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1.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236377

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes major challenges to the healthcare system. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to millions of deaths worldwide and the mortality rate is found to be greatly associated with pre-existing clinical conditions. The existing dataset strongly suggests that cardiometabolic diseases including hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes and obesity serve as strong comorbidities in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Studies have also shown the poor outcome of COVID-19 in patients associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 polymorphism, cancer chemotherapy, chronic kidney disease, thyroid disorder, or coagulation dysfunction. A severe complication of COVID-19 is mostly seen in people with compromised medical history. SARS-CoV-2 appears to attack the respiratory system causing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, which lead to induction of severe systemic inflammation, multi-organ dysfunction, and death mostly in the patients who are associated with pre-existing comorbidity factors. In this article, we highlighted the key comorbidities and a variety of clinical complications associated with COVID-19 for a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of COVID-19.

2.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235777

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) could be implied in the pathogenesis of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19. We isolated circulating exosomes from COVID-19 patients and then we divided our population in two arms based on the D-dimer level on hospital admission. We observed that exosomal miR-145 and miR-885 significantly correlate with D-Dimer levels. Moreover, we demonstrate that human endothelial cells express the main cofactors needed for SARS-CoV-2 internalization, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CD-147. Interestingly, human endothelial cells treated with serum from COVID-19 patients release significantly less miR-145 and miR-885, exhibit increased apoptosis, and display significantly impaired angiogenetic properties compared to cells treated with non-COVID-19 serum. Taken together, our data indicate that exosomal miR-145 and miR-885 are essential in modulating thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Significance Statement In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that two specific microRNA (namely miR-145 and miR-885) contained in circulating exosomes are functionally involved in thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Our findings are especially relevant to the general audience when considering the emerging prominence of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 systemic manifestations known as Long-COVID.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1910, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20245364

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2(Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been circulating worldwide for three years. It mainly causes upper respiratory tract infection, which can manifest as pulmonary infection and even respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases. Different autoantibodies can be detected in patients infected with COVID-19.ObjectivesTo explore autoantibodies related to rheumatic diseases after COVID-19 infection.MethodsNinety-eight inpatients were tested for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens(ENA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies(ANCA), anticardiolipin antibodies,a-β2GPI (IgG/IgM). They were from a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou during the COVID-19 epidemic. Data were described statistically.ResultsNinety-eight hospitalized patients were tested for relevant antibodies. The average age was 50.64±19.54;67 (68.4%) were male, 64 (65.3%) were COVID-19 positive, 90 (90.9%) had rheumatic diseases, and 56 of them were COVID-19 positive patients with rheumatic diseases.There were 76 patients tested for antinuclear antibodies;29 (38.16%)were negative, 18 (23.68%)had a 1/80 titre, and 29(28.16%) had a titre greater than 1:80. The 31 covid patients were positive for ANA. In the high-titer group, 19 patients with rheumatic diseases were positive for COVID-19, and 12 patients had an exacerbation of the rheumatic diseases (6 of whom had previously had pulmonary fibrosis). Of 31 covid patients, only two were non-rheumatic patients, and both were elderly, aged 85 and 100, respectively.Fifty-six patients had ENA results, and 29 for positive antibodies, 8 for ds-DNA antibodies, 2 for anti-Sm antibodies, 6 for anti-nucleosome antibodies, 12 for anti-U1RNP antibodies, 2 for anti-Scl-70 antibodies, 12 for anti-SS-A antibodies, 3 for anti-mitochondrial M2 antibodies, 2 for anti-centromere antibodies, 1 for anti-Po antibodies, and one for anti-Jo-1 antibody. All 56 patients had rheumatic diseases, and no new patients were found.There were 62 patients with ANCA data. P-ANCA was positive in 12 cases(19.35%), and MPO-ANCA was positive in 2 cases. An 85-year-old non-rheumatic COVID-19 patient was P-ANCA positive. She had a history of hypertension, colon cancer, CKD3, coronary heart disease, and atrial flutter.In the anticardiolipin antibodies group, there were 62 patients;only 6 were positive, and 2 were rheumatic patients infected with COVID-19. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in 33 patients, and a-β2GPI was tested in one patient, an 82-year-old COVID-19 patient with gout, diabetes, and cerebral infarction in the past. We did not find a statistical difference in the above results.ConclusionWe have not found a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and serum autoantibodies of rheumatic immune diseases. It needs large samples and an extended follow-up to research.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by Scientific and Technological Planning Project of Guangzhou City [202102020150], Guangdong Provincial Basic and Applied Basic Research Fund Project [2021A1515111172], National Natural Science Foundation of China Youth Fund [82201998] and Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University Cultivating Special Fund Project for National Natural Science Foundation of China [2022GZRPYQN01].Disclosure of Interestsone declared.

4.
Creative Cardiology ; 15(3):367-376, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244945

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 in patients without significant baseline cardiovascular pathology and various echocardiographic parameters of myocardial dysfunction. Material and methods. 46 patients with COVID-19 were included in our study: 33 patients of moderate severity and 13 - with severe disease. On days 1 and 9 upon admission, all patients underwent an echocardiographic study with standard assessment of the both ventricles function, as well as an assessment of their global longitudinal strain (GLS). Comparison of the studied parameters was carried out both between groups of patients and within each group in dynamics. Results. On day 1patients in the severe group had higher values of the systolic gradient on the tricuspid valve (22.0 [21.0;26.0] vs 30.0 [24.0;34.5] mm Hg, p = 0.02), systolic excursion of the plane of the tricuspid ring (2.3 [2.1;2.4] vs 2.0 [1.9;2.2] mm, p = 0.016), E/e' ratio (9.5 [7.7;8.9] vs 7.5 [6.8;9.3], p = 0.03). At day 9 among patients in the severe group, there was a decrease in end-diastolic (111.0 [100.0;120.0] vs 100.0 [89.0;105.0] ml, p = 0.03) and of end-systolic (35.5 [32.0;41, 2] vs 28.0 [25.0;31.8] ml, p < 0.01) volumes of the left ventricle. There was a decrease in GLS of the both ventricles compared to general accepted values. In dynamics, there was an increase in the GLS of the right ventricle in both groups, but it was more pronounced among severe group of patients (day 1 -18.5 [-15.2;-21.1] vs -20.2 [-15.8.1;-21.1] %, p = 0.03). The troponin levels were in the normal range. Conclusion. In COVID-19 patients without significant baseline cardiovascular pathology, there is a transient decrease in longitudinal strain of both ventricles, even in the absence of clinical and laboratory signs of acute myocardial injury.Copyright © Creative Cardiology 2021.

5.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology, suppl 1 ; 158, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244408

ABSTRACT

This study examines clinical outcomes in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection. Between June and November 2020, previously immunocompetent patients with SARS-CoV-2 and CMV coinfection were identified at Houston Methodist Hospital as part of routine clinical correlation by a molecular pathologist. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal specimens were analyzed by real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All CMV tests were performed on plasma or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens and analyzed by competitive polymerase chain reaction. 65 previously immunocompetent patients with CMV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were identified. Patient demographics include 41 male patients (63%) and 24 female patients (37%) ranging in age from 34 to 86 years (mean: 66.04, median 68). Documented pre-existing conditions include 27 patients with hypertension 41.5%), 19 patients with diabetes mellitus (29.2%), 9 patients with coronary artery disease (13.8%), and 3 patients with asthma (4.6%). Eight patients (12.3%) had no documented pre-existing conditions. The plasma CMV viral load ranged from <300 to 21,566 IU/mL. The CMV PCR results from bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial wash specimens ranged from <300 to 59,127 IU/mL. CMV PCR was initially negative in 10 patients then positive on serial testing. 60 patients were critically ill requiring ventilator support (92.3%). 47 patients (72.3%) expired, 7 patients (10.8%) were transferred to a long term acute care facility, 3 patients (4.6%) were discharged to a rehabilitation facility, 3 patients (4.6%) were discharged home, and 1 patient (1.5%) remained in-patient at the time of analysis. The prevalence of CMV seropositivity and medical comorbidities increases with age. Reactivation of latent CMV is a known occurrence in critically ill patients that is associated with poor outcomes. The majority of the patients in our cohort were 50 years old, and all were severely to critically ill with a mortality rate of 72.3% These findings suggest CMV portends a worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19. These findings also demonstrate the importance of clinical correlation in molecular testing.

6.
Heart ; 109(Suppl 3):A214-A215, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244299

ABSTRACT

182 Figure 1Cardiovascular events in COVID-19 Survivors by LGE Status[Figure omitted. See PDF] 182 Figure 2All-cause mortality in COVID-19 Survivors by LGE Status[Figure omitted. See PDF]Conflict of InterestNone

7.
Frontiers of COVID-19: Scientific and Clinical Aspects of the Novel Coronavirus 2019 ; : 309-324, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242993

ABSTRACT

After the waves of acute COVID-19 that swept mankind in 2020 and 2021, now we are confronted with the challenge of post COVID-19 conditions. According to the definition, post COVID-19 conditions comprise all signs and symptoms of COVID-19 that persist after the acute phase (3-4 weeks), without an upper limit of duration (as for the present state of knowledge). The symptoms of post COVID-19 conditions are highly variable, could affect every system, often overlap, and typically fluctuate and change over time. In regard to this disease and its long-term burden, the Bulgarian Cardiac Institute initiated a campaign "Life after COVID-19" and the data we gathered showed that a substantial proportion of patients having suffered from COVID-19 continue to have persistent symptoms that require special medical attention. Our biggest concern was the acute vascular manifestations of post COVID-19 conditions, such as acute coronary syndromes and acute pulmonary embolism, and for these we shared our personal experience. Post COVID-19 conditions have and will have a major significance for the healthcare and economic systems in the upcoming years. This derives from the simple facts that it is highly prevalent, affects people regardless of age (including young and active people) or severity of the acute illness (even asymptomatic cases), and that we still must learn a lot about its pathogenesis, natural history, treatment, and prognosis. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

8.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):70, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242443

ABSTRACT

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) were approved for use at the end of 2013 and have since been used for indications including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and mantle cell lymphoma. The use of BTKis has increased significantly in the UK since they achieved NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) approval for frontline treatment of CLL in 2021. However, they are associated with significant adverse cardiovascular events. In September 2021 the British Journal of Haematology published good practice guidelines for the management of cardiovascular complications of BTKis. Our aim was to see whether these guidelines had been adhered to for patients taking BTKis. Method(s): Data was collected for all patients being prescribed BTKis (ibrutinib and acalabrutinib) in the South Tees NHS Trust in July 2022. Patients' medical records were used to assess whether their management adhered to the good practice guidelines. Data was collated for 67 patients in total. Result(s): The data showed that although all patients were consented for the risk of atrial fibrillation only 6% were consented for hypertension and only 1.5% for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The guidelines recommend a baseline ECG (electrocardiogram) on commencement of treatment;however, only 7% had this completed and 0% had the minimum monitoring recommendation of 6-monthly ECGs. Thirty patients (45%) had an indication for a baseline echocardiogram;however, only one had this completed. For patients reporting symptoms of syncope, dizziness or palpitations only 50% had an ECG completed. Three patients developed worsening heart failure. The recommendations suggest referral to a cardio-oncologist;however, due to lack of availability of this service the referrals were instead made to the usual cardiologist. Conclusion(s): Although there was a lack of compliance with guideline recommendations, it should be considered that most usual checks were affected by COVID-19 outbreaks and a drop in face-to- face clinics, which were replaced by phone clinics and home delivery of medications. However, the premade consent forms for BTKis need to be updated to include consent for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. There also needs to be routine procedures in place to ensure that regular blood pressure testing and ECG monitoring occurs and that there is prompt recognition of cardiovascular complications. Action and implementation: To ensure improved compliance with these guidelines we plan to update our consent forms and create a proforma for clinic use to ensure that clinicians are aware of the various monitoring criteria required.

9.
Diabetic Medicine ; 40(Supplement 1):168, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242019

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Covid-19 pandemic has led to an uncomfortable and often recurrent situation in foot care services in the UK which frequently manifests in the older, White British, overweight, lone male population who often are manual workers. Result(s): These patients are unaware of local or national health promotion campaigns (e.g. iDEAL group's ACT NOW campaign, Diabetes UK's Putting Feet First) so have little awareness and education regarding potential foot problems. They are not aware of 5-to drive, eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, check your feet every day or walk 10,000 steps initiatives. They do not access public health materials and do not follow social media platforms, magazines, or newspapers. Therefore when they present in clinic, often after an emergency appointment with their GP, or an attendance at A&E, they present with significant soft tissue damage or systemic infection, frequently catastrophic tissue loss and serious co-morbidity (often in the form of renal or cardiac failure). Many require immediate hospital admission, intra-venous antibiotics, surgical debridement, vascular intervention and/or amputation. Unfortunately for some early mortality (often from an overwhelming cardio-vascular event) is the reality before they get as far as a major amputation. Discussion(s): Patients with more long-term conditions have increased risk of missing GP appointments (after controlling for number of appointments made) and are at increased risk of all-cause mortality, with those with long-term mental-health conditions who miss >2 appointments per year having >8x risk of all-cause mortality compared with those similar diagnoses who missed no appointments (McQueenie et al. 2019).

10.
Shiraz E Medical Journal ; 24(4) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241778

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated morbidities are a great global concern. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and high mortality in patients with COVID-19. Objective(s): This study examined the frequency of BM, newly diagnosed hyperglycemia, and their impacts on hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Method(s): This retrospective study examined 810 medical records of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Razi Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. The clinical presentations, severity, and impacts of COVID-19 were compared between patients with and without DM. Disease severity was determined based on the NEWS2 scoring system. Result(s): This study included 810 medical records of COVID-19 patients, of whom 326 had pre-existing DM, and 484 were non-DM. The rates of diabetes and newly diagnosed hyperglycemia were 40.2% and 11.2%, respectively. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (35.3%), ischemic heart disease (17.9%), and chronic kidney disease (11.9%), which were higher in people with diabetes than non-diabetics. The rate of acute kidney injury was higher in patients with diabetes than in non-diabetics (30.7% vs. 19.2%;P < 0.001) and in patients with severe COVID-19 than in those whose disease was not severe (27.8% vs. 21.5%;P = 0.04). The rates of severe COVID-19 (46.3% vs. 34.7%;P = 0.093), ICU admission (40.7% vs. 27.4%;P = 0.012), and mortality (18.5% vs. 10.5%;P = 0.079) were higher in patients with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia than in euglycemic patients. Conclusion(s): This study showed that COVID-19 infection is linked with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and pre-existing DM, both associated with severe COVID-19, more need for ICU admission, and mortality.Copyright © 2023, Author(s).

11.
Siberian Medical Review ; 2022(5):81-85, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241416

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research. To study the features of cardiovascular system disorders in post-covid syndrome (PCS) in children and adolescents after a mild form of coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Material and methods. From 260 children and adolescents after a mild form of COVID-19, a total of 30 patients aged 7-17 years with cardiac manifestations of PCS were selected. Therewith, 32 patients with an uncomplicated form of the disease were selected to form a comparison group. In 3 and 6 months after disease onset, a comprehensive examination of patients was performed with a questionnaire on the subjective scale for MFI-20 assessment asthenia (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20), electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography;daily monitoring of ECG and blood pressure. The biochemical blood test included assay of creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB), troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results. The incidence of PCS with cardiac manifestations amounted to 11.5 %. After 3 months from the disease onset, complaints of pain and discomfort in the chest, palpitations, fatigue, and poor exercise tolerance persisted. Asthenic syndrome was diagnosed in 70 % of patients. The "general asthenia" indicator totalled14 [12;16] points (p<0.001) and was associated with the age of patients (r=+0.5;p<0.05). Arrhythmic syndrome and conduction disorders were detected in 67% of children. Labile arterial hypertension and hypotension occurred in 23 % of the adolescents. The increase in CPK-MB remained in 17% of the children, LDH - in 10%. In the sixth month after the onset of the disease, there were no significant differences in the results of the examination in the observation groups. However, a decrease in the level of resistance within 6 months was recorded in 43.3% of the schoolchildren with PCS (p<0.001). Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for early verification of cardiopathies in children with COVID-19, determination of a set of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures as well as ECG monitoring.Copyright © 2022, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University. All rights reserved.

12.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1792, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241252

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTofacitinib a small molecule JAK- inhibitors has been approved for use in psoriatic arthritis (PSA) since 2017 while it has shown to be effective in the clinical trials real life data is sparse.With increase in use there has been growing concern about the safety profiles and adverse events which makes it all the more important to have real life data.ObjectivesTo review patient records who were treated with tofacitinib for psoriatic arthritis and to assess the tolerance and continuation rate and also assess the occurrence of adverse events like infections, coronary artery disease.MethodsAll PSA patients who were prescribed tofacitinib from JAN-2021 to JUNE 2022 with minimum of 6 months followup were included for analysis. Demographics, weight recordings, lab parameters and occurence of adverse events were noted.ResultsThere were a total of 71 patients who were prescribed tofacitinib out of which 46 are continuing and 25 have stopped during this period. The mean age was 47.25 (10.9)yrs the mean disease duration was 4.182 (4.474)yrs The reason for stopping tofacitinib was better(52%) followed inefficacy(24%), and miscellaneous(24%)reasons..When analysing before and after tofacitninb one thing whihc was striking is the significant weight gain among patients with minimum of 3.52(3.06) kg weight gain and this weight gain was consistent even in stopped patients.in comparing the lab parameters before and after tofacitininb there was a significant redcution in CRP,ESR,PLATELET COUNT Table 1 and a minimal but insginificant rise in liver enzymes within the physiological range.When compared to before and after tofacitinib there was increased occurence of fatigue(18.3%), minor infections(11.2%), Gastrointerstinal adverse events (11.2%), alopecia (11.2%), Itching(10.4%), headache(9.8%), UTI(5.6%), cough (4.2%), transaminitis(2.8%), covid(1.7%), zoster(1.4%) and CAD(1.4%).ConclusionTofacitinib in psoriatic arthritis is well tolerated with significant reduction in the inflammatory markers and weight gain but serious adverse events in lesser percentage eventhough it leads to significant weight gain.Table 1.PARAMTERSBeforeAfterP valueWeight70.15 (14.19)72.31 (14.24)0.000249ESR45.29 (28.26)35.23 (28.33)0.037CRP21.56 (16.38)10.72 (11.98)<.0001PLATELET COUNT332.92 (88.77)307.09 (88.18)0.0046SGOT30.33 (9.99)35.69 (19.92)0.125SGPT22.57 (12.96)27.98 (20.17)0.116Reference[1]Ly K, Beck KM, Smith MP, Orbai A-M, Liao W. Tofacitinib in the management of active psoriatic arthritis: patient selection and perspectives. Psoriasis (Auckl) [Internet]. 2019;9:97–107. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2147/PTT.S161453Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

13.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 26(5):23-30, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241242

ABSTRACT

According to domestic and foreign studies, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant risk factor for infection with the SARS-CoV-2 vi-rus, a severe course of the disease, and an adverse outcome. Trend analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of DM patients living in the Samara region in the initial period of the spread of the new coronavirus infection can help to assess the effectiveness of medical care for DM patients in a challenging epidemiological setting and to determine the directions for its improvement. Objective. To assess the trends in the prevalence, incidence, and mortality of DM patients living in the Samara region and to iden-tify the changes in the structure of vascular complications and the status of glycemic control from 2018 to 2020. Material and methods. The study of the medical and epidemiological DM indicators was performed according to the design of a continuous retrospective observational study covering the period from 2018 to 2020;the object was the adult population of the Samara region. Results. The total number of DM patients in the Samara region in 2020 was 118,623 people (3.73% of the population), of which type 1 diabetes was detected in 5.2% (6118 people) and type 2 diabetes in 94.2% (111,700 people). The trends of the prevalence of type 1 DM were 186.3->192.4/100,000 population, type 2 DM 3132.5->3153.1/100,000 population;the dynamics of primary morbidity with type 1 diabetes mellitus 8.8->6.2/100,000 population, with type 2 DM 259.1->196.4/100,000 population;mortality with type 1 diabetes mellitus 3.2->4.2/100,000 population, with type 2 diabetes mellitus 120.7->174.5/100,000 population. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular diseases: 30.3% in type 1 DM, 39.7% in type 2 DM;there is a trend towards increasing in death <<from DM>> without indicating the immediate cause of death for both types of DM;<<from COVID-19>> 3.8% with type 1 DM and 3.7% with type 2 DM. The incidence of vascular complications in type 1 and type 2 DM was 31.4% and 11.5% for reti-nopathy, and 21.4 and 11.5% for nephropathy, respectively. Trends in the proportion of patients with HbA1c <7%: 28.1%->51.1% in type 1 DM, 15.7%->62.4% in type 2 DM;with HbA1c >=9.0%: 25.4%->12.1% in type 1 DM, 39.8%->7.1% in type 2 DM. Conclusion. The study demonstrates the importance of a comparative sequential assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus and the clinical status of patients living in the Samara region in challenging epidemiological settings to assess the prospects for optimizing follow-up.Copyright © 2023, Media Sphera Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

14.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S284, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240176

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The symptoms of patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome are heterogenous, impact multiple systems, and are often non-specific. To better understand the symptomatic profile of this population, this study used real-world data and unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify distinct groupings of long COVID patients. Method(s): Children/adolescents (age 0-17) and adults (age 18-64 and >=65) with >=2 primary diagnoses for U09.9 "Post COVID-19 condition" from 10/01/2021 (ICD-10 code introduction) until 03/31/2022 were selected from Optum's de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database, with the first diagnosis deemed index. Included patients had >=1 diagnosis for COVID-19 at least 4 weeks before index and continuous enrollment during the 12 months prior to index. Diagnoses recorded +/-2 weeks from index that were not present prior to the initial COVID-19 diagnosis were captured and used as patient features for k-means clustering. Final cluster assignments were selected based on silhouette coefficient and clinical relevancy of groupings. Result(s): 3,587 patients met eligibility criteria, yielding three clusters. Concurrent symptom domains surrounding index included breathing, fatigue, pain, cognitive, and cardiovascular diagnoses. The first cluster (N=2,578, 71.8%) was characterized by patients with only a single symptom domain (33% breathing, 33% cardiovascular, 20% fatigue, 11% cognitive). The second cluster (N=651, 18.1%) all presented with breathing symptoms accompanied by one additional domain (cardiovascular 40%, fatigue 28%, pain 18%). The final cluster (N=358, 9.9%) experienced breathing symptoms accompanied by two additional domains (fatigue and cardiovascular 34%, cardiovascular and cognitive 34%). Cluster 3 was slightly older than clusters 1 or 2 (mean age 66 vs. 58 years, respectively). Conclusion(s): Unsupervised machine learning identified distinct groups of long COVID patients, which may help inform multidisciplinary care needs. Our analysis suggests that many patients with long COVID may experience symptoms from only a single domain, and multi-system illness may generally include breathing complications accompanied by fatigue and/or cardiovascular complications.Copyright © 2023

15.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(16):2289-2297, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20240088

ABSTRACT

A variety of patient care and intelligent health systems can benefit from the implementation of artificial intelligence as a tool to aid caregivers. Machine learning and deep learning are two types of AI that are increasingly being used in the medical industry. Artificial intelligence methods require a large amount of clinical data from a range of imaging modalities for correct disease diagnosis. In addition, AI has greatly enhanced the quality of hospital stays, allowing patients to be released sooner and complete their recoveries at home. This article aims to provide the information on the field of AI subset i.e., machine learning-based disease detection with information that will aid them in making better decision making. This helps the researchers to classify the medical conditions in patients with a prominent dataset.

16.
Modern Pediatrics ; Ukraine.(4):36-45, 2021.
Article in Ukrainian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239394

ABSTRACT

The article presents current data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and criteria for its deficiency in children in different countries. Vitamin D is recognized as one of the most important vitamins involved in many biochemical processes in the body. Its active metabolites play a key role in calcium absorption, bone mineralization and promote phosphate and magnesium metabolism. At the same time, in addition to affecting mineral metabolism, there is a wide range of conditions in which vitamin D also plays a preventive role. Vitamin D has been shown to play a vital role in innate immunity maintenance and is important in prevention of several diseases, including infections, autoimmune diseases, certain forms of cancer, type 1 and 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin D is of particular importance for newborns and young children. This vitamin is involved in important physiological regulatory processes such as bone metabolism, lung development, maturation of the immune system and differentiation of the nervous system. Vitamin D deficiency increases risks of neonatal sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, respiratory distress syndrome, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium during childhood can reduce the risk of osteoporosis and other diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency in adults. Recently, vitamin D deficiency has shown to be a potential risk factor for COVID-19 propensity. It has been established that to date most scientific pediatric societies have recognized the need to prevent vitamin D deficiency in healthy children of all ages, but data on the dosage of vitamin D in its prophylactic use differ. Most scientific societies recommend an average of 400-600 IU per day of vitamin D for prophylactic purposes. The analysis of published data shows the need to follow a strategy based on an individual approach, taking into account physiological characteristics, individual requirements and lifestyle.Copyright © 2021 University of Tartu Press. All rights reserved.

17.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20239112

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen.DesignComparative observational study using data collected from routine care.SettingFour French tertiary care centres providing care to patients with covid-19 pneumonia between 12 March and 31 March 2020.Participants181 patients aged 18-80 years with documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who required oxygen but not intensive care.InterventionsHydroxychloroquine at a dose of 600 mg/day within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) versus standard care without hydroxychloroquine (control group).Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome was survival without transfer to the intensive care unit at day 21. Secondary outcomes were overall survival, survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome, weaning from oxygen, and discharge from hospital to home or rehabilitation (all at day 21). Analyses were adjusted for confounding factors by inverse probability of treatment weighting.ResultsIn the main analysis, 84 patients who received hydroxychloroquine within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) were compared with 89 patients who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (control group). Eight additional patients received hydroxychloroquine more than 48 hours after admission. In the weighted analyses, the survival rate without transfer to the intensive care unit at day 21 was 76% in the treatment group and 75% in the control group (weighted hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.1). Overall survival at day 21 was 89% in the treatment group and 91% in the control group (1.2, 0.4 to 3.3). Survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome at day 21 was 69% in the treatment group compared with 74% in the control group (1.3, 0.7 to 2.6). At day 21, 82% of patients in the treatment group had been weaned from oxygen compared with 76% in the control group (weighted risk ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.3). Eight patients in the treatment group (10%) experienced electrocardiographic modifications that required discontinuation of treatment.ConclusionsHydroxychloroquine has received worldwide attention as a potential treatment for covid-19 because of positive results from small studies. However, the results of this study do not support its use in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 who require oxygen.

18.
COVID ; 3(5):715-727, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20238954

ABSTRACT

In the context of new therapeutic protocols and vaccines developed in the past 3 years, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) continues to exert an important impact on the healthcare systems worldwide. Age and a history of cardiovascular or respiratory diseases remain relevant in terms of prognosis for all COVID-19 patients, independent of the viral strain, by conveying a worse outcome and increased rates of in-hospital mortality. Previous studies reported heterogenous cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients from acute myocarditis or myopericarditis, acute coronary syndromes, stress cardiomyopathy, de novo arrhythmias to pulmonary embolism, or in some rare cases, endocarditis. In this review, we assessed the potential acute, in-hospital and long-term cardiac complications in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of COVID is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
Nutritional Sciences Journal ; 46(1):30-43, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238643

ABSTRACT

This purpose of this study is to help students developing problem-solving skills by using Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a teaching model, combining with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a training tool to evaluate students' clinical competencies. Sixty-five college junior students from a therapeutic nutrition course were participated. The topics of PBL included diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. For each disease, pre- and post-test quiz and after class exam were assessed to evaluate the students' learning effectiveness. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, OSCE was performed online. The focus group interview and learning effectiveness questionnaire were conducted by the end of this course for all participants. Moreover, 37 students who attended the dietitian internship filled in the learning effectiveness questionnaire again after the internship. The results indicated that after the PBL, the post quiz score for each disease was increased, and through the online OSCE training, students' abilities to master nutrition education and counseling had been upgraded. Students indicated that both PBL and OSCE training could contributed to the learning effectiveness. The better academic performance students were, the more willing they are to work in nutrition-related fields in the future. For those who finished the dietitian internship agreed that they could understand the work content better in general regional and regional hospitals than in teaching ones. In conclusion, PBL teaching model combined with OSCE training could effectively improve students' learning motivation, learning effectiveness and practical application in a therapeutic nutrition course.Copyright © 2022 Nutrition Society in Taipei. All rights reserved.

20.
Cardiovascular Endocrinology and Metabolism: Theory and Practice of Cardiometabolic Medicine ; : 233-270, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238167

ABSTRACT

Chronic underproduction or autonomous oversecretion of hormone by endocrine glands has implications for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Hormonal effects on the vasculature may be direct, for example, tachycardia and atrial arrhythmias in hyperthyroidism, or mediated indirectly via adverse profiles of one or more major cardiovascular risk factors, for example, arterial hypertension in Conn's syndrome. The timescale of vascular effects may be relatively rapid, for example, resting tachycardia or atrial fibrillation precipitated by hyperthyroidism, or long-term, for example, atherosclerosis associated with acromegaly or hypopituitarism of long duration. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted clinically important interactions between the endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems. Endocrinologists and cardiologists will often need to collaborate closely in the management of patients with endocrine-associated vascular disease. © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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