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1.
Model Earth Syst Environ ; : 1-6, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943696

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 epidemic is destroying world health and gradually increasing the mortality rate. The economy was also affected due to the spreading of the newly developed virus. The named COVID-19 progressively develops and affecting in the human body. The new Delta variant Omicron is first noticed in South Africa. After that many cases are recorded worldwide and finally India has recorded the first case of Omicron on 24 November 2021 from Karnataka. This study is to identify the Omicron variant affected states and UTs in India. The graphical results indicate the geographical location-wise spreading of the Omicron virus in India. The destibution of confirmed and death cases indicate the speed of spreading this health disaster in India. After that total of 781 cases were registered and 241 people were discharged from this. Mostly affected states and UTs are Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Kerala, and Rajasthan, where Tripura, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, and Sikkim have not any Omicron recorded. Delhi (238), Maharashtra (167), Gujarat (73), and Kerala (65), where Himachal Pradesh, Goa, Manipur, and Ladakh have recorded one case each. The correlation between total cases and discharge is very high and the R2 value is strong positive (0.80). This situation is indicating that Omicron is gripped by public health. If we don't maintain the social distancing and WHO notified guidelines, this condition may more harmful for human livelihood and increase the health emergency very soon.

2.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2100611, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937597

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: During the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, students in the year of undergraduate degree were hired to provide care assistance support in hospitals. The purpose of the study is to explore their experiences of their premature professional incorporation into patient care in a pandemic situation. METHODS: A descriptive phenomenology research study was conducted. Data were collected in two phases: 1) Two focus groups and 2) Ten in-depth individual semi-structured interviews between July and August 2021. RESULTS: Twenty-two Nursing students from a Madrid University School of Nursing participated. All worked in COVID hospitalization units, 6 in intensive care units. Four main categories were identified. Student-professional nurse transition, Learning, Hospital integration and Emotions. CONCLUSION: Despite all the fears and negative emotions, the nursing students do not regret the decision to accept a contract to work as a healthcare professional in the COVID-19 pandemic. They feel that the pandemic has allowed them to see life from another perspective and with other priorities, strengthening their vocation to nursing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Emotions , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Students, Nursing/psychology
3.
Public Health Action ; 12(2): 74-78, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928821

ABSTRACT

SETTING: Previous and current patients with drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) who had documented treatment-related hearing impairment due to second-line injectable (SLI) use were identified from different DR-TB treatment initiation centres in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess selected patients with DR-TB for eligibility for hearing aids and provide hearing aids to 10 eligible patients. DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study. Patients were followed up for 8 months, with hearing assessments conducted at 1, 3 and 8 months to objectively assess hearing capacity. RESULTS: Of 12 patients assessed for hearing aids eligibility, 10 were fitted with hearing aids (type XTM XP P4) and followed up for 8 months. "Formal" improvement was observed only in one patient. However, "general quality of life" appeared to be improved in nine patients. CONCLUSION: Minimal "formal" improvement was observed. However, the study was too small to say whether hearing aids should, or should not, be recommended as a public health measure. This needs a larger better controlled follow-up study. The all-oral DR-TB treatment regimens should be used for all patients with DR-TB in Ethiopia. However, as a proportion of patients with DR-TB are likely to continue receiving SLIs in the foreseeable future, they will require close audiometry assessment and appropriate care.


CONTEXTE: Les patients, anciens et actuels, atteints de TB pharmacorésistante (DR-TB) ayant une déficience auditive documentée due à l'utilisation d'agents injectables de seconde ligne (SLI), ont été identifiés dans différents centres de traitement de la DR-TB en Éthiopie. OBJECTIF: Évaluer l'éligibilité des patients atteints de DR-TB sélectionnés à une aide auditive et fournir cette dernière à 10 patients éligibles. MÉTHODE: Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte observationnelle. Les patients ont été suivis pendant 8 mois, avec examens auditifs à 1, 3 et 8 mois pour évaluer de manière objective leur capacité auditive. RÉSULTATS: Sur 12 patients évalués pour éligibilité à une aide auditive, 10 ont été équipés (type XTM XP P4) et suivis pendant 8 mois. Une amélioration « formelle ¼ a été observée chez seulement un patient, mais la « qualité de vie globale ¼ de neuf patients semble s'être améliorée. CONCLUSION: Une amélioration « formelle ¼ minime a été observée. L'étude était cependant trop petite pour pouvoir recommander ou non les aides auditives en tant que mesure de santé publique. Une étude de suivi mieux contrôlée et plus vaste est nécessaire. Les schémas thérapeutiques entièrement par voie orale de la DR-TB doivent être utilisés chez tous les patients atteints de la maladie en Éthiopie. Cependant, puisque certains patients atteints de DR-TB sont susceptibles de continuer à recevoir des SLI dans un futur proche, un contrôle étroit par audiométrie et des soins appropriés seront nécessaires.

4.
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2022: Adaptive Planning and Design in an Age of Risk and Uncertainty ; : 61-73, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1921859

ABSTRACT

As the world navigates the COVID-19 pandemic, the surge in waste generation, the varied composition of waste, and its subsequent management has presented several challenges to many communities. Waste management techniques and cultivating an awareness of the environmental and health impacts of mismanaged wastes have varied with location, economics, and priorities of the region. Risk mitigation efforts including the wearing of masks, lockdowns, and stay at home orders intended to contain the spread of the virus have resulted in several unintended environmental implications. With the rise in consumer plastic consumption, single use PPE, take away food orders, and online shopping, many households across the globe have reported an increase in waste. While developed countries have been able to approach the surge by utilizing and expanding current municipal waste management programs, countries lacking this existing infrastructure battle an increased risk of continued infection and magnified environmental issues through open landfills, groundwater contamination, and limited community awareness. Adopting appropriate methods of risk communication and encouraging participation from the public to manage waste issues is critical to protecting the environment by limiting contamination, improving community involvement in reducing landfill waste, and encouraging recycling. It is imperative to develop waste management solutions while continuing the promotion of sustainable habits, combating the current pandemic situation, and preparing for future episodic events. Our study focuses on analyzing episodic waste generation during the pandemic, management strategies adopted globally, and identifying areas of possible improvement and alternate strategies that can be implemented. © ASCE.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1778-1786, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915483

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-existing immunity from vaccination or previous infection. Here, we inoculated hamsters with Omicron BA.1 to evaluate pathogenicity and kinetics of viral shedding, compared to Delta (B.1.617.2) and to animals re-challenged with Omicron BA.1 after previous SARS-CoV-2 614G infection. Omicron BA.1 infected animals showed reduced clinical signs, pathological changes, and viral shedding, compared to Delta-infected animals, but still showed gross- and histopathological evidence of pneumonia. Pre-existing immunity reduced viral shedding and protected against pneumonia. Our data indicate that the observed decrease of disease severity is in part due to intrinsic properties of the Omicron BA.1 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
6.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911605

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as the prime challenge facing public health safety since 2019. Correspondingly, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been developed and administered worldwide, varying in design strategies, delivery routes, immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Here, a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectored recombinant COVID-19 vaccine was constructed and evaluated in BALB/c mice and Syrian golden hamsters. In BALB/c mice, intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation of recombinant vaccine induced significantly higher humoral immune response than that of the intranasal (i.n.) inoculation group. Analyses of cellular immunity revealed that a Th1-biased cellular immune response was induced in i.n. inoculation group while both Th1 and Th2 T cells were activated in i.m. inoculation group. In golden hamsters, i.n. inoculation of the recombinant vaccine triggered robust humoral immune response and conferred prominent protective efficacy post-SARS-CoV-2 challenge, indicating a better protective immunity in the i.n. inoculation group than that of the i.m. inoculation group. This study provides an effective i.n.-delivered recombinant COVID-19 vaccine candidate and elucidates a route-dependent manner of this vaccine candidate in two most frequently applied small animal models. Moreover, the golden hamster is presented as an economical and convenient small animal model that precisely reflects the immune response and protective efficacy induced by replication-competent COVID-19 vaccine candidates in other SARS-CoV-2 susceptible animals and human beings, especially in the exploration of i.n. immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vesicular Stomatitis , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Immunity , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Rodentia , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesiculovirus/genetics
7.
International Conference on Tourism, Technology and Systems, ICOTTS 2021 ; 284:97-109, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899042

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 brought a lot of disruption into the business world. To cope with the challenges, companies tried to adopt new work formats, embracing the digital transformation as a possible solution to survive. Together with this change, owners and workers had to adapt and in several circumstances, learning new competencies and developing new capabilities. As this is a recent alteration, it is not complete yet, the effects of the pandemic crisis in businesses and people. Additionally, there are some initiatives to help entrepreneurs to start their own business or deal / improve their actual one. As such, this study intends to contribute to characterize the situation in Portugal and understand the role of one of these initiatives—the YBS—your business success—project. A small number of interviews were carried out with some companies in order to understand how they have faced the COVID-19 challenge. Results show that people responded to the challenge, and for some of them, these are even better than before. As this is just an exploratory study, more research about these changes and the process of innovation is needed as future work. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

8.
Machine Learning-Driven Digital Technologies for Educational Innovation Workshop ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1895918

ABSTRACT

This article describes a data science challenge-based learning experience introduced to non-IT second-year engineering students. The methodology proposed in this article was successful in the short introductory course. The students presented well-considered, practical solutions to two challenges of a different nature derived from excellent, quality data processing. The students used free-access databases from Airbnb and Johns Hopkins University to tackle both challenges. Although the students' data analysis methods corresponded more to data analytics, the two student teams incorporated Machine Learning techniques and exceeded our initial expectations. The selection of the programming environment for this experience was a crucial issue addressed in this article. To illustrate the students' work in the course using this methodology, we present a selection of their results, including a new index to measure the degree of herd immunity in a country, relating this index with the possible appearance of a new strain of COVID-19.

9.
Frontiers in Education ; 7:15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1896671

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent restrictive measures adopted by the countries have significantly reduced the capacity of higher education institutions to carry out innovative international teaching and learning activities. This paper provides a short reconstruction of how the seven European universities, members of the Arqus Alliance, handled this challenge. During 2020-21, that is, in full pandemic, the Arqus partners redesigned and implemented a trans-European challenge-based learning (CBL) project involving university students from many disciplinary fields, including social sciences and natural sciences, focused on climate change-related risks in European cities and areas. Based on this experience, a contingent conceptualization of CBL is proposed, comprising eight characteristics, whose effectiveness is then tested against data provided by students who participated in the courses. In this context, the results of a Likert questionnaire distributed to students from participating universities will be discussed. The analysis is meant to provide a deeper understanding of CBL not only as a pedagogical tool for a specific output, but also as a broader learning experience generating outcomes for teachers who plan and deliver CBL activities, and for the beneficiaries of such activities. In other words, the article aims to highlight some enabling and inhibiting factors of "strategic CBL"-this latter expression is supposed to capture the process of designing and implementing a CBL activity as a CBL practice in itself.

10.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:86-99, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1895200

ABSTRACT

Disruptions to where hospitality work is performed has been caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 spread urged hospitality organizations to apply digital technologies for undertaking work from home. Nevertheless, little is understood about how hospitality employees cope with stress linked with the use of digital technologies. The aim of this study is to examine how hospitality employees' core beliefs challenge can foster their proactive coping for technostress in the forms of positive reinterpretation and information technology (IT) control. The data were obtained from 427 employees in 28 hotels that applied digital technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were processed through multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM). The results revealed that hospitality employees' core beliefs challenge was positively associated with positive reinterpretation and IT control. Promotion focus served as a mediation mechanism for such positive associations. The results provided support for the role of job insecurity as a moderator to attenuate the positive effects of promotion focus on both positive reinterpretation and IT control. While technostress enhanced the positive effect of promotion focus on positive reinterpretation, it demonstrated a non-significant moderating effect on the positive association of promotion focus with IT control. The findings advance the understanding of the roles of core beliefs challenge and promotion focus in leveraging proactive coping for technostress, as well as provide practical implications for hospitality managers to foster employees’ proactive coping for technostress while employees are engaging with digital technologies to work from home during a crisis such as COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889096

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic, ethicists and researchers proposed human challenge studies as a way to speed development of a vaccine that could prevent disease and end the global public health crisis. The risks to healthy volunteers of being deliberately infected with a deadly and novel pathogen were not low, but the benefits could have been immense. This essay is a history of the three major efforts to set up a challenge model and run challenge studies in 2020 and 2021. The pharmaceutical company Johnson and Johnson, the National Institutes of Health in the United States, and a private-public partnership of industry, university, and government partners in Britain all undertook preparations. The United Kingdom's consortium began their Human Challenge Programme in March of 2021.Beyond documenting each effort, the essay puts these scientific and ethical debates in dialogue with the social, epidemiological, and institutional conditions of the pandemic as well as the commercial, intellectual, and political systems in which medical research and Covid-19 challenge studies operated. It shows how different institutions understood risk, benefit, and social value depending on their specific contexts. Ultimately the example of Covid-19 challenge studies highlights the constructedness of such assessments and reveals the utility of deconstructing them retrospectively so as to better understand the interplay of medical research and research ethics with larger social systems and historical contexts.

12.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888824

ABSTRACT

Venetian quarantine 400 years ago was an important public health measure. Since 1900 this has been refined to include "challenge" or deliberate infection with pathogens be they viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Our focus is virology and ranges from the early experiments in Cuba with Yellow Fever Virus to the most widespread pathogen of our current times, COVID-19. The latter has so far caused over four million deaths worldwide and 190 million cases of the disease. Quarantine and challenge were also used to investigate the Spanish Influenza of 1918 which caused over 100 million deaths. We consider here the merits of the approach, that is the speeding up of knowledge in a practical sense leading to the more rapid licensing of vaccines and antimicrobials. At the core of quarantine and challenge initiatives is the design of the unit to allow safe confinement of the pathogen and protection of the staff. Most important though is the safety of volunteers. We can see now, as in 1900, that members of our society are prepared and willing to engage in these experiments for the public good. Our ethnology study, where the investigator observed the experiment from within the quarantine, gave us the first indication of changing attitudes amongst volunteers whilst in quarantine. These quarantine experiments, referred to as challenge studies, human infection studies, or "controlled human infection models" involve thousands of clinical samples taken over two to three weeks and can provide a wealth of immunological and molecular data on the infection itself and could allow the discovery of new targets for vaccines and therapeutics. The Yellow Fever studies from 121 years ago gave the impetus for development of a successful vaccine still used today whilst also uncovering the nature of the Yellow Fever agent, namely that it was a virus. We outline how carefully these experiments are approached and the necessity to have high quality units with self-contained air-flow along with extensive personal protective equipment for nursing and medical staff. Most important is the employment of highly trained scientific, medical and nursing staff. We face a future of emerging pathogens driven by the increasing global population, deforestation, climate change, antibiotic resistance and increased global travel. These emerging pathogens may be pathogens we currently are not aware of or have not caused outbreaks historically but could also be mutated forms of known pathogens including viruses such as influenza (H7N9, H5N1 etc.) and coronaviruses. This calls for challenge studies to be part of future pandemic preparedness as an additional tool to assist with the rapid development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, immunomodulators and new vaccines.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886443

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VoCs) negatively impact the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we challenge hamsters with the Delta variant after two- or three-dose inoculations with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines constructed from stabilized prefusion spike proteins (S-2P) of Wuhan (W) and Beta (B) variants. Compared to three doses of W S-2P, two doses of W S-2P followed by a third dose of B S-2P induced the highest neutralizing antibody titer against live SARS-CoV-2 virus and enhanced neutralization of Omicron variant pseudovirus. Reduced lung live virus titer and pathology suggested that all vaccination regimens protect hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant challenge.

14.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 40(5):S3-S11, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880929

ABSTRACT

In order to address the main challenges related to the rare diseases (RDs) the European Commission launched the European Reference Networks (ERNs), virtual networks involving healthcare providers (HCPs) across Europe. The mission of the ERNs is to tackle low prevalence and RDs that require highly specialised treatment and a concentration of knowledge and resources. In fact, ERNs offer the potential to give patients and healthcare professionals across the EU access to the best expertise and timely exchange of lifesaving knowledge, trying to make the knowledge travelling more than patients. For this reason, ERNs were established as concrete European infrastructures, and this is particularly crucial in the framework of rare and complex diseases in which no country alone has the whole knowledge and capacity to treat all types of patients. It has been five years since their kick-off launch in Vilnius in 2017. The 24 ERNs have been intensively working on different transversal areas, including patient management, education, clinical practice guidelines, patients' care pathways and many other fundamental topics. The present work is therefore aimed not only at reporting a summary of the main activities and milestones reached so far, but also at celebrating the first 5 years of the ERN on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculo-skeletal Diseases (ReCONNET), in which the members of the network built together one of the 24 infrastructures that are hopefully going to change the scenario of rare diseases across the EU.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1474-1484, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878213

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased demands on the ability to safely perform pulmonary procedures in keeping with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations. Accordingly, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Asthma Diagnosis and Treatment convened this work group to offer guidance. The work group is composed of specialist practitioners from academic and both large and small practices. Individuals with special expertise were assigned sections on spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, nebulized treatments, and methacholine challenge. The work group met periodically to achieve consensus. This resulting document has recommendations for the allergy/asthma/immunology health care setting based on available evidence including reference documents from the CDC, ATS, and OSHA.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Breath Tests/methods , Exhalation , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spirometry
16.
7th International Conference on Computing in Engineering and Technology, ICCET 2022 ; 303 SIST:263-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877799

ABSTRACT

A subset of machine learning is called Deep Learning (DL). Due to its intelligent behavior, it is used in various applications like speech recognition, face recognition, detection of an image, Natural Language Processing (NLP), analysis of video images, etc. Medical image processing is one of the significant area where deep learning network performance is proved outstanding. DL is used in image classification, dimensionality reduction, feature learning, detection, etc. The large volume of image data is processed and analyzed to predict disease is absent/present. In 2019, the COVID-19 virus was detected and started spreading through the community transmission rapidly, and several people lost their lives due to lack of treatment. Almost all hospitals all over the countries were overloaded heavily, and the Medical Health Care System was affected significantly. To fight against such a tough time, many researchers put their efforts day and night into designing effective deep learning models that can accurately speed up the COVID-19 viral diagnosis process. With this knowledge, a review of various deep learning algorithms and techniques for diagnosing Covid-19 cases is presented in this paper. It starts with the introduction of deep learning, its architecture, and different deep learning algorithms used to diagnose COVID-19 cases with key issues and challenges that significantly impact the detection of COVID-19 cases. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

17.
Psychology Hub ; 39(1):7-16, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876181

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The social and sanitary emergency due to the spread of Coronavirus has certainly represented one of the most difficult challenges of contemporary world that has put at risk the psycho-physical health of people. Some studies in the field of psychological sciences have turned their attention to the impact of restrictive confinement within own homes, on the well-being and quality of life. Isolation, the lack of opportunity to socialization, the sense of job insecurity and economic precariousness, as well as the difficulty in managing a daily life without routine and predictability, have put a strain on people's resilience, exposing them to numerous psycho-social risks. Aim of the study. Moving within Positive Psychology, the present action-research is aimed to investigate the level of well-being of Italians during the lockdown and promote the acquisition of proactive behaviours and selfempowerment. Method. We developed a self-report questionnaire and designed an intervention, called "the five-days challenge: how to turn a change into a chance". A triangulated methodology has been implemented in order to enrich the data from a double point of view, qualitative and quantitative. Results. Firstly, it was observed that dispositional optimism was positive associated with wellbeing, but that this positive association will be significantly mediated, in a negative way, by state anxiety. Secondly, the results have shown a statically significant effect of the intervention proposed on anxiety level reduction of participants. Implication. To sum up, the five-days challenge seemed to be a practical and operative intervention to promote self-empowerment in various situations dominated by uncertainty, which requires a great effort in terms of resilience and reappropriation of meaning. © 2022 Sapienza Universita Editrice. All Rights Reserved.

18.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(8): 1055-1070, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy in animal models provide critical data in vaccine development. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. AREAS COVERED: A critical synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development with a focus on challenge studies in NHPs is provided. The benefits and drawbacks of the NHP models are discussed. The citations were selected by the authors based on PubMed searches of the literature, summaries from national public health bodies, and press-release information provided by vaccine developers. EXPERT OPINION: We identify several aspects of NHP models that limit their usefulness for vaccine-challenge studies and numerous variables that constrain comparisons across vaccine platforms. We propose that studies conducted in NHPs for vaccine development should use a standardized protocol and, where possible, be substituted with smaller animal models. This will ensure continued rapid progression of vaccines to clinical trials without compromising assessments of safety or efficacy.

19.
Avian Pathol ; 51(3): 244-256, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873688

ABSTRACT

To achieve long term protection of laying and breeding hens against aberrant egg production caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a vaccination programme incorporating both live-attenuated and inactivated IBV vaccines is required. High quality IBV vaccines of both types are widely available, but the number of IBV variants of global importance continues to increase and it is not possible to develop vaccines against each one of them. Therefore, it is desirable to perform studies under controlled conditions to determine which IBV vaccine(s) provide the best protection for laying hens against different IBV challenges. Previous vaccination and challenge studies have shown that it is possible to obtain relevant data in a small number of laying hens housed under conditions of strict isolation. The present work extends this finding by investigating the efficacy, against challenge with five IBV strains of global importance, of an IBV vaccination programme including two live-attenuated IBV vaccines (Massachusetts and 793B types) and three different commercially available inactivated vaccines each containing antigen against at least one IBV strain. The results reported here confirm the importance of IBV vaccination for laying hens, show that efficient live priming makes a beneficial contribution to this protection and confirm that inactivated IBV vaccines contribute significantly to effective protection against at least the five IBV challenge strains used here. Furthermore, we provide data to support the "protectotype concept", long-established using different live-attenuated IBV vaccines in young chickens, is valid in broadening protection against IBV challenges in laying birds.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSIBV vaccination is essential as an aid in protecting laying hens against IBV infection.Live priming is a beneficial part of the IBV vaccination programme.IBV inactivated vaccine improves IBV protection.Heterologous IBV protection is confirmed in laying hens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
20.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:10277-10284, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874834

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 has been a challenge in all sectors and education in particular. During the pandemic, there was an immediate and compulsory shift in conducting classes via online mode. Several colleges and schools have asked their teachers to hold classes online, yet most of them are neither equipped nor in the mindset to adapt to this new teaching methodology. Despite these limitations, Google Meet, Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and other platforms have become integral parts of lecturing and learning. Subjects have been taught using these platforms. Despite the challenges, classes are still held online and teachers are still able to reach students. It is important to note, however, that there are some notable challenges across all sessions that remain unnoticed and unresolved. In an online environment, controlling students' absences, engaging all students in discussions, monitoring their presence, keeping them active, conducting assessments, and nurturing creativity are all questionable. Research is needed to initiate and incorporate different ICT (Information Communication Technology) tools, to facilitate effective teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to identify the various ICT tools and resources that can be used to support the above-discussed problems and make online teaching and learning more effective. © The Electrochemical Society

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