In this study, TNF, IL1B, IFNG, CSF2, ELANE, CCL2, MMP9, CXCR4, and IL1A were potentially key genes involved in the treatment of OC/COVID-19. Taken together five drugs and twenty herb ingredients were identified as potential therapeutic agents for OC/COVID-19 treatment and management.

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A1776, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060859

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The most reported fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 include aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, and mucormycosis. We hereby present a case of a male who developed acute pulmonary histoplasmosis (APH) after COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: 51-year-old male with PMHx of COVID-19 infection 3 weeks ago presenting with worsening shortness of breath. Patient had a complicated hospital course with COVID-19 treated with high doses of methylprednisolone. Patient was local to Arizona and lived on a ranch with livestock. CT chest suggestive of multilobar pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusions (Image 1). Coccidiomycosis serology came back negative. Urinary Histoplasma galactomannan antigen came back positive. The diagnosis of APH after COVID-19 infection was established. Patient was started on voriconazole. His symptoms significantly improved. Patient was discharged to skilled nursing facility with outpatient infectious disease follow-up. DISCUSSION: The current literature on APH in the setting of COVID-19 infection is limited. The few proposed mechanisms are: 1. Liberal use of high dose steroids in COVID-19 leading to reactivation of latent H. Capsulatum. 2. Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 causes interstitial lung damage permitting conidia to proliferate leading to acute infection. The Histoplasma urine antigen test is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of APH, especially in immunocompromised patients like our patient. With this case we would like to increase awareness of the possibility of rare fungal infections like APH in patients with COVID-19, as timely diagnosis and appropriate management can lead to improved outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Rare fungal infections following COVID-19 have been documented and timely diagnosis and management are imperative to improve patient outcomes. Reference #1: Macedo, Priscila M, et al. APH following COVID-19. Case Report J.Fungi 2021 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ali Raja no disclosure on file for Yamin Saddouk;No relevant relationships by Parita Soni No relevant relationships by Lyndie Wilkins Parker

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A549, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060626

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19: Other Considerations in Management SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 02:45 pm - 03:45 pm PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of fungal co-infections clinical characteristics, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of electronic medical records of 2,639 adult patients admitted for COVID -19 to our health system from April 1, 2020 to December 31, 2021. Demographic data, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, laboratory results including fungal diagnostics, COVID therapeutics and antifungals, need for ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality were collected. RESULTS: A total of 45 of 2,639 (1.7%) COVID-19+ patients had a positive fungal test or culture of fungal pathogen and subsequently received antifungal treatment. Of these 25 (55.6%) cases of Aspergillus species were the most prominent, followed by Candida species at 12 (26.7%). Of note, there was one case each of Cryptococcus and Histoplasma (2.2%). COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection who survived (18;40%) were significantly younger compared to COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection who died (27;60%, p=0.014). Majority of COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection were white with average length of hospitalization of 24 days. Those patients who survived had a significantly longer length of hospitalization compared to COVID-19+ patients who died (survived 31 ± 21.5 compared to 19.6 ± 10.4 days, p<0.05). Majority of COVID-19+ patients received steroids, and remdesivir therapy for COVID-19. Antifungal treatment consisted of either voriconazole or micafungin as predominate fungal pathogens were either Aspergillus or Candida spp. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary aspergillosis followed by invasive candidiasis were the most common fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients treated at our institution. In-hospital mortality from all fungal co-infections was 60%. Patients that survived were younger and hospitalized longer compared to those who expired. Need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and COVID therapeutics were not significantly different between the survived and expired group of COVID-19 patients with fungal co-infections. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The increased risk and incidence of COVID-19 and fungal co-infection has been noted in a handful of studies with invasive aspergillosis being the most commonly reported fungal co-infection. There have been very few reports of other fungal co-infections including invasive candidiasis, mucormycosis, histoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis. Minimal incidence data has been reported on co-infection with other opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Histoplasma spp., Pneumocystis jirovecci, or Cryptococcus neoformans. This study supports previous findings of increase risk of Aspergillosis, but also show incidence of Histoplasmosis and Crytpococcal fungal infections. These fungal infections may be under reported in COVID-19 and may warrant further research. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Christopher Destache No relevant relationships by Rutendo Jokomo-Nyakabau No relevant relationships by Dorothy Kenny No relevant relationships by Paul Millner No relevant relationships by Anny Nguyen No relevant relationships by Mohammad Selim No relevant relationships by Richard Swaney No relevant relationships by Manasa Velagapudi

6.
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 11(1):105-110, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034522

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a respiratory corona virus, zoonotic disease and a global pandemic burden demonstrates a myriad of clinical and oral manifestations that have been documented in yester years. The clinical manifestations include sore throat, fever, dyspnea and anosmia (partial or complete loss of smell). The oral manifestations include xerostomia, candidiasis, and hyperpigmentation of melanin, oral ulcerations and ageusia (loss of taste sensation). These findings were further worsened in patients with co-morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, immunosuppression, pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulative states. The possibility of fungal infections with invasive mycosis has also been documented. However, the occurrence of this deadly virus in pre-diabetic case is a rarity that needs to be explored so as to affirm the hypothesis that hyperglycemia was due to viral induced phenomena or thereof. We report here, one such rare case of mucormycotic osteomyelitis of maxilla manifested after few months in SARS-CoV-2 positive patient with no previous history of diabetes but marked increase in blood sugar level, when infected with corona virus, which can be tagged as a case of non-diabetic hyperglycemia/pre-diabetes/impaired glucose regulation (raised blood glucose level but not in the diabetic range).

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023901

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a state in which a patient experiences intraoral burning or a dysesthetic sensation without clinically evident causative lesions in the oropharyngeal area. The disorder is linked to a variety of conditions, including dry mouth, Candida, and bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of oral Candida and/or bacterial infections among patients with BMS and whether they have an effect on pain/burning and salivary flow levels. Objectives: (1) Gather patient data regarding the presence of oral infections, dry mouth, and pain levels in the morning, afternoon, and evening periods; (2) data analysis and assessment to determine medians, means, frequencies, correlations, and statistically significant differences between patient groups. Materials and Methods: Overall, 173 patients (23 males and 150 females) with BMS and 13 controls (five males and eight females) took part in the study. We measured pain/burning levels, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, the percentage of patients infected with Candida species and/or bacterial species, and the said species growth in Petri dishes. Results: Candida albicans was the most commonly found infection among patients with BMS (n = 28, 16.2%). Overall, 21.4% patients with BMS were diagnosed with either C. albicans or another Candida species. Enterobacter had the richest growth among patients with BMS (7.5% out of the infected 10.4% BMS patients). No statistical significance could be noted between the existence of either Candida species or bacterial species infections and changes in pain/burning and salivary flow levels. Negative correlations were noted between age and unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, and positive correlations were noted between age and Candida andspecific bacteria species' growth levels. Conclusions: Although patients with present bacterial or Candida infections showed a marginal increase in pain/burning levels, no direct statistically significant associations could be made between the presence of Candida species or other bacteria and the symptoms among patients with BMS.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Burning Mouth Syndrome , Candidiasis , Xerostomia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Burning Mouth Syndrome/complications , Burning Mouth Syndrome/epidemiology , Burning Mouth Syndrome/microbiology , Candidiasis/complications , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pain
8.
Curr Fungal Infect Rep ; 16(3): 87-97, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014536

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Invasive fungal infections are a complication of COVID-19 disease. This article reviews literature characterizing invasive fungal infections associated with COVID-19. Recent Findings: Multiple invasive fungal infections including aspergillosis, candidiasis, pneumocystosis, other non-Aspergillus molds, and endemic fungi have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Risk factors for COVID-19-associated fungal disease include underlying lung disease, diabetes, steroid or immunomodulator use, leukopenia, and malignancy. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) are the most common fungal infections described. However, there is variability in the reported incidences related to use of differing diagnostic algorithms. Summary: Fungal pathogens are important cause of infection in patients with COVID-19, and the diagnostic strategies continue to evolve. Mortality in these patients is increased, and providers should operate with a high index of suspicion. Further studies will be required to elucidate the associations and pathogenesis of these diseases and best management and prevention strategies.

9.
Zhongguo Bingyuan Shengwuxue Zazhi / Journal of Pathogen Biology ; 15(6):698-702, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994550

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine the clinical characteristics, drug resistance, and factors influencing development of a pulmonary fungal infection in patients with severe respiratory diseases in order to provide a reference for clinical treatment.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated fungal infections cause severe illness, but comprehensive data on disease burden are lacking. We analyzed US National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data to characterize disease burden, temporal trends, and demographic characteristics of persons dying from fungal infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using NVSS's January 2018-December 2021 Multiple Cause of Death Database, we examined numbers and age-adjusted rates (per 100,000 population) of fungal deaths by fungal pathogen, COVID-19 association, demographic characteristics, and year. RESULTS: Numbers and age-adjusted rates of fungal deaths increased from 2019 (n = 4,833, rate 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.3) to 2021 (n = 7,199, rate: 1.8, 95% CI = 1.8-1.8); of 13,121 fungal deaths during 2020-2021, 2,868 (21.9%) were COVID-19-associated. Compared with non-COVID-19-associated fungal deaths (n = 10,253), COVID-19-associated fungal deaths more frequently involved Candida (n = 776 [27.1%] versus n = 2,432 [23.7%]) and Aspergillus (n = 668 [23.3%] versus n = 1,486 [14.5%]) and less frequently involved other specific fungal pathogens. Fungal death rates were generally highest in non-White and non-Asian populations. Death rates from Aspergillus infections were approximately two times higher in the Pacific US census division compared with most other divisions. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal deaths increased during 2020-2021 compared with previous years, primarily driven by COVID-19-associated fungal deaths, particularly those involving Aspergillus and Candida. Our findings may inform efforts to prevent, identify, and treat severe fungal infections in COVID-19 patients, especially in certain racial/ethnic groups and geographic areas.

11.
Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Acute Care ; 2022(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARSCoV- 2, has spread locally in Wuhan, China, and later on, a worldwide outbreak occurred. Invasive fungal infections can cause complications in critically ill immunocompromised patients of COVID-19, especially those admitted to intensive care units and who required mechanical ventilation. Candida albicans have been the most common pathogenic species, followed by other Candida spp. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell wall and can be detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood and other fluids. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is considered a lifethreatening infection, especially among immunocompromised patients. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has emerged as an important complication among patients in the intensive care units. Galactomannan (GM) is a major cell-wall component of Aspergillus spp. and can be found in body fluids. Blood GM can be detected by the enzyme immunoassay. The aim of the current study is to assess the frequency of aspergillosis and candidiasis among COVID-19 patients in some hospitals in Baghdad by using GM and mannan biomarkers. Methods: During the period from February 2020 to May 2021, 175 COVID-19 blood samples of patients were collected and a sandwich ELISA test was performed to detect GM Ag of Aspergillus spp. and mannan Ag of Candida spp. Results: Regarding C-reactive protein (CRP), significant differences were seen among Aspergillus/- COVID-19 patients ( p 0.029). Regarding sex and age group, the results indicated that of a total of 175 adult patients with positive COVID-19, more than half of the patients were males. Regarding the distribution of mannan Ag and GM Ag in COVID-19 patients, it was seen that out of the 175 patients, 167 (95.43%) Candida mannan Ag were negative and only 8 (4.57%) were positive, and 170 (79.14%) Aspergillus GM Ag were negative and only 5 (2.86%) were positive. It was also seen that 2 patients (1.14%) who had both Candida mannan and Aspergillus GM were positive and 173 (98.6%) were negative. No statistically significant difference was seen in candidiasis and aspergillosis among patients with COVID-19 regarding age group, sex, underlying chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), and biochemical tests. Conclusion: COVID-19 infections increased with age and were seen more in males than in females. The percentage of infection with C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. among COVID-19 patients was not significant, and this may come from the random collection of samples from patients with different stages of illness. A significant correlation was found between Aspergillus GM Ag in COVID-19 patients and the CRP test.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963999

ABSTRACT

Oral candidiasis has a high rate of development, especially in immunocompromised patients. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic therapies in hospitalized HIV and cancer patients are known to induce the poor management of adverse reactions, where local and systemic candidiasis become highly resistant to conventional antifungal therapy. The development of oral candidiasis is triggered by several mechanisms that determine oral epithelium imbalances, resulting in poor local defense and a delayed immune system response. As a result, pathogenic fungi colonies disseminate and form resistant biofilms, promoting serious challenges in initiating a proper therapeutic protocol. Hence, this study of the literature aimed to discuss possibilities and new trends through antifungal therapy for buccal drug administration. A large number of studies explored the antifungal activity of new agents or synergic components that may enhance the effect of classic drugs. It was of significant interest to find connections between smart biomaterials and their activity, to find molecular responses and mechanisms that can conquer the multidrug resistance of fungi strains, and to transpose them into a molecular map. Overall, attention is focused on the nanocolloids domain, nanoparticles, nanocomposite synthesis, and the design of polymeric platforms to satisfy sustained antifungal activity and high biocompatibility with the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Oral , Candidiasis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fungi , Humans
13.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences ; 10(44):3810-3814, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964684

ABSTRACT

The objective of this case report is to highlight the impending secondary fungal infection outbreak in COVID-19 and the need to contain this emerging spread of fungal infections. Three case reports are presented, all from India. Altered immunity is an important risk factor for mucormycosis. In addition, diabetes has been noted to be critical for the development of mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients. Candidiasis is an infection caused by the Candida species due to the immunosuppressed state developed by the use of glucocorticoids, which results in secondary fungal infection requiring urgent medical attention.

14.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:347-348, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956768

ABSTRACT

Background: New Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions having worked into 2017 has defined candida-associated periodontal lesions as “Non-plaque-induced gingival diseases” associated with specific infection (list point 2.3). Patients with diagnosis Periodontal candidosis have been observed at the Division of Periodontology SPBGMU and City Periodontal Center “PAKS” more than for 25 years with an average quantity of 3-5 new cases a year. There had been formed a typical pattern for setting diagnosis and treatment. As a risk group was recognized, patients who predominantly had such general conditions as diabetes, immunosuppressive therapy, and heavy smokers. Since 2020 the pattern has been completely changed due to changing general conditions of the patients who consisted of the group and increasing quantity of periodontal candidosis about threefold. The core of the group has consisted of predominantly patients who recently had COVID-19 and/or underwent immunosuppressive therapy. Description of the procedure: Diagnostic procedure: Level 1. Anamnesis, clinical record, standard periodontal charting, estimation of periodontal and hygienical indices, absence or present mucosa lesions. CBCT Level 2. Clinical fluorescence diagnostic-wave length 400 ± 10 nm estimation gingival and mucosa condition. The cultural test for Candida detecting. Level 3. Cytology Treatment: in addition to SRP procedure there prescribed local and systemic antifungal therapy. 1. Photodynamic therapy (toluidine blue photosensitizer) 2. Local antifungal therapy - rinsing by Clotrimazole solution 3. Systemic antifungal therapy - Fluconazole 150 mg once in day 4. Modification of host response - Imudon 6 six in day 5. Toothpaste with the alkalic antifungal agent -sodium bicarbonate. Outcomes: Outcome control: Clinical investigation, the cultural test for Candida. Case: Female age 47 had a severe COVID-19 case, 3 months later she had rising level of activity periodontitis without response on usual periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Candida-associated periodontitis is difficult for diagnostic and treatment disease which use to occur quietly rare but nowadays have vastly increased.

15.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938728

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the causative species, antifungal susceptibility, and factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) among Egyptian COVID-19 patients. This is an observational, case-controlled, single-center study that included three groups: COVID-19 patients (30), COVID-19 patients with OPC (39), and healthy individuals (31). Patients' demographic data (age, sex), laboratory tests, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes were included. Candida species were isolated from COVID-OPC patient's oropharyngeal swabs by convenient microbiological methods. Isolated strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, aspartyl protease, and phospholipase activities. The most common respiratory symptoms reported were dyspnea (36/39; 92.4%) and cough (33/39; 84.7%). Candida albicans was the most common isolated species, accounting for 74.36% (29/39), followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata (15.38% and 10.26%, respectively). Amphotericin was effective against all isolates, while fluconazole was effective against 61.5%. A total of 53.8% of the isolates were biofilm producers. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was detected among 58.6% (17/29) of the isolates. Significant variables from this study were used to create two equations from a regression model that can predict the severity of disease course and liability to fungal infection, with a stativity of 87% and 91%, respectively. According to our findings, COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe infection under prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids should be considered a high-risk group for developing OPC, and prophylactic measures are recommended to be included in the treatment protocols. In addition, due to the increased rate of fluconazole resistance, other new antifungals should be considered.

17.
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research ; 5(3):178-184, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935003

ABSTRACT

SARS Cov-2 virus has spread rapidly all over the world, and since March 2020, it has been declared a worldwide pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The general symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, cough, myalgia, dyspnea, headache, sore throat and pneumonia. The most common oral symptom in COVID-19 is taste disorders, which is seen in 45% of patents. In addition, various oral mucosal lesions such as herpetiform and aphthous-like lesions, candidiasis and Kawasak-like lesions can be observed in patents. The purpose of this revew study is to examine the mouth findings seen in COVID-19 disease.

18.
Pediatric Hematology Oncology Journal ; 7(3):96-102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1926834

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Indian subcontinent witnessed first wave of COVID-19 around March 2020 and second wave in April 2021. The mutant delta variant was ≈2.5 times more transmissible and led to the severe second wave. We compared the impact of two waves on pediatric hematology and oncology patients at our tertiary care centre that was at heart of managing COVID-19. Methods: Children between 0 and 18 years, who were treated for a haematological illness, malignancy or stem cell transplant with confirmed COVID-19 infection or who developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were included. Results: A total of 48 (22-first, 26-second wave) children were evaluated. Despite better understanding of disease and standardised management algorithms, we found a trend towards younger age, increased requirements of oxygen, severe pneumonia and other post-covid complications in admitted patients during the second wave. We observed early RTPCR negativity in second wave. Invasive aspergillosis, disseminated candidiasis, reactivation of tuberculosis, HLH and MISC were the main complications. No child died of COVID-19. Conclusion: The second wave hit pediatric hematology and oncology patients harder than the first wave.COVID-19 infection in these patients may lead to significant morbidity and complications that interfere with treatment of their primary illnesses. They need close monitoring for development of life threatening infections. Early recognition and prompt therapy can optimise outcomes.

19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911436

ABSTRACT

Whether severe COVID-19 is by itself a significant risk factor for the development of candidemia currently remains an open question as conflicting results have been published. We aim to assess the occurrence of candidemia in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a retrospective study on patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia admitted to 5 ICUs in France who were specifically screened for fungal complications between March 2020 and January 2021. The study population included a total of 264 patients; the median age was 56 years old and most of them were male (n = 186; 70.5%) and immunocompetent (n = 225; 87.5%), and 62.7% (n = 153/244) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Microbiological analysis included 4864 blood culture samples and beta-glucan test performed on 975 sera. Candidemia was diagnosed in 13 (4.9%) patients. The species involved were mainly C. albicans (n = 6) and C. parapsilosis (n = 5). Almost all patients (12/13; 92.3%) had a colonization by yeasts. ICU mortality was not significantly impacted by the occurrence of candidemia. Unrelated positive beta-glucan tests were observed in 49 patients (23.4%), including 6 with mold infections and 43 with false positive results. In our series, patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seemed at low risk of developing invasive candidiasis.

20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 3168-3180, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883208

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactobacilli strains in preventing the recurrences of vaginal candidiasis (VC) in 78 pregnant women with VC (lactobacilli, n = 39; placebo, n = 39) and the potential benefits on quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: The lactobacilli putative probiotic (SynForU-HerCare; two capsules/day of 9·5 log CFU per capsule) or placebo was administered for 8-weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assessed for vaginal and gut health conditions at baseline, week-4 and week-8 via questionnaires. The vulvovaginal symptom questionnaire not only covered aspects pertaining to vulvovaginal symptoms but also the quality of life impacts such as emotional, social and sexual. The administration of lactobacilli reduced symptoms of irritation (P = 0·023) and discharge (P = 0·011) starting week-4 and continued after week-8 (P < 0·05), accompanied by reduced symptoms for burning after week-8 (P = 0·046) as compared to the placebo. Patients consuming lactobacilli also showed reduced concern about symptoms after week-4 (P = 0·010) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·001), accompanied by reduced impairment of daily activities attributed to vulvovaginal symptoms (P = 0·012) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·026). Insignificant differences were observed for sexual impacts between treatment groups. The administration of lactobacilli also reduced recurrences of both emotional and social stress as compared to the placebo at both week-4 and week-8 (P < 0·05). Patients consuming lactobacilli showed higher defecation times per week at week-4 (P = 0·010) and week-8 (P = 0·001) as compared to the placebo group, indicating the potential to reduce risks of pregnancy-induced constipation. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study demonstrated the preventive and modulatory roles of lactobacilli strains against VC in pregnant women. Taken altogether, our present data illustrated that lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC, thus could be a potential strategy for the maintenance of vaginal health during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Probiotics , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Lactobacillus , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Vagina
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