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1.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 341-415,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082392

ABSTRACT

Several human coronaviruses cause high mortality rates and are highly contagious, while others cause cold-like illnesses. These viruses are believed to enter human populations by zoonotic transmission from animal intermediate hosts from live animal markets in China [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV) from palm civets/raccoon dogs and SARS-CoV-2 possibly from pangolins] or dromedary camels in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). Some bats may act as reservoir hosts. While much focus on the possible reservoir and intermediate hosts for future zoonotic transmission focuses on bats or rodents, humans spend much more time with agricultural animals, including cattle, pigs, camelids, and horses, particularly pigs, which host six coronaviruses. One pig coronavirus is a deltacoronavirus, a genus that almost exclusively contains bird viruses. The species Betacoronavirus-1, represented by a bovine coronavirus, contains members that infect other animal hosts, as do the Alphacoronavirus-1 species. Humans spend large amounts of time in the company of their companion animals, such as cats and dogs. Some contact is intimate, including allowing these animals to sleep with their owners and lick their faces. In addition to possible zoonotic transmission, humans transmit coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, to domestic and captive exotic cats, some of which are endangered. Human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has caused severe disease in juvenile domestic cats. People are also regularly in contact with animal fecal material. Some diseases caused by animal coronaviruses are typically mild, while others cause severe, life-threatening diseases. Both morbidity and mortality in agricultural animals have a great economic impact on developing and developed regions of the world. Due to close, prolonged contact between humans and agricultural and companion animals, it may be a matter of great importance to spend more time and resources studying the potential for coronaviruses of domestic animals to cause zoonotic transmission.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065670

ABSTRACT

Considering the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic had and still has on human psychological health, it is expected that it might also affect household dogs' and cats' welfare. The current study explores the behavioral changes in dogs and cats before (BL) and during the lockdown (DL), as reported by their owners in China. Besides demographic parameters, variables related to the daily management of dogs and cats were analyzed in relation to behavioral problems, stress-related behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors before and during the lockdown. A total of 261 questionnaires were collected. In general, behavioral problems and stress-related behaviors in dogs (p < 0.001) and cats (p < 0.001) decreased DL compared to BL, while anxiety-related behaviors in cats did not show any differences between the two periods considered. On the other hand, anxiety-related behaviors were more frequent in dogs DL (36.3%) compared to BL (35%), which were associated with reduced frequency of play activities with the owners (p = 0.016) and altered sleeping habits (p < 0.01). During the lockdown, dogs' and cats' daily routines and management (feeding and sleeping habits, dogs' walks, dogs' and cats' play activities, litter box management, and cats' lifestyle) experienced changes, but they were not associated with any behavioral issues. On the other hand, the behavioral issues considered for dogs and cats were more frequent BL, which were influenced by the daily management of the pets. The current study showed how critical the attention the owners can provide to the pets could be, to improve their companion animals' welfare. Therefore, it is important to provide pet owners with behavioral management support both during particularly difficult periods such as a lockdown and during regular daily routines.

3.
Vet Res Commun ; 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059992

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in humans. Among domestic animals, cats are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 than dogs. The detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in seemingly healthy cats and/or infected cats which are in close contact with infected humans has been described. The presence of animals that tested positive by serology or molecular techniques could represent a potential transmission pathway of SARS-CoV-2 that can spill over into urban wildlife. This study analyses the seroprevalence variation of SARS-CoV-2 in stray cats from different waves of outbreaks in a geographical area where previous seroepidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 was available and investigate if SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats were exposed to other co-infections causing an immunosuppressive status and/or a chronic disease that could lead to a SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. For this purpose, a total of 254 stray cats from Zaragoza (Spain) were included. This analysis was carried out by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the receptor binding domain of Spike antigen and confirmed by serum virus neutralization assay. The presence of co-infections including Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, was evaluated using different serological methods. A seropositivity of 1.57% was observed for SARS-CoV-2 including the presence of neutralizing antibodies in three cats. None of the seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 cats were positive to feline coronavirus, however, four SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats were also seropositive to other pathogens such as L. infantum, D. immitis and FIV (n = 1), L. infantum and D. immitis (n = 1) and L. infantum alone (n = 1).Considering other pathogens, a seroprevalence of 16.54% was detected for L. infantum, 30.31% for D. immitis, 13.78%, for T. gondii, 83.86% for feline calicivirus, 42.52% for feline herpesvirus type 1, 3.15% for FeLV and 7.87% for FIV.Our findings suggest that the epidemiological role of stray cats in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is scarce, and there is no increase in seropositivity during the different waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in this group of animals. Further epidemiological surveillances are necessary to determine the risk that other animals might possess even though stray cats do not seem to play a role in transmission.

4.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0096122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053119

ABSTRACT

Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the most recent SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, which emerged in late 2021 and rapidly achieved global predominance by early 2022. In this study, we compared the infection dynamics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 D614G (B.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron BA.1.1 (B.1.1.529) variants in a highly susceptible feline model of infection. Although D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats became lethargic and showed increased body temperatures between days 1 and 3 postinfection (pi), Omicron-inoculated cats remained subclinical and, similar to control animals, gained weight throughout the 14-day experimental period. Intranasal inoculation of cats with D614G- and the Delta variants resulted in high infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions (up to 6.3 log10 TCID50.Ml-1), whereas strikingly lower level of viruses shedding (<3.1 log10 TCID50.Ml-1) was observed in Omicron-inoculated animals. In addition, tissue distribution of the Omicron variant was markedly reduced in comparison to the D614G and Delta variants, as evidenced by lower in situ viral RNA detection, in situ viral immunofluorescence staining, and viral loads in tissues on days 3, 5, and 14 pi. Nasal turbinate, trachea, and lung were the main-but not the only-sites of replication for all three viral variants. However, only scarce virus staining and lower viral titers suggest lower levels of viral replication in tissues from Omicron-infected animals. Notably, while D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats presented pneumonia, histologic examination of the lungs from Omicron-infected cats revealed mild to modest inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate that the Omicron variant BA.1.1 is less pathogenic than D614G and Delta variants in a highly susceptible feline model. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern emerged in South Africa late in 2021 and rapidly spread across the world causing a significant increase in the number of infections. Importantly, this variant was also associated with an increased risk of reinfections. However, the number of hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19 did not follow the same trends. These early observations suggested effective protection conferred by immunizations and/or overall lower virulence of the highly mutated variant virus. In this study we present novel evidence demonstrating that the Omicron BA.1.1 variant of concern presents a lower pathogenicity when compared to D614G- or Delta variants in cats. Clinical, virological, and pathological evaluations revealed lower disease severity, viral replication, and lung pathology in Omicron-infected cats when compared with D614G and Delta variant inoculated animals, confirming that Omicron BA.1.1 is less pathogenic in a highly susceptible feline model of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cats , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Virus Replication
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053048

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance among animals, including pets, plays an important role in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, because severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Serological assays that offer the required sensitivity and specificity are essential. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of three different commercially available immunoassays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pets, namely two ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid [ID Screen SARS CoV-2 double antigen multispecies (Double antigen) and ID Screen® SARS-CoV-2-N IgG indirect ELISA (Indirect)] and one test for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain [surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT)]. The obtained results were compared with those of conventional virus neutralization test (VNT), which was regarded as reference method. A total of 191 serum samples were analysed. Thirteen (6.8%) samples showed VNT-positive results. The overall sensitivity was higher for sVNT (100%) compared to nucleocapsid-based ELISA assays (23% for Double antigen and 60% for Indirect). The specificity was 100% for Indirect ELISA and sVNT, when a higher cut-off (>30%) was used compared to the one previously defined by the manufacturer (>20%), whereas the other test showed lower value (99%). The sVNT test showed the highest accuracy and agreement with VNT, with a perfect agreement when the higher cut-off was applied. The agreement between each nucleocapsid-based ELISA test and VNT was 96% for Indirect and 94% for Double antigen. Our findings showed that some commercially available serological tests may lead to a high rate of false-negative results, highlighting the importance of assays validation for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in domestic animals.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053047

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in humans, is able to infect several domestic, captive and wildlife animal species. Since reverse zoonotic transmission to pets has been demonstrated, it is crucial to determine their role in the epidemiology of the disease to prevent further spillover events and major spread of SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we determined the presence of virus and the seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2, as well as the levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against several variants of concern (VOCs) in pets (cats, dogs and ferrets) and stray cats from North-Eastern of Spain. We confirmed that cats and dogs can be infected by different VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 and, together with ferrets, are able to develop nAbs against the ancestral (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (BA.1) variants, with lower titres against the latest in dogs and cats, but not in ferrets. Although the prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection measured as direct viral RNA detection was low (0.3%), presence of nAbs in pets living in COVID-19-positive households was relatively high (close to 25% in cats, 10% in dogs and 40% in ferrets). It is essential to continue monitoring SARS-CoV-2 infections in these animals due to their frequent contact with human populations, and we cannot discard the probability of a higher animal susceptibility to new potential SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053045

ABSTRACT

Several domestic and wild animal species are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Reported (sero)prevalence in dogs and cats vary largely depending on the target population, test characteristics, geographical location and time period. This research assessed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive cats and dogs (PCR- and/or antibody positive) in two different populations. Dogs and cats living in a household with at least one confirmed COVID-19-positive person (household (HH) study; 156 dogs and 152 cats) and dogs and cats visiting a veterinary clinic (VC) (VC study; 183 dogs and 140 cats) were sampled and tested for presence of virus (PCR) and antibodies. Potential risk factors were evaluated and follow-up of PCR-positive animals was performed to determine the duration of virus shedding and to detect potential transmission between pets in the same HH. In the HH study, 18.8% (27 dogs, 31 cats) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive (PCR- and/or antibody positive), whereas in the VC study, SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was much lower (4.6%; six dogs, nine cats). SARS-CoV-2 prevalence amongst dogs and cats was significantly higher in the multi-person HHs with two or more COVID-19-positive persons compared with multi-person HHs with only one COVID-19-positive person. In both study populations, no associations could be identified between SARS-CoV-2 status of the animal and health status, age or sex. During follow-up of PCR-positive animals, no transmission to other pets in the HH was observed despite long-lasting virus shedding in cats (up to 35 days). SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats appeared to be clearly associated with reported COVID-19-positive status of the HH. Our study supports previous findings and suggests a very low risk of pet-to-human transmission within HHs, no severe clinical signs in pets and a negligible pet-to-pet transmission between HHs.

8.
Newfoundland Quarterly ; 115(2):26-27, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2046263
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 208: 105755, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031629

ABSTRACT

It has long been known that coronaviruses cause various infectious diseases in animals. Although SARS-CoV-2 is genetically related to viruses isolated from Rhinolophus bats, the exact origin, mode of transmission, and how the human species has become the epidemiological reservoir of the virus have not yet been established with certainty. Although the main route of transmission is human-to-human, there are considerable numbers of reported cases of infection in animal species, predominantly among pet animals. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in dogs and cats during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sumadija District, Serbia. We used serology to identify household contacts of pet animals with infected pet owners and the degree of association. The study presented in this paper is also the first study of this type in Serbia. The results of a retrospective serosurvey, which was conducted in dogs and cats with different exposure risk factors, were analyzed to find the possible modes of transmission between humans and animals. The relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs was 1.45% bounded with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.0007-7.73%, while in cats, it was 5.56% (95% CI: 0.77-4.13%). The relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet owners was 11% (95% CI: 6.25-18.63%). In pets that were in close contact with COVID-19 positive owners, the seropositivity was found to be 9%. Out of a total of five stray dogs and cats tested, seropositivity was observed in two animals. Detected SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets shows that these animals are susceptible to infection and that the most common means of virus transmission to pets is through contact with diseased owners. However, the presence of infection in stray dogs and cats is not clear and needs further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/veterinary , Retrospective Studies , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Serbia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Pets
10.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

11.
Avian Conservation and Ecology = Ecologie et Conservation des Oiseaux ; 17(2):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025208

ABSTRACT

Wildlife mortality caused by domestic cats is evident where free-roaming house cats are present in the tropical Andes region, a phenomenon for which there is a lack of scientific reports. Our goal is to present plausible range estimates of the potential avoidable number of birds killed by domestic cats in Colombia. We calculated estimates of the number of birds killed as the product of the number of cats, the proportion of cats with at least some outdoor access, the proportion of cats that hunt wildlife, the annual predation probability, and adjustments for estimates of total prey killed by cats. We extracted such data not only from public records, but also from a citizen science study, for which we circulated a questionnaire to examine cat owners' attitudes toward the impact of domestic cats on wildlife during the 2020 and 2021 COVID-19 lockdowns in Colombia. We estimated that three to 12 million birds are killed annually by domestic cats in urban and suburban areas. In addition, we estimated that cats kill eight to 29 million vertebrate fauna in the Andes of Colombia. The total kill estimate provides a first figure on the magnitude of the impact of an anthropogenic cause of wildlife mortality for Colombia. These estimates would be more rigorous if the unowned or feral cat population size in Colombia was better known. Because most pet cats in Colombia roam outdoors without supervision and their population is growing, they pose an increasing threat to wildlife. Intervention is urgent to mitigate bird mortality by domestic cats.Alternate :La mortalité de la faune sauvage causée par les chats domestiques est évidente dans les régions où des chats de maison évoluent librement dans la région tropicale des Andes, un phénomène au sujet duquel les rapports scientifiques sont insuffisants. Notre objectif est de présenter des estimations de plages plausibles du nombre potentiellement évitable d'oiseaux tués par des chats domestiques en Colombie. Nous avons calculé des estimations du nombre d'oiseaux tués en tant que produit du nombre de chats, de la proportion de chats ayant au moins un certain accès à l'extérieur, de la proportion de chats qui chassent des animaux sauvages, de la probabilité de prédation annuelle et des ajustements des estimations du nombre total de proies tuées par des chats. Nous avons extrait ces données non seulement des dossiers publics, mais aussi d'une étude scientifique réalisée auprès des citoyens, pour laquelle nous avons fait circuler un questionnaire afin d'examiner les attitudes des propriétaires de chats par rapport à la faune sauvage pendant les confinements de 2020 et 2021 liés au COVID-19 en Colombie. Nous avons estimé que trois à 12 millions d'oiseaux sont tués chaque année par des chats domestiques en ville et en banlieue. En outre, nous avons calculé que les chats tuent huit à 29 millions de vertébrés dans les Andes de Colombie. L'estimation totale du nombre d'animaux tués fournit un premier chiffre quant à la magnitude de l'impact d'une cause anthropique de la mortalité de la faune en Colombie. Ces estimations seraient plus rigoureuses si nous connaissions mieux la taille de la population de chats inconnus ou sauvages en Colombie. Dans la mesure où la plupart des chats domestiques en Colombie errent à l'extérieur sans surveillance et où leur population augmente, ils représentent une menace croissante pour la faune sauvage. Une intervention est urgente pour atténuer la mortalité des oiseaux causée par les chats domestiques.

12.
Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine ; 17(1):123-133, 2022.
Article in Thaï | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012234

ABSTRACT

A male Munchkin cat was brought to a small animal teaching hospital at Mahanakorn University of Technology. The patient presentation with vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and intermittent fever. From history-taking, the owner previously had a cat that was diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) living in the same house but had isolated in a separate area. Fecal examination revealed bacterial enteritis. Hematology and blood chemistry results shown lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and low serum albumin/globulin ratio (0.3 A: G ratio). Abdominal ultrasound revealed mesenteric lymph node (MLN) enlargement and cholecystitis. Cell cytology from the liver and MLN revealed suppurative inflammation. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was negative for the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in the blood sample. On the 4th day of treatment, the cat developed pleural and peritoneal effusion. Thoracentesis and abdominocentesis were performed and submitted for analysis. The fluid's results were classified as modified transudate, low A: G ratio (0.3), Rivalta's test (positive), and positive for FCoV by using RT-PCR. On the 8th day of treatment, the cat died from systemic hypotension. Viscous straw yellow-colored fluid and pyogranulomatous lesions at the liver, lung, kidney, and MLN were observed from the necropsy. Histopathology's results shown severe suppurative inflammation in all the above organs. FIP was confirmed by detected FCoV antigen in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the kidney and lung tissue by immunohistochemistry staining.

13.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(10):1390-1393, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011867

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China and even the world, people are paying Close attention 10 the source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clinical symptoms of being infected, and treatment Options. Whether the new coronavirus Will be transmitted to pets has also lead to discussion and concern. Due to the short period of time, there is a lack of direct research on domestic pets of SARS-CoV-2, so there is no strong evidence that pets can act as intermediate hosts or communicators to spread SARS-CoV-2 in the natural environment. Meanwhile, SARS-CoV-2 share high similarity With SARS-CoV that broke out in 2003 in terms of binding to functional receptors. Therefore, based on the theoretical research of SARS-CoV on this issue, this report analyzes the possibility transmission in animals of SARS-CoV-2, and relevant suggestions and treatment measures are put forward for existing problems. At the same time, further research is needed to prove this possibility.

14.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 976(34), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001167

ABSTRACT

Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV), Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Feline Calici Virus (FCV), and other cat's viral diseases were reported in Indonesia. Viral diseases that appear usually appear in each season with different intensities depending on the type of virus. The research data was taken from Animal Hospital Prof. Soeparwi's medical record in 2017-2019 along with rainfall, humidity, and temperature data in the Yogyakarta area in 2017-2019 obtained from the Climatology and Geophysics Meteorology Agency (BMKG). Disease data are grouped by diagnosis;temperature, humidity, and rainfall data. Data analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel 2016 in the form of a frequency chart and descriptive. The results of the analysis between the incidence patterns of FPV, FIP, FCV, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR), and Papilloma with climatic conditions in the dry and rainy season periods show patterns that vary depending on the character of the virus that causes the disease. High incidence in the rainy season is seen in FPV and FCV, for FIP the incidence of each season is almost the same in each year, whereas the incidence of FVR and Papilloma can be higher in the rainy season and sometimes also can be higher in the dry season. These findings indicate that the incidence of viral diseases in cats has a seasonally based pattern of events.

15.
Point Veterinaire ; 51(410):16-20, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999460

ABSTRACT

In this article the author discusses how electrophoresis can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases in animals such as feline infectious peritonitis, Leishmania infantum and neoplasms.

16.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

17.
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus ; 11(3):412-423, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994709

ABSTRACT

Minmin, a 1-year-old male local cat weighing 4.3 kg has decreased appetite and an enlarged abdominal cavity. Based on physical examination, there was abdominal distension. Routine hematology and blood biochemical examinations were performed which showed chronic inflammation and abnormal liver and kidney function. Radiographic examination and abdominocentesis showed fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites) with pale yellow fluid and thickened liquid consistency. The results of the rivalta test showed a positive accumulation of exudate which was characterized by a jellyfish-like formation. The cat was diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. The therapies given are diuretic furosemide 5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, antibiotic cefotaxime sodium 30 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, anti-inflammatory dexamethasone 0,5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) subcutaneously, hepato-protector betaine 2.5 mg/kg BW (every two days) subcutaneously, and keto acid 11 mg/kg BW orally (every two days). The results of treatment for one week only provide temporary results in reducing the degree of abdominal distension. The cat died in the sixth month after therapy.

18.
Summa, Animali da Compagnia ; 39(6):19-25, 2022.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989439

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARSCoV- 2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

19.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987917

ABSTRACT

Cats are susceptible to feline coronavirus (FCoV), a highly contagious virus with fecal-oral transmission. In people, susceptibility to coronavirus infection, such as SARS-CoV infection, has been associated with the ABO blood group, with individuals with blood group O having significantly lower risk of SARS-CoV infection. This study evaluated a possible association between feline blood group phenotypes A, B and AB and serostatus for antibodies against FCoV. We also investigated risk or protective factors associated with seropositivity for FCoV in the investigated population. Feline populations were surveyed for AB group system blood types and for presence of antibodies against FCoV. Blood phenotype, origin, breed, gender, reproductive status and age of cats were evaluated as protective or risk factors for coronavirus infection. No blood type was associated with FCoV seropositivity, for which being a colony stray cat (p = 0.0002, OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.14-0.54) or a domestic shorthair cat (p = 0.0075, OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.09-0.69) were protective factors. Based on results of this study, feline blood phenotypes A, B or AB do not seem to predispose cats to seropositivity for FCoV. Future studies on other feline blood types and other infections could clarify whether feline blood types could play a role in predisposing to, or protecting against, feline infections.

20.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979411

ABSTRACT

Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) infect cats worldwide and cause severe systemic diseases, such as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP has a high mortality rate, and drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration have been ineffective for the treatment of FIP. Investigating host factors and the functions required for FCoV replication is necessary to develop effective drugs for the treatment of FIP. FCoV utilizes an endosomal trafficking system for cellular entry after binding between the viral spike (S) protein and its receptor. The cellular enzymes that cleave the S protein of FCoV to release the viral genome into the cytosol require an acidic pH optimized in the endosomes by regulating cellular ion concentrations. Ionophore antibiotics are compounds that form complexes with alkali ions to alter the endosomal pH conditions. This study shows that ionophore antibiotics, including valinomycin, salinomycin, and nigericin, inhibit FCoV proliferation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ionophore antibiotics should be investigated further as potential broad-spectrum anti-FCoV agents.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cats , Cell Proliferation , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/drug therapy , Ionophores/pharmacology
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